Military Review

Satellite killers

4
12 January 2007, the PRC, managed to scare the whole world with the tests of a new ballistic missile that was able to hit a satellite in Earth orbit. A Chinese rocket destroyed the Fengyun 1 satellite. At that time, the United States, Australia and Canada expressed their protest to China, and Japan demanded from its neighbor explanations of circumstances and disclosure of the purpose of these tests. Such a sharp reaction from the developed countries was caused by the fact that the satellite shot down by China was at the same height as many modern spy satellites.


The launch of the PRC rocket with a kinetic warhead on board at an altitude of more than 864 kilometers successfully hit the outdated Chinese meteo-satellite "Fengyun-1С". The truth is worth noting that, according to ITAR-TASS, the Chinese managed to knock down the satellite only on the third attempt, and the two previous launches ended in failure. Thanks to the successful defeat of the satellite, China has become the third country in the world (along with the United States and Russia), which is able to transfer military operations into space.

There are quite objective reasons for dissatisfaction with such tests. Firstly, the wreckage of a satellite destroyed in orbit can be dangerous for other spacecraft in orbit. Secondly, the Americans have a whole family of military satellites in this orbit, which are intended for reconnaissance and targeting of high-precision weapons. China, on the other hand, clearly showed that it had mastered the means which, if necessary, were able to destroy the space grouping of a potential enemy.



Nuclear past

It should be noted that various means of dealing with satellites began to work out from the very beginning of their appearance. And the first such tool was nuclear ammunition. The first in the anti-satellite race joined the United States. In June 1959, the Americans tried to destroy their own satellite Explorer-4, which by that time had developed its resource. For these purposes, the Bold Orion long-range ballistic missile was used in the United States.

In 1958, the United States Air Force entered into contracts for the creation of air-based experimental air-launched ballistic missiles. As part of this project, the Bold Orion rocket was created, the range of which was 1770 km. Bold Orion was not only the first long-range ballistic missile that could be launched from an aircraft, but also the first that was used to intercept a satellite. True, the Americans did not succeed in hitting the Explorer-4 satellite. The rocket launched from the B-47 bomber missed the satellite on the 6 km. Work within the framework of this project was carried out for another two years, but then they were finally terminated.

However, the idea of ​​fighting with satellites in the USA was not abandoned. The military launched an unprecedented project called Starfish Prime. The apotheosis of this project was the most powerful nuclear explosion in space. 9 July 1962, the launch of a ballistic Thor missile equipped with a 1,4 megaton warhead. It was carried out at an altitude of approximately 400 km above the Johnson Atoll in the Pacific Ocean. The flash that appeared in the sky was visible at a great distance. So she managed to capture on film from the island of Samoa, located at a distance of 3200 km from the epicenter of the explosion. On the island of Ohau in Hawaii, located in 1500 km from the epicenter, several hundreds of street lighting lamps, as well as televisions and radios, failed. The strongest electromagnetic pulse was to blame.

It is the electromagnetic impulse and the increase in the concentration of charged particles in the radiation belt of the Earth that caused the failure of 7 satellites, both American and Soviet. The experiment was “overfulfilled”, the explosion itself and its consequences knocked out a third of the entire orbital constellation of satellites in orbit at that moment. Among others, the first in stories Telestar 1 commercial telecommunications satellite. The formation of a radiation belt in the Earth’s atmosphere caused the USSR to make adjustments to the Vostok spacecraft manned flights program for two years.

Satellite killers


However, such a radical means as a nuclear weapon did not justify itself. The first serious explosion in orbit demonstrated that such weapons are indiscriminate. The military realized that such a tool could cause considerable harm to the United States. It was decided to abandon nuclear weapons as a means of dealing with satellites, but work in the direction of anti-satellite weapons only gained momentum.

Soviet anti-satellite weapons development

The USSR approached the question much more "delicately." The first Soviet project that led to the experimental development of the idea was the launch of single-stage rockets from the aircraft. The missiles were launched from a height of 20 000 meters and bore charges - 50 kg in TNT equivalent. At the same time, guaranteed defeat of the target was provided only with a deviation of no more than 30 meters. But to achieve such accuracy in those years in the USSR simply could not, therefore, in 1963, work in this direction was curtailed. Missile tests for specific space targets were not carried out.

Other proposals in the field of creating anti-satellite weapons were not long in coming. At the time of the transition of manned flights from the Vostok spacecraft to the Soyuz spacecraft, S. P. Korolev began developing a space interceptor, designated as Soyuz-P. Curiously, the installation of weapons on this orbital interceptor was not planned. The main task of the crew of this manned spacecraft was to inspect space objects, primarily American satellites. For this, the crew of the Soyuz-P would have to go into outer space and disable the enemy’s satellite by mechanical means, or place it in a special container to be sent to Earth. However, this project was quickly abandoned. It turned out to be expensive and extremely difficult, as well as dangerous, primarily for astronauts.

As a possible option, the installation on the Soyuz of eight small rockets was also considered, the astronauts would launch from a safe distance of 1 km. The automatic interception station equipped with the same missiles was also developed in the USSR. Soviet engineering in 1960 literally hit the key, trying to find a guaranteed way of dealing with satellites of a potential enemy. However, designers often faced with the fact that the Soviet economy was simply not able to pull some of their projects. For example, the deployment in orbit of an entire "army" of fighter satellites that would rotate in their orbits indefinitely, being activated only at the time of the start of large-scale hostilities.



As a result, the USSR decided to stay at the cheapest, but quite effective option, which involved launching a fighter satellite into space, aimed at the object to be destroyed. It was planned to destroy the satellite by undermining the interceptor and hitting it with a fragmentation mass. The program was called "Satellite Fighter", and the interceptor satellite itself was designated "Flight." Work on its creation was carried out in the VN Chelomey OKB-51.

The satellite fighter was a spherical device weighing about 1,5 tons. It consisted of a compartment with an 300 kg of explosive and an engine compartment. In this case, the engine compartment was equipped with a multiple-start orbital engine. The total running time of this engine was approximately 300 seconds. During this period of time, the interceptor was supposed to move closer to the object being destroyed at a distance of guaranteed destruction. The skin of the Flying Satellite Fighter was made in such a way that, at the time of the explosion, it would disintegrate into a huge number of fragments flying at great speed.

The first attempt to intercept a space object with the participation of “Flight” ended in luck. 1 November 1968 of the year the Soviet interceptor satellite "Cosmos-249" destroyed the satellite "Cosmos-248", which had been launched into Earth orbit the day before. After that, even more 20 tests were conducted, most of which ended successfully. At the same time, starting from 1976, in order not to multiply the amount of space debris in orbit, the tests ended not with demolition, but with the contact of the fighter and the target and their subsequent vault from orbit using onboard engines. The created system was quite simple, reliable, practical and cheaply important. In the middle of the 1970-s, it was adopted.

Another version of the antisatellite system began to be developed in the USSR at the turn of the 1980s. In 1978, Vimpel Design Bureau began work on the creation of an anti-satellite missile, which was to receive a fragmentation warhead. The rocket was planned to be used from the fighter-interceptor MiG-31. Anti-satellite missile was derived to a predetermined height with the help of the aircraft, after which it was carried out under the enemy satellite. In 1986, the MiG design bureau began work on fine-tuning two interceptor fighters for equipping them with new weapons. The new version of the aircraft received the designation MiG-31D. This interceptor was supposed to carry one specialized anti-satellite missile, and its weapon control system was completely reconfigured to use it.



In addition to the special modification of the MiG-31D interceptor fighter, the anti-satellite complex developed by Almaz Design Bureau included the ground-based radar and optical detection system 45XX6 Krona, located on the Kazakh Sary-Shagan test range, as well as the 79XNNXX anti-satellite rocket system. The MiG-6D was supposed to carry only one 31-meter rocket, which could explode satellites at an altitude from 10 km using the detonation of a warhead. The coordinates of the satellites were to be transmitted by the Krona ground detection station. The collapse of the Soviet Union prevented the continuation of work in this direction, in the 120-s the project work was stopped.

New round

Currently, the United States has at least two systems that, with some conventions, can be attributed to anti-satellite. This is in particular the Aegis sea-based system equipped with SM-3 missiles. This is an anti-aircraft guided missile with a kinetic warhead. Its main purpose - the fight against ICBMs that move along a suborbital flight path. The SM-3 rocket cannot physically hit targets at an altitude greater than 250 km. The 21 February 2008 of the year the SM-3 missile, which was launched from the cruiser Lake Erie, was successfully hit by an American reconnaissance satellite who lost control. Thus, space debris has increased in Earth orbit.

Approximately the same can be said about the US ground-based missile defense system under the designation GBMD, which is also equipped with missiles with kinetic warheads. Both of these systems are primarily used as anti-missile defense systems, but they also have a reduced anti-satellite function. The naval system was put into service at the end of the 1980-s, the ground system - in the 2005 year. There are also not unreasonable assumptions that Washington is working on the creation of new generations of anti-satellite weapons, which can be based on physical effects - electromagnetic and laser.

This also follows from the American strategy of deploying a new round of the arms race. At the same time, things did not start now, when relations between Russia and the United States were rather badly damaged. This stage was laid in the last decade, when US President Barack Obama announced his return to the program of space exploration for military purposes. At the same time, the United States refused to sign the UN resolution on “peaceful space” proposed by the Russian Federation.



Against this background, Russia should also work in the field of creating modern anti-satellite systems, and it does not necessarily have to be a laser weapon. So, back in 2009, Alexander Zelenin, the former Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Air Force, told journalists about the resuscitation of the “Kron” program for the same tasks for which it was developed in the USSR. Also in Russia, it is possible that tests are being conducted with interceptor satellites. At least in December 2014 in the USA discovered an unidentified object in orbit, which at first was mistaken for garbage. Later it was found that the object was moving along a given vector and approaching the satellites. Some experts suggested that we are talking about testing a miniature satellite with a new type of engine, but the Western media dubbed the discovered "baby" a satellite killer.

Information sources:
http://svpressa.ru/post/article/109539/?rintr=1
http://www.popmech.ru/weapon/11531-giroskopy-na-voyne-miniatyurizatsiya-i-navigatsiya/#full
http://novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru/forum/forum13/topic13997
http://astronaut.ru/test/ussr-7k-p.htm
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  1. qwert
    qwert 13 February 2015 06: 55 New
    14
    And the Americans continue to stuff electronics into military equipment and even into standard weapons. But one "good" electromagnetic pulse can disable an entire army. The same goes for GPS-guided high-precision weapons. These satellites must be neutralized in the first seconds of the war.
    1. tronin.maxim
      tronin.maxim 13 February 2015 09: 48 New
      -1
      Why should China rejoice? Now, if they shot down a maneuvering satellite from the first attempt, then yes, and so ... Now in our time, to shoot down satellites with a rocket is the last century.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. opus
        opus 13 February 2015 12: 46 New
        +4
        Quote: tronin.maxim
        Why should China rejoice? Now, if they shot down a maneuvering fellow at the first attempt, then yes

        1. They shot down a NON-MANEUVER SATELLITE

        maneuvering interceptor

        2. Recall from which attempt the P-7 took off? And H-1 was not enough and 7mi.
        3. Do you know a lot of "maneuvering" satellites?

        Quote: tronin.maxim
        Nowadays, in our time, to shoot down satellites with a rocket is the last century.


        Come on?
        What do you think is the "real age"? WHAT TO KILL? and WHO, WHEN BEATED?
        Who in the 21 century, besides the Americans, has so spoiled it?
    2. ShturmKGB
      ShturmKGB 13 February 2015 10: 46 New
      +6
      I think in case of a serious conflict, many technological surprises will come up ...
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. opus
      opus 13 February 2015 11: 18 New
      +3
      Quote: qwert
      But one "good" electromagnetic pulse can disable an entire army

      To create a "good" EMP, it is necessary to undermine the "good" YABZ from 1Mt. And after it is undermined (just the first in the chain), the WTO will not have much significance.
      Quote: qwert
      These satellites must be neutralized in the first seconds of the war.

      GPS and others in geostationary orbit - do not neutralize:
      -long away
      Earth's radiation belt
      1. Locksmith
        Locksmith 13 February 2015 22: 23 New
        +1
        Quote: opus
        To create a "good" EMP, it is necessary to undermine the "good" YABZ from 1Mt. And after it is undermined (just the first in the chain), the WTO will not have much significance.

        this is outdated information, now they are undermining conventional explosives - they generate energy sufficient to activate an electronic electromagnetic radiation, and with energy inaccessible to "simple" generators and emitters
  2. Stasius
    Stasius 13 February 2015 07: 22 New
    +6
    If electronics are made according to the minds of the military (shielding, etc.), then I am afraid one "good" electromagnetic pulse will not be enough. For every tricky woman ... there is a threaded screw ...
    1. Xzistant
      Xzistant 13 February 2015 08: 57 New
      0
      I agreed. therefore, it will be difficult to fight with Russia, as we have a lot of equipment on analog devices) Let them be outdated, but in difficult times they will always help!
      1. Bayonet
        Bayonet 13 February 2015 12: 03 New
        +4
        Quote: Xzistant
        we have a lot of equipment on analog devices)

        What is the difference, analog or digital? If the circuit is assembled on transistors and microcircuits, both of them will fly out after a powerful EMP. Or do you mean radio tubes and relays? So these are generally deep times ...
        1. Locksmith
          Locksmith 13 February 2015 22: 26 New
          0
          old USSR equipment was designed to work in EMR conditions, it’s enough to crawl under the hood of a URAL or ZIL131-everything is tightly shielded, in principle, SIMPLY DO NOT REACT laughing-Specially to our old diesels ....
          Kicked, wound up, how you are going to jam it = it is necessary to think over it in advance and not to use EMP, as it is useless (joke)
      2. Vek
        Vek 28 March 2015 14: 10 New
        0
        Quote: Xzistant
        What is the difference, analog or digital? If the circuit is assembled on transistors and microcircuits, they will fly out


        You vkurse that inside the digital circuits live small transistors, resistors, capacitors?
        And did you know that they are the ones that go bad?
        1. Vek
          Vek 28 March 2015 14: 55 New
          0
          and by the way: the chance to get an error in a particular transistor is proportional to its volume, and it quickly decreases with a decrease in technology, i.e. a charged particle is more likely to miss than to fall into a finer transistor. In addition, an abnormal increase in radiation resistance with modern thicknesses of gate dielectrics (3 nm or less) was noted.
    2. Rus2012
      Rus2012 13 February 2015 10: 27 New
      +4
      Quote: Stasius
      do it wisely under the military (screen and so on)

      For VT (military equipment), there are special standards of resistance to external factors, including AMY.
      As there is no "absolute weapon", there is no "absolute defense". Everything is relative, including issues of protection and noise immunity. Moreover, the use of the most modern thin-plate chips comes up against the fact that they stop working from exposure to random cosmic and other rays (gamma, neutron, X-rays) ...
  3. Bongo
    Bongo 13 February 2015 08: 50 New
    +9
    The topic of the publication is very relevant, but the publication itself contains "bloopers" and absurdities. Apparently this is not a very competent translation. For example a quote:
    For these purposes, the United States used a ballistic missile long range Bold Orion ... a Bold Orion rocket was created with a flight range of 1770 km.
    The Bold Orion experimental ballistic missile on the basis of which the anti-satellite WS-199B was created at this range refers to medium-range ballistic missiles (1000 — 5500 km).
    Or more:
    the anti-satellite complex developed by KB Almaz included the ground-based radar and optical detection system 45Ж6 "Crown"located at the Kazakh Sary-Shagan training ground

    The upper photo is "Krona" in Karachay-Cherkessia, the lower anti-satellite missile WS-199B


    Maybe the "author" is "not in the know" but the radio-optical complex for recognition of space objects "Krona" came on alert only In 2000, not in Kazakhstan, but in Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia. In Kazakhstan, at the Sary-Shagan training ground, the Don-2NP and Neman radars were used.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. opus
      opus 13 February 2015 11: 36 New
      +3
      Quote: Bongo
      at specified range refers to medium-range ballistic missiles


      Bold Orion - anti-satellite ballistic missile (project Weapons System 199B (WS-199B)) long-range AIR START (she is in your last photo and is depicted), B-47 Stratojet carrier.
      Could be both in a single-stage version, and in two-stage (pictured)
      For those times (first launch 1958-05-26), when the R-7 (intercontinental) "gave 8000-9500 km - this BR was considered a LARGE range (in 2-stage versions)


      Quote: Bongo
      Maybe the "author" is "not in the know" but the Radio-optical complex
      recognition of space objects "Krona"


      radar-optical complex for recognition of space objects 45Ж6 "Krona" (location - 2574 object a polygon Sary Shagan, developer - Almaz Central Design Bureau);
      74-th site of the Sary-Shagan test site (GNIIP No. 10 of the USSR Ministry of Defense (military unit 03080)).

      From 1985, according to the Decree of the USSR Council of Ministers No. 182-299 of November 27 on November 1984, work on the preparation and conduct of tests of the space defense system Z0П6 (defeat of low-Earth orbit satellites) was launched at the Sary-Shagan training ground. R&D and testing and deployment of the complex facilities were carried out up to 1995.

      Experimental complex 45Ж6 "Krona" by the end of 1986 was deployed at the facility number 2574 (74-I site, headquarters - 38-I site) Sary-Shagan and mated with laser complex 5N76, aviation complex 30P6 "Contact", means of rocket complex 58R6, laser optical locator 5H26, etc.

      According to the source (source - "Shield of Russia"), anti-satellite systems at the Sary-Shagan test site were located at objects 2574, 3610, 3615 and 3641.

      Quote: Bongo
      In Kazakhstan at the Sary-Shagan training ground involved Radar "Don-2NP" and "Neman".

      1. Don-2NP radar is difficult to use in Kazakhstan, as this radar is included part Moscow missile defense , and is located near it. A introduced in action in xnumx
      1. Bongo
        Bongo 13 February 2015 11: 48 New
        +4
        Quote: opus
        radar-optical complex for recognition of space objects 45Ж6 "Krona" (location - object 2574 Sary-Shagan polygon

        Frankly speaking I didn’t know about "Krona" in Kazakhstan request But I don't think that this system was on alert there - for sure it was a prototype in a truncated composition. But a missile with a range of 1800 km cannot be considered "distant".
        1. opus
          opus 13 February 2015 12: 02 New
          +1
          Quote: Bongo
          But a missile with a range of 1800 km cannot be considered "distant".

          1958 Propulsion First satellite in April, until 1go astronaut still 3goda. The main carrier of nuclear weapons strategists in the United States. We are working on the P-7. IT WAS NOT A LONG RANGE AS A CLASS: P-1 (V-2), P-5, P-7 was just getting ready to show Kuzkin's mother the USA (8000km)


          and, if my memory does not change the range in 1800km- this is the satellite interception distance from the launch point (aircraft) from the carrier to the interception point (satellite), and not Earth-to-Earth Range
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. opus
        opus 13 February 2015 11: 53 New
        +1
        2. "Neman" radar,that one at the Sary-Shagan training ground.


        Only this site No. 11 and this radar was used in testing domestic warheads and anti-missile defense systems, including Pioner, Satan missile systems, maneuvering warheads, cruise missiles, active jamming stations, etc.


        There is (or was) the "Neman-E" radar and the "OKNO" optical-electronic complex. For the V-1000 anti-missile ..
      4. podpolkovnik
        podpolkovnik 13 February 2015 12: 47 New
        0
        It is difficult to use Don-2NP radar in Kazakhstan, since this radar is part of the Moscow missile defense system and is located near it. And put into effect in 1966

        The missile defense system in Moscow includes "Don-2N"
        And on Balkhash - 1 section, it’s called - Don - 2 NP.
        from wiki
        A prototype of Don-2NP station (according to NATO's Horse Leg codification) was deployed at the A training ground in Sary-Shagan (Kazakhstan)
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. opus
          opus 13 February 2015 13: 56 New
          +1
          Quote: podpolkovnik
          The missile defense system of Moscow includes "Don-2N"

          Quote: podpolkovnik
          from wiki

          No need to read the wiki before dinner

          Station construction "Don-2NP" near Moscow began in 1978, and soon, a huge, astonishing imagination, foundation pit appeared under the foundation of the powerful radar of the future missile defense radar.
          Believe the enemies:




          Currently station "Don-2NP" is part of the missile defense system of the Central Industrial Region A-135, the PRN system, as well as the "farsighted" system of the Don-24 KKP.

          In the NATO designation, the Don-2NP station was named "Pill Box"


          Don-xnumxnp Pill Box Radar - Soviet BMD
          56°10'30"N 37°45'54"E
          56.175 ° N 37.770 ° E

          Far from Sary-Shagan, don’t you?

          And at the "A" training ground (Sary-Shagan, Kazakhstan) its truncated version.

          Quote: podpolkovnik
          And on Balkhash - 1 section

          on "Balkhash" (46 ° 32'27 "N 74 ° 52'44" E (G)) or
          Quote: Bongo
          In Kazakhstan, Don-2NP radars were deployed at the Sary-Shagan training ground
          (46 ° 23 ′ n. 72 ° 52 ′ east (G) (O)) yet?

          250km matters

          О
          Quote: podpolkovnik
          "cats" and "materiel"

          1. Taught
          2.I will allow myself to recommend YOU to get acquainted with the FACTS, and not with speculation, especially the "wiki"

          "here are none and DO NOT READ" if "there are no others"
          1. podpolkovnik
            podpolkovnik 13 February 2015 16: 50 New
            +2
            station "Don-2NP" is part of the missile defense system of the Central industrial region A-135

            I know.
            And we called Balkhash a training ground where products were transported to extend the resource.
            2.I will allow myself to recommend YOU to get acquainted with the FACTS, and not with speculation, especially the "wiki"

            And unlike you, my dear, I saw and "felt" naturally, and not in pictures.
            9pro (if this tells you anything), 2006 - 2013.
            1. The comment was deleted.
            2. The comment was deleted.
            3. The comment was deleted.
            4. opus
              opus 14 February 2015 14: 34 New
              +1
              Quote: podpolkovnik
              And unlike you, my dear,

              Unlike you, "yacht", I was there in 1980-1991, tb. BEFORE.
              And so "hands" are tactilely familiar.
              Including I was forced to search and collect results across the open spaces.
              Quote: podpolkovnik
              9dpro (if this tells you anything)

              He speaks.
              But the cycle of your articles (in number) 31 pieces, "says" to me that you were most likely a political instructor / Komsomol organizer Comrade Lieutenant Colonel (I hope the reserve)
              Or I'm wrong?
              1. podpolkovnik
                podpolkovnik 14 February 2015 19: 31 New
                0
                Emerald You are ours!
                This is not the first time I have answered this
                cycle of your articles (in number) 31 pieces, "tells" me that you were most likely a political instructor / Komsomol organizer

                A techie all his life, and the staff is teaching this. As you deigned to notice
                tactilely familiar with "hands"

                lieutenant colonel (I hope in stock)
                Or I'm wrong?

                You are mistaken, to your great regret. I would be glad. Yes, only people like you have escaped, like famous animals from a ship in distress, and you have to take a puff ...
                And judging by your comments on the article and
                in 1980-1991, i.e. EARLIER.

                You then had little control, and now you do not own the real situation ...

                Threat.
                Especially killed, patstalom lol
                Radar "Don-2NP" ...... this radar is part of Moscow missile defense, ..... And put into operation in 1966

                Relax yourself calmly, eat semolina porridge and watch "Field of Miracles" ....
                1. opus
                  opus 15 February 2015 00: 10 New
                  0
                  Quote: podpolkovnik
                  A techie all his life, and the staff is teaching this.

                  Not really, you know it looks like. For example, I am a technician "from the plow" - I cannot connect two words, on paper. And you are broadcasting ... I wanted to write as
                  "famous" Azerbaijani co-operator Ashurbeyli Igor Rauf oglu ...
                  But no, the political instructor is not up to the "dtn", which the S-300 air defense missile system (give him free rein) would EASILY intercept the Chelyabensky phenomenon.
                  Komsyuk-Komsyukovo.
                  Quote: podpolkovnik
                  Yes, only people like you have fled

                  Do not judge by yourself. I didn’t run anywhere. So it turned out with health.
                  Quote: podpolkovnik
                  to swell for you ..

                  Not a single fat-headed poz, nor when, in my whole life, has swelled for me. NOT Worthy
                  Quote: podpolkovnik
                  And judging by your comments on the article and

                  accept those apologies: 1989, 1980 keyboard errors (I am illiterate by nature)
                  Quote: podpolkovnik
                  You were weak at that time

                  Yes, yes ... So weak that MBB really wanted to get to himself
                  Quote: podpolkovnik
                  Especially killed, patstalom

                  The main thing that diarrhea would not be, take care
                  Quote: podpolkovnik
                  Relax yourself calmly, eat semolina porridge and watch "Field of Miracles".

                  Do not teach me what to do and I will not tell WHERE YOU GO!
                  (Well, you know "where", judging by *** they often sent)
                  1. podpolkovnik
                    podpolkovnik 16 February 2015 09: 14 New
                    0
                    I did not want to develop this dispute, but since I insist ...
                    techie "from the plow" - I can't connect two words, on paper

                    To each his own. Techie techie - discord. And the normal competent knowledge of both oral and written speech is neither an indicator nor a sign, as you (!) Mistakenly think and affirm, belonging to the ideological layer of the army structure. This is just one of the signs of a competent and educated person.
                    By the way, about the "birds", that is, the so-called ideologists. Why did they annoy you so much? At school, the squads were not elected to the council? Or in the Komsomol with social assignments? Or on the way to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union hacked to the bone? Or did you work out for the abuse of alcoholic mixtures? I, in fact, and myself terribly dislike them, and not for that, but ...., as Scheherazade used to say, this is a completely different story.
                    accept those apologies: 1989, 1980 keyboard errors (I am illiterate by nature)

                    Well, you read what you write before posting. And then smart people, from the Tver blacksmith's shop, read your opuses (sorry for the pun), and, to put it mildly, are perplexed belay .
                    And here's another, in the order of a computer educational program - the machine underlines the words with errors with a red wavy line.
                    Do not judge by yourself. I didn’t run anywhere. So it turned out with health.

                    Yes, I do not judge, because I do not sit in the VVK.
                    But in general ...
                    Who wants, he is looking for an opportunity. Who does not want - he is looking for a reason. Health, for example ...
                    Do not teach me what to do and I will not tell WHERE YOU GO!

                    Well, if you don't want to watch "Field of Miracles" - watch "Military Secret" on RenTV, there are also enough miracles ... And buy a textbook on Russian for elementary school.
                    For sim, let me take my leave!
                    hi
      5. Ascetic
        Ascetic 13 February 2015 12: 50 New
        +2
        Quote: opus
        radar-optical complex for recognition of space objects 45Zh6 "Krona" (location - object 2574 of the Sary-Shagan polygon, developer - Central Design Bureau "Almaz");
        74-th site of the Sary-Shagan test site (GNIIP No. 10 of the USSR Ministry of Defense (military unit 03080)).


        And Zelenchuk / military unit 20096./ where did you go? request
        clickable


        Quote: opus
        . Don-2NP radar is difficult to deploy in Kazakhstan, as this radar is part of Moscow's missile defense system and is located near it. And put into effect in 1966


        Only two of them were built ... Oda in Sofrino, another in Sary-Shagan / Priozersk / in a truncated polygon version "Amur-P"
        Polygon complex A-135 "Amur-P". The decision to create a polygon sample of the A-135 - "Amur-P" 5Zh60P missile defense system for testing the components and the system as a whole was made in 1974. Construction and deployment of the missile defense system polygon complex - 1976-1979. The complex includes Radar AWACS "Don-2NP" (polygon sample), command and computer station 5K80P with "Elbrus" computer, firing complex and data transmission system 5Ya67. By 1978, at the Sary-Shagan training ground, the creation of the A-135 "Amur-P" 5Zh60P firing complex was completed.

        link

        MOSCOW, January 22 - RIA Novosti. Russian radar station "Don-2N", providing anti-missile defense of Moscow and the Central Industrial Region, in 2014, she discovered more than 20 launches of ballistic and space rockets in the territory of the Russian Federation and tracked hundreds of particularly important space objectsColonel Alexei Zolotukhin, an official representative of the Russian Ministry of Defense for the Aerospace Defense Troops, told reporters.

        link
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. opus
          opus 13 February 2015 14: 12 New
          +1
          Quote: Ascetic
          And Zelenchuk / military unit 20096./ where did you go?

          No, no one took him to another dimension.
          But it was about S-Shagan, specifically
          Quote: Bongo
          Maybe the "author" is "not in the know" but the "Krona" radio-optical complex for recognition of space objects was on alert only In 2000, not in Kazakhstan, but in Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia


          There was a laser-optical locator on top of Mount Chapal, there is and I hope it will be

          Quote: Ascetic
          in the truncated polygon version "Amur-P"

          What am I talking about?

          This is not

          Quote: opus
          Don-2NP Pill Box Radar - Soviet BMD 56°10'30"N 37°45'54"E 56.175°N 37.770°E


          Quote: Ascetic
          link

          and back in 1994 (joint Russian-American experiment "Oderax-1r" / ODERACS-1R)
          Radar station "Don 2NP" "I saw" at the maximum range of 5 cm a ball (microsatellite), poured out in orbit, together with 10 and 15 cm from the Shuttle (mission STS-60)

          The last two US locators were able to conceive, and 5cm never saw
          , and the radar "Don 2NP" "asked:
          with an experimental processing program with incoherent accumulation of about a dozen signals at a target height of 352 km and at a range of 500 — 800 km (tracking to 900-1500 km)

          http://lfvn.astronomer.ru/report/0000015/ssw_4_5/index.htm
      6. podpolkovnik
        podpolkovnik 13 February 2015 12: 54 New
        0
        It is difficult to use Don-2NP radar in Kazakhstan, since this radar is part of the Moscow missile defense system and is located near it. And put into effect in 1966

        What are you saying?
        And then where is it?
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. opus
          opus 13 February 2015 14: 25 New
          +1
          Quote: podpolkovnik
          What are you saying? And then where is this?

          1. I have already "said" everything above (and even allowed me to make recommendations)
          2.This is an element of the Amur-P multichannel firing complex (truncated DON 2N) - Object 25108
          "it" in the Kazakh semi-desert Betpak-Dala


          in 1974 a decision was made on the deployment and testing of the Amur-P multi-channel firing complex (MSC) at the Sary-Shagan firing range in the interests of creation of a missile defense system in Moscow of the 2nd generation - A-135 systemscapable of solving the missile defense against complex ballistic targets.
          For testing, therefore "cut down", missile defense in Kazakhstan was not going to create
          =================================
          Alternative options were considered for the guidance station: RTI offered Don-2N radar (V.K. Sloka), NIIDAR - Neman radar (Yu. G. Burlakov), NIIRP - Istra-2 radar (G.V. Kisunko)
  4. Evgeni
    Evgeni 13 February 2015 09: 37 New
    +2
    Amars on signed an agreement on peaceful outer space. Why do we supply them with rocket engines? so that they launch military satellites?
    1. max702
      max702 13 February 2015 11: 11 New
      +2
      Quote: Evgeni
      Amars on signed an agreement on peaceful outer space. Why do we supply them with rocket engines? so that they launch military satellites?

      For some people in our country denyuzhka on the accounts of foreign countries is more important than national security .. Especially family, business and the accumulated work of the "righteous" has long been there .. And to these questions we cynically answer like we support the domestic manufacturer! And in the high-tech area! They think about the country ... What else ...
  5. John_f
    John_f 13 February 2015 09: 41 New
    0
    Interesting article, thanks hi
  6. Evgeny_Lev
    Evgeny_Lev 13 February 2015 09: 46 New
    0
    It would be good if it were launched into satellites, black hole generators fellow
  7. opus
    opus 13 February 2015 12: 34 New
    +1
    Quote: Author
    As a result, the USSR decided to dwell on the cheapest, but quite effective option, which involved launching into space a fighter satellite aimed at an object to be destroyed.

    I want to correct the author:
    -this (our) is by no means a "cheap" method, because interception of a satellite required a start of a FULL-PRICE LV of the "Soyuz" or "Proton" type. Launch cost (without interceptor "from $ 50-70.000.000,00
    - this is by no means an "effective" way, because the prelaunch preparation time is SIGNIFICANT and the strong influence of weather conditions
    - practically everyone would know that the USSR was going to destroy the satellite in advance
    ASM-135 ASAT Option




    Of course, an order of magnitude cheaper (if not on 2) and more efficient and mobile
    Our version is akin to something manned (!) returned to Space Cruiser (a pointed flattened cone, about 8 meters long and a base diameter of about 1,42 m, fully loaded with 2054 kg) launched with an UGM-73 Poseidon C-3 SLBM and then an UGM-96 Trident I SLBM


    Quote: Author
    The collapse of the Soviet Union prevented the continuation of work in this direction; in the 1990 years, work on the project was stopped.


    The 79M6 rocket (left) and the MiG-31 carrier aircraft No. 072 blue on the Sary-Shagan training ground. Probably photo made in xnumx g

    THEN they did not manage to bring the rocket to mind, and MIG-31D got Kazakhstan (why should he?), Which he ruined
    NOT EVERYTHING IS LOST
    -deep modernization of RK "Krona" was completed in 2010 year

    -2013: Design Bureau "Torch" is developing a replacement for the 79M6 Contact missiles.

    -on tests (in full swing) check the possibility of issuing target designation from the ground to attack aircraft, as well as the operation of communication lines and interactions between the ground and air components of the Krona. Instead of the MiG-31D, the usual MiG-31 Air Force will work.To convert the MIG-31 to the MIG-31D is not a problem (the airborne radar, all the suspension and mounting components, the radio-transparent cap are removed from the aircraft replaced by metal. At the ends of the wings for flight stability during vertical climb special aerodynamic flows, the so-called flippers, are placed. They also serve to stabilize the MiG’s flight with a suspended anti-ballistic missile. Then the aiming complex and the communication complex are put)
    1. opus
      opus 13 February 2015 12: 42 New
      +3
      --------------------
      And the Americans have all 15 ASM-135 ASAT missiles already rotted

      And perform the role of only a museum exhibit
      1. Sergey TT
        Sergey TT 13 February 2015 21: 59 New
        0
        And you’re not getting anything secret here by chance?
        1. opus
          opus 15 February 2015 02: 18 New
          +1
          Quote: Sergey TT
          And you’re not getting anything secret here by chance?

          About the secret, I am always silent.
          And the admission has long been "worked out"
          All information presented here: information for general use.
          In addition to the American one, that "solidly drawn" world is not without good people.
          wink
  8. Puler
    Puler 13 February 2015 13: 40 New
    0
    the Yankees are strong in the war with the poits ... well, even with the geyropa countries ... and the real opponent can be. (solid mat) the Yankees
  9. srha
    srha 13 February 2015 14: 38 New
    0
    Why shoot down satellites? After all, the task is to disable them. And for this it’s enough to bring a small-small engine of five kilos to the satellite, hook it on the ledge and turn it on. All ..., the swirling satellite will not be able to work. Moreover, for the Russian cosmonautics the most advanced in docking issues, this will not be a problem.
    1. opus
      opus 13 February 2015 14: 51 New
      +1
      Quote: srha
      And for this it’s enough to bring a small-small engine of five kilos to the satellite, hook it on the ledge and turn it on.

      That would "bring something", and then "something" to hook, money for such a device (inference, correction in orbit, maneuver in orbit, impulse coupling, guidance and tracking systems) will be spent MORE than just shooting down,



      about an order of magnitude.

      1. srha
        srha 13 February 2015 23: 01 New
        0
        Can you make a calculation? I personally am afraid to make a mistake in the calculation, but from my point of view it’s cheaper to put into orbit, since it is necessary to put an order of magnitude less weight and you can drive it on accelerating but on economical correcting engines in economical orbits. The only drawback is the long lead time.
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. opus
          opus 14 February 2015 13: 10 New
          +1
          Quote: srha
          Can you make a calculation?

          1. Cost of launching to LEO LV of the Soyuz, Proton type: 70 -100 $
          2. The cost of interceptor satellite: Mass interceptor about 2,4 tons is equipped with an orientation system, a powerful propulsion system with large fuel reserves, allowing for a wide maneuver in space. In front was an antenna of a homing radar head, behind it a cylindrical instrument compartment with systems providing communication and data exchange with a ground-based complex. To destroy the target, two warheads of fragmentation-cumulative action served. At launch, the warheads were folded and revealed only after entering orbit.
          FROM $ 40, if I’m not mistaken, without Yabz of course
          1 + 2 =

          против
          * SM-3 missile cost ranges from $ 12. + cost of "renting" a carrier like "Eagle Burke"

          * ASM-135 ASAT Interceptor missile cost $ 5.3 billion (US) + F-15 standard hour rental: $ 25

          * according to their calculations () but in reality it is not yet), the cost of defeat ("shot") by a laser pulse will be $ 100 million per target.

          ==========================
          So consider that CHEAPER?

          The difference between the SM-3 m / y and the satellite interceptor: SM-3 is up to 3,8 km / s for 300 kg ballistic, and the satellite-interceptor: it is necessary to achieve the FIRST SPACE for 2,4 tn

          The difference between the ASM-135 ASAT and the satellite interceptor: a relatively cheap rocket weighing 1,180 kg comparable to anti-ship missiles, starting from a height of 19 km from a reusable carrier (F-15) and a FULL Rocket Carrier of the Proton class.
          And mobility and efficiency? (F-15 can take off at ANY time from ANY aerodrome)

          Quote: srha
          since you want to bring out an order of magnitude less weight

          an order of magnitude more weight and provide a speed of 2,5 times more

          ===========================================

          The problem of meeting two objects in near-Earth space moving in circular support orbits with speeds = 1 space much more complicated than intercepting a target with anti-aircraft ground-to-air missiles or even anti-missile missiles.
  10. kenig1
    kenig1 13 February 2015 22: 35 New
    +1
    Ballistic missile shot down a satellite?
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. opus
      opus 14 February 2015 13: 20 New
      0
      Quote: kenig1
      Ballistic missile shot down a satellite?

      What's wrong with that?
      rocket Bold Orion (mentioned in the article) launched from the strategist B-47 Stratojet October 19 1959 on satellite Explorer 6 walked away from him 4 miles. Be on board the nuclear warhead, there would be no satellite.
      -SM-3, essentially a missile launcher launched from the Lake Erie cruiser in the Pacific Ocean three minutes after launch, hit the USA-247 emergency reconnaissance satellite at an altitude of 193 kilometers, moving at a speed of 7 m / s
      - the redesigned Voevoda R-36M2 ICBM launches satellites and theoretically (if you set a goal) it can intercept satellites in the lunar orbit, suppress the satellite constellation of lunatics, if there are any
  11. smoke break
    smoke break 14 February 2015 03: 16 New
    0
    People, you generally think that you are spreading! You will also publish the schematic diagrams of missiles and complexes! If you know something "secret", then you do not need to ring the whole network about it!
    1. opus
      opus 15 February 2015 00: 15 New
      0
      Quote: smoke break
      smoke break

      it’s not clear what you are being minus (the syndrome is likely), but here (in the article) NO:
      - "schematic diagrams"
      -and other SS, SOV, even for the joint venture is not.
      All info-DODI (publicly available information)
      For interest, go to "Rospatent", there you can see the "schemes"
      wink
  12. MolGro
    MolGro 14 February 2015 21: 24 New
    0
    The perfect weapon for companions!
    1. opus
      opus 15 February 2015 00: 18 New
      0
      Quote: MolGro
      The perfect weapon for companions!

      1. It must be heavier, something. AND MORE
      2. A bucket with nails still needs to be DELIVERED into a low-orbit reference orbit, find a satellite, put it (a bucket) on the approach path, which allows breaking through, the expansion cloud should be of a satisfactory density (tightness), and not miss.
      The bottom line: the same killer satellite, launched by the "Proton" type launch vehicle, or "Rokot"
  13. Germes116
    Germes116 15 February 2015 11: 36 New
    0
    Maybe we already have a bunch of nanosatellites there already sitting on the enemy's casing and reading info bully