Multi-axle rocket carriers
After passing the short stage of creating a five-axis search chassis for mobile missile systems, the more advanced and powerful serial six- and semi-axle high-payload chassis developed in Minsk SKB-1 (UGK-2) and produced on special production MAZ were used in the new Soviet systems of SRK and PGRK. . The operation of such machines on solid, smooth and level roads with minimal elevation differences and the constant availability of mobile refueling and repair tools led to relatively low performance in terms of throughput, speed and power reserve, as well as a relatively short warranty period for the main units. At the same time, the requirements for durability, reliability, high payload and mounting capabilities of the chassis, as well as the ability for operational deployment and effective combat use of missile weapons, came to the first place. In the course of further improvement and enhancement of combat, size and weight parameters of promising strategic missiles, all indicators of experienced chassis for their transportation and launch increased in parallel, which led to the emergence of fundamentally new off-road wheeled carrier missiles of unique designs with a capacity over 1800 hp. and payloads up to 220 t, which had drive axles up to 12. The most advanced domestic diesel, multi-fuel and gas-turbine power units, all-wheel electric drive, automatic transmissions, adjustable hydropneumatic suspension, the most rare and expensive extra-lightweight and durable materials were used on such machines. The design of the first self-propelled launchers (SPU) was carried out by the Barrikady Plant Design Bureau under the direction of G. I. Sergeev. In 1973 - 1983, it had the designation SKB-1 and later - the combined CDB, which was supervised by chief designer V.M. Sobolev. The assembly of complete products and fixed assets for their provision was carried out by the Barrikady plant, and all solid propellant rockets were designed for them by the Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology.
Thus, under the pressure of the arms race and the Cold War, in an atmosphere of complete isolation behind the Iron Curtain, the most advanced multi-axle serial production chassis for mobile Pioneer complexes of medium range were created by the enormous efforts of the designers of the secret design bureaus, institutes, military and automobile factories in the USSR intercontinental "Temp-2С" and "Topol", which were not equal in any of the most developed countries of the world. They were able to hit enemy targets down to US territory and created a real threat to NATO forces in both Western Europe and overseas. For many years, in this narrow and top-secret area imperceptible to prying eyes, the Soviet Union has been the absolute world leader in terms of the power, accuracy and range of its missile systems, and in terms of the perfection of the design and efficiency of the vehicles that carried them. In addition to Topol, such systems never appeared at military parades, but foreign intelligence services had information about them, which in the NATO leadership caused impotent rage and fear. As a result, the West was forced to negotiate with the Soviet Union for humiliating for the termination of the production of mobile missile systems and their complete elimination, which in itself was an indirect recognition of the military superiority of the USSR. In order to achieve world military parity under 1970 - 1980 international treaties, the Soviet Union reduced several of its missile systems, many of which were outdated by then. The situation changed drastically when, in the midst of restructuring, the most advanced Soviet weapons on mobile chassis were often “accidentally” falling into the composition of the complexes being liquidated, and at the same time the development of dozens of other similar unique systems were frozen.
With the beginning of the unrestrained multistage demilitarization of the USSR, this whole powerful and debugged secret system, which was on state support, quickly collapsed, marking the end of both the unbearable arms race and the iron curtain, which was one of the foundations of the Soviet economy. The last eight-axle MAZ missile chassis, built a year before the collapse of the USSR, initially turned out to be unclaimed in a democratic Russia, whose leadership hoped for eternal peaceful coexistence with former adversaries. This did not happen, and it was only after many years that the Minsk chassis became the mobile basis of the most powerful domestic PGRK Topol-M. But time was lost: from the former Soviet military-automobile complex almost nothing was left, and in the meantime the West managed to go far ahead ...
PROTOTYPES OF THE FIVE– AND HEXIS CHASSIS
The birth of an extremely rare and small generation of the Soviet non-four-wheel-drive five-axle chassis was associated with the search for the most optimal designs of the multi-axle base of mobile SRK. For the first time such a machine was developed in 1968 and headed the family of future MAZ-547 rocket trucks, but it didn’t justify itself and was immediately replaced with a four-wheel-drive six-axle version. This scheme was returned to 1980-ies, when the overall layout of all-wheel drive multi-axle military chassis was already formed. At that time, two experimental representatives of the five-axle family of the Bryansk and Minsk automobile plants appeared, which were only trial elongated versions of four-axle machines and then did not receive any development. The birth of the first Soviet four-wheel drive six-axle chassis with the wheel formula 12x12 took place in the middle of the 1960-s. Thanks to the enthusiasm and talent of 21 specialists, the Research Institute of the Progenitor of the entire extensive family of heavy rocket launchers in the future was a prototype 103 Product (I-103), which gave a powerful energy boost to the designers of the Minsk SKB-1 in the development and improvement of multi-axial equipment for strategic missile forces.
In the 1987 year, as part of the work on the four-axle land vehicles of the 6948 / 69481 series, at the Bryansk Automobile Plant, under the direction of Yu. I. Mosin, the BAZ-69481М (10XXNNXX) vehicle-unique chassis with a load capacity of 8 t was built to install the new rocket system. He was also a member of the Basis-18,6 family and received the Voshchina military index, the detailed designer was the lead designer A. S. Koptyukh. This car combined two search solutions that were original for the Soviet and global automotive industry: an asymmetrical layout with five pairs of wheels and only four driving axles, as well as a fairly strong non-sealed load-bearing hull that resembled floating machines. From its nearest predecessor, the 1, the new car was distinguished by a more capacious welded body and the installation of a third non-driven axle, which, together with two regular rear axles, formed a three-axle bogie that could withstand increased loads. The increase in the mass of the car led to the installation of two more powerful 69481-strong engines KAMAZ-260 with onboard transmissions, reinforced subframes and chassis components. Otherwise, no major changes have occurred in the overall design of the 740.3M chassis. In its original version, the hull was low open, then it was converted into a higher body with a gentle roof bevel and a working compartment with a canvas top. The curb weight of the machine was 69481 tons, full - 21,5 tons. Turning radius - 40,5 m. The maximum speed remained at the level of 16,5 km / h, the power reserve decreased to 70 km. In the 900 year, BAZ-1987M passed acceptance tests at 69481 NIII and did not immediately receive military approval. He had insufficient maneuverability and reliability associated with the installation of two additional non-leading wheels and the use of a scheme with an odd number of bridges. When driving on a rough road, such original constructive solutions led to an uneven redistribution of shock loads on the wheels, suspension, transmission and frame of the car, and during overcoming even low obstacles, the entire load briefly accounted for only one medium axle.
Meanwhile, since the beginning of the 1980-s, in Kolomna SKB-221, in parallel with the development of the Oka-U complex, the design of the upgraded Volga operational tactical complex of increased range (900 - 1000 km) was carried out to replace the Temp-S system. Its launcher and loader were planned to be placed on the future 69481M chassis. Of these, only the equipment of the prototype transport-charging vehicle with a combat design of four people was completed, and after the signing of the INF Treaty, all further work on the Volga complex and on the chassis were stopped. His only development in 1989 was the civilian version of the BAZ-69511P, which also did not develop in those troubled times.
(1989 - 1991)
The advent of the experienced 35-tonne chassis MAZ-7929 (10x8) is due to serious difficulties in the development of the promising compact PGRK 15P159 "Courier" with the intercontinental 15X59 rocket. It was originally planned to be mounted on a three-axle chassis, then on a four-axle MAZ-7909, but in the process of testing and modifications, the increased mass of the rocket forced it to switch to an even more lifting wheelbase. She was the original five-axle vehicle MAZ-7929, based on the 543M and 7909 machines. He received an additional fourth non-leading axle and, unlike all his military predecessors of the MAZ brand, for the first time was equipped with a single monoblock 3-local cabin carried forward with a welded frame and fiberglass cladding panels. Like the 7909 version, the MAZ-7929 was also equipped with a JMZ-8424.10 diesel engine with an 420 horsepower, a manual 9-speed gearbox and a modified chassis from the 543 series. Its curb weight was 25,0 t, full - 60 t, overall dimensions - 15 180x3400x3462 mm.
In 1989, four 7929 chassis were assembled. They simultaneously entered the Barricades factory and the 21 Research Institute of Acceptance Testing. In Bronnitsy, MAZ-7929 also did not receive a positive assessment due to its inadequate permeability inherent in the five-axle scheme, but at the same time in Volgograd one chassis was reequipped for a prototype model of the SPU complex "Courier". Together with the MAZ-7909 in 1989 - 1990, he took part in the testing of various missile prototypes at the Kapustin Yar launch site and was adopted as the basis for the final SPU with an upgraded missile with a launch mass of 17 tons and a range of damage 11 thousand. In 1991, all the work on the Courier PGRK based on the MAZ-7929 was completed, and the production of SPU prototypes began at the Barricades plant. Their tests were scheduled for the summer of 1992, but in October of the previous year, Mikhail S. Gorbachev signed with the President of the United States the Treaty on the Reduction of Offensive Arms START 1, which led to the suspension of all work on the subject of Courier until better times. So in Soviet times the short ended ingloriously story another promising Soviet missile system. But MAZ-7929 with its new cabin became one of the predecessors of the next generation of four-axle tactical vehicles MZKT-7930, and the next five-axle military chassis 79292 appeared only in 2006 year. It became an all-wheel drive and received a new 503-strong Yaroslavl diesel and hydropneumatic suspension.
The honor of creating the first Soviet all-wheel drive multi-axle military vehicle transporter belongs to 21 NIII specialists who worked under the guidance of a prominent scientist and designer Lieutenant Colonel P. V. Aksyonov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, later - Doctor of Technical Sciences. The responsible executive of the project was A.I. Gusev. Work on such a technique in an environment of special secrecy was carried out at the institute since the middle of the 1950-s and led to the creation of the first two four-axle machines, the 210 and 21-15 (8x8). In the middle of 1960-x, using the experience of their design and testing, the development of a fundamentally new six-axle machine began, which was assembled in 1966 at Experimental Plant No. 38 using two chassis I-21-15. It was a non-full-scale (approximately 3 / 4 from full-size version) prototype model of a special 22-tonne chassis I-103 (“103 Product”) with a 12xXNNXX wheel arrangement and a symmetrical chassis scheme - three front and three rear axles with single tires with single tires and three rear axles with single tires with single-row tires and single-row tires with single-row tires and single rear tires and single axles. gauge size (12 mm). Formally, it was not a prototype of the future chassis-rocket launcher, but only a self-propelled vehicle to test the theory of power flow in transmissions of multi-axle all-wheel drive vehicles of high maneuverability. Nevertheless, from a constructive point of view, it was a fully functional machine, saturated with advanced units and assemblies, with an optimistic prospect of turning it into a special chassis for installing powerful rocket systems, including the Pioneer missile system. On the I-2304 car, the UTD-103 V20 (6 l, 15,9 hp) turbocharged diesel engine was mounted from the tracked infantry fighting vehicle (BMP), and the rest of its overall design did not differ from the previous four-axle vehicles. It also used a longitudinal supporting tubular spinal frame with swinging half-axles on an independent torsion bar suspension, a manual gearbox and two single-seater cabins typical for 300 NIII, with external corrugated panels located on the sides of the engine compartment. Managed were three front axles, providing the turning radius of the 21 m. On all wheels were mounted wide-profile tires of the size 17,9x1200-500. On the frame of the machine there were fastenings for the installation of a test van, a load ballast or a lengthy cylindrical steel container that, in terms of mass and dimensions, imitated the equipment of a rocket launcher. The curb weight of the vehicle was 508 tons. The total wheelbase between the axles of the outer axles is 36 mm, overall dimensions is 9450 11x400x3025 mm, and the length with the container is 2350 m. Ground clearance under the axles is 14 mm. Maximum speed - 450 km / h.
The tests proved the high passability of the I-103 chassis with a low center of gravity, the ability to overcome wide and deep obstacles, sufficient stability on the ground and a high speed of movement on a level road. All this contributed to the decision on the production of a car, and at that moment "103 Product" had a great chance to become the real basis for future PGRK, the development of which was just beginning. However, due to the unconventionality of the general scheme, the need for additional design of a full-scale prototype and the lack of free production capacity at large Soviet automobile plants, the I-103 chassis remained in a single sample. The high creative abilities of specialists 21 NIII subsequently proved new designs of a low-frame nine-axle self-propelled ultrahigh-capacity self-propelled platform with a hydropneumatic suspension of each wheel (1997) and a six-axle electric transmission model and all steering wheels (2003).
MULTI-EXPOSED ROCKET CHASSIS OF THE MINSK AUTO FACTORY
A special page in the history of the domestic automotive industry is occupied by secret multi-axle chassis created at SKB-1 (UGK-2) of the Minsk Automobile Plant and which have become a reliable transport base of mobile SRK and PGRK for launching strategic ballistic missiles of medium and long range. Since its inception, these systems and their all-wheel drive chassis have surpassed the best foreign developments and brought the Soviet military-automotive sector to the highest world level, but for the vast majority of people in the USSR they all remained “a secret behind seven seals” for a long time. The conceptual origins of such chassis were promising research works of 13 Bronnitsky 21 NIII department staff on the type of future machines, layout diagrams, general design and basic parameters. On behalf of the Ministry of Defense, the Minsk SKB was engaged in their detailed design, and the chassis was assembled on its own special production of the PSCT.
The basis of the first generation of multi-axle missile chassis was the family of six-axle vehicles of the MAZ-547 series with a 650-strong engine and the first independent hydropneumatic suspension of each wheel in Russian practice. They were based on the first mobile SRK - intercontinental "Temp-2" and "Pioneer" medium-range, nicknamed the "European thunderstorm", experienced upgraded versions of which were subsequently mounted on 710-strong chassis 7916. In the middle of 1970-s, the second stage of creating multi-axle machines began, when SKB-1 specialists had to solve problems that were not even developed in theory. They encountered the first problem when designing the 7912 semi-axial version with an odd number of axes, but successfully coped with it. In 1985, the release of the upgraded 7917 chassis for the Topol PGRK began. The 1980 years include a top secret epic with the design and manufacture of prototypes of the multi-wheeled 7904, 7906 and 7907 off-road transporters, unprecedented in world practice, which had six, eight and 12 driving axles, the carrying capacity of 150 - 220 and designed to carry even more powerful promising missile systems "Celina".
A huge role in creating the mobile base of the most powerful Soviet missile systems was played by the leaders and designers of the Minsk Automobile Plant. In the middle of 1960, these works were started by the chief designer of SKB-1, B. L. Shaposhnik, but later his talented follower V. Ye. Chvyalev, who was in the shadow of his legendary teacher for a long time, was designing all the subsequent unique missile chassis. Its role has significantly increased since the middle of the 1970-ies, when for health reasons Shaposhnik could only perform coordinating and supervisory functions. In 1977, Chvyalev was appointed his first deputy and worked on most new projects on his own. In April, 1985, after Shaposhnik retired at the age of 83, he became the chief designer and head of UGK-2. Over the entire period of his activity as chief designer of the UGK-2 MAZ and MZKT, V. Ye. Chvyalev developed over 90 types of special motor vehicles for military and civil purposes.
In 1990, literally on the eve of the collapse of the USSR, the first eight-axle 2 and 7922 chassis for assembling the future Topol-M missile complex were assembled at UGK-7923, but after that 16 took years of fundamental political changes and rethinking new world realities to bring its up to industrial fabrication and start deploying in the Russian Federation. Meanwhile, the special production of the Minsk Automobile Plant became an independent plant of the MZKT, the Belarusian SSR gained independence and the main supplier of missile chassis for the Russian Army found itself in a neighboring country, not always loyal to its former great neighbor.
FIRST SIXTH FAMILY MAZ-547
The first six-axle family of heavy rocket chassis of the 547 series belonged to the second generation of the Minsk Automobile Plant, which was based on the MAZ-543 series. The ancestor of the new gamut was the unfulfilled project of the five-axis version MAZ-547 (10x8), which was developed in 1967 - 1968 in accordance with the PSM from 6 in March of 1966. For its basis they chose the MAZ-543 chassis, to which a third non-leading bridge was added, and the main purpose of the new machine was to carry the launcher of the future mobile Temp-2S with the 15Ж42 intercontinental missile. It became five-axle at the insistence of the customer, but during the design it became clear that the MAZ-547 would be inoperable in real conditions, would not meet the requirements for carrying capacity, mounting capabilities and maneuverability. The asymmetrical layout of the wheels could cause an increase in shock loads on the frame and an overload of the middle bridge. To reduce the influence of these factors, it was decided to maximally facilitate the SPU by making a transport and launch container (TPK) made of fiberglass, and to maintain a predetermined temperature inside it was applied a thick layer of lightweight heat insulating foam. Because of the numerous flaws, the missiles had double and even triple duplication, which led to their weighting up to 40,5 t and, accordingly, to an increase in the total mass of the entire SPU, under which the five-axle chassis did not fit at all.
For Minsk designers, these works became the first practical opportunity to test new layout, design and theoretical foundations of future multi-axle vehicle-rocket cars of modular design, as well as to assess the prospect of placing heavy rocket systems on them. Already in the process of designing the first MAZ-547 chassis at SKB-1, the parallel development of the all-wheel drive six-axle version of the MAZ-547А (12x12) with two identical side cabs began. The prototype was ready in 1970 year and after long trials it served as a mobile base for the Temp-2 СS launcher. In 1974, a modernized MAZ-547В chassis was assembled in Minsk, in which the right cabin of the crew commander was mounted on a small elevation and provided increased visibility. The main goal of its development was the creation of a more advanced and well-known Pioneer SRK, the improved versions of which were subsequently installed on the updated MAZ-7916 chassis. In addition to launch systems, Temp-547С and Pioneer SRS transport and reloading machines, other rocket launchers, powerful truck cranes and several pilot versions with unconventional drive types were based on the 2-series chassis.
Structurally, the first six-axle 55-ton chassis MAZ-547A and 547B had an absolutely identical design and the vast majority of the same parameters, although they had different mounting capabilities and their own distinctive external features. Both machines of the frame structure were equipped with three closely spaced front and rear driving axles with all single wheels, of which three front axles were controlled. For the maximum possible lightening of large and heavy machines, titanium alloys, rolled aluminum and alloyed steels with a total weight of about 2 tons, as well as composite materials and fiberglass, were widely used. The four-stroke multi-fuel engine B-38 V12 (38,9 l, 650 hp) with a turbocharging produced by the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant, which belonged to the family tank motors V-2 and maximally unified with transport motors of the D-12A series. He could work on diesel fuel, A-72 gasoline and TC-1 jet fuel (aviation kerosene). The power unit was equipped with direct fuel injection, two overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder, combined lubrication (under pressure and spraying), a two-stage air cleaner with an exhaust suction of dust, a forced liquid-cooling system with a capacity of 105 l, a torsional vibration damper on the crankshaft ( anti-vibration) and cast aluminum exhaust manifolds with cooling jackets. The auxiliary equipment included the PZhD-600В preheater (50 thousand kcal / h), electric fuel booster pump, two radiators with electric fan, double start system and single-wire shielded 24-voltage electrical equipment with four batteries, 6,5-kilowatt generator and 11 kW starter. Compared to four-axle machines, the design of an automatic hydromechanical transmission was significantly upgraded, strengthened and supplemented by a number of new units, and the usual transfer case was missing in it. The power chain consisted of a single-stage torque converter with automatic activation of a two-disk lock-up clutch, a planetary 4-speed box with two reverse gears, five friction clutches with electric and hydraulic control mechanisms and its own cooling system, main gears of all axles with cross-axle differentials, swinging axle shafts and planetary wheel gearboxes located on the outer sides of the hubs. From the step-up gearbox mounted directly behind the engine, power was taken to power generators, hydraulic pumps and a compressor. Its value in the parking lot reached 350 hp, while driving - 40 hp Symmetric center axle limited slip differential was in a reduction gear for the engine. From him, torque was fed to the main transmission gears of the third and fourth axles and then redistributed to two front and two rear axles. The drives of the front steering wheels were conic symmetrical differentials, the three rear - self-locking with gear couplings. Additionally, the differential of the front three-axle bogie was introduced into the main gear of the second axle. All 30 drive shafts of all types of drives were double-hinged with cross-pieces on needle bearings. Another important innovation was the individual independent suspension of each wheel on the transverse levers with one vertical hydropneumatic elastic element and the combined hydrobalance coupling of the three wheels of the front and rear bogies of each side, which ensured constant and reliable traction of the wheels with the ground and increased smoothness. The design of the chassis units also replenished with several original solutions. The steering mechanism with a double-acting piston hydraulic booster served to simultaneously drive all three pairs of steered wheels. The dual-circuit brake system with drum-wheel mechanisms combined pneumohydraulic and hydraulic circuits, which operated separately on three front and three rear axles, and also supplied with an additional emergency-reserve drive for short-term retention of the loaded machine on a slope. The double combined welded frame was a combination of two powerful longitudinal spars - upper channel and lower Z-shaped section with cross-pieces on bolted joints. This design provided it with flexibility in the vertical plane and torsion and, accordingly, maximum adaptability to road conditions. The centralized pressure control system with a range of 2,0 - 4,0 kgf / cm2 worked on all 12 disc wheels with wide-profile B-178 tube tires of 1600xXNNXX-600 size. On both machines mounted two separated single-door single cabins made of fiberglass, equipped with filtering units and fire extinguishers.
The total wheelbase of both chassis (the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels) was 10 900 mm and was the arithmetic formula 2300 + 2300 + 2800 + 1750 + 1750 mm. The track of all bridges - 2526 mm. Ground clearance under bridges - 475 mm, minimum turning radius - 22 m. Curb weight of both machines - 27,5 t, full - 82,7 t. Maximum permissible load on one bridge - 15,0 t. Overall length without superstructure - 15,5 m, front overhang length - 2825 mm. Maximum speed on the highway - 40 km / h, on dirt roads with special superstructures - 15 - 20 km / h. Acceleration time of the loaded car from a standstill to 40 km / h - 60 with. Control fuel consumption - 165 liters per 100 km. The chassis was adapted for operation at temperatures from - 40 to + 50? C and at altitudes up to 1000 m above sea level. They could overcome 15-degree lifting and slopes in 20 ?, 1,1-meter ford and in a static state - the calculated side roll in 40 ?. The warranty mileage of the chassis was 18 thousand. Km, the warranty period of the engine - 500 hours, their life and storage - 10 and 7 years, respectively.
(1970 - 1985)
This unique car occupies an epochal position in the entire domestic system of the military-automobile military industrial complex and the Soviet automobile industry, but until recently remained in the shadow of special secrecy. It was the world's first special super-heavy military multi-axle chassis with a continuous frame for mounting the Temp-2С heavy rocket launcher with a solid-fuel rocket, which in turn became the world's first movable wheeled intercontinental range missile capable of carrying combat duty as stationary platforms, and move along the roads to launch rockets from field launch sites. From the technical point, the 55-tonne chassis of the MAZ-547A produced a quiet revolution in the domestic automotive industry, possessing an advanced and unconventional design of most of the nodes and solutions and performance unprecedented until then.
Two prototypes of the MAZ-547А were built at the beginning of 1970, and then entered the factory and state acceptance tests at the 21 NIII. Their main constructive and external features were two separate single fiberglass cabs placed on the front overhang of the frame with one windshield and characteristic side bevels on the inside. The right cabin was intended for the driver-mechanic, the left - for the commander of the crew. Between them were placed the radiator and the engine compartment, as low as possible into the space between the frame side members and shifted forward, which determined the overall height of the car through the cabs of just 2350 mm and the increased mounting area of the frame. Its length was 9455 mm, but the loading height remained quite large - 1530 mm. With a capacity of two fuel tanks for 380, the power reserve of the loaded vehicle did not exceed 430 km.
In January, 1970, the first chassis were sent to the Barricades factory for SPU installation. The next two cars, assembled in March, arrived at the factory site and passed off-road for a total of 18 thousand km. From August 1972-th to November 1973, the first two versions with mounted launchers 15U67 of the Temp-2C complex passed a test cycle at 21 NIII. According to their results, it was stated that the chassis is at a high technical level and exceeds all existing types of army vehicles, has satisfactory performance and reliability, but has insufficient lateral stability. The car received a recommendation for setting on arms. In accordance with PSM 1970, “On the creation of production facilities and the release of highly passable special chassis 547”, serial production began in 1972 in the new machine-assembly building No. 2 (MSK-2). Before 1985, the 294 machines of MAZ-547А were built there.
In addition to carrying the launch systems, they mounted the transport and handling equipment of other rocket systems on these chassis, and also developed new types of hydraulic and electric wheel drive. At the end of the 1980-s, in the experimental procedure, the MAZ-547А with the fifth-wheel support and an additional electric generator, hydraulic pumps and compressors worked as part of the active three-link transport-reloading train 15Т284 for the delivery of the PT-23 UTTX rocket for subsequent overload to the installer mine launcher. It was placed in a rectangular container case on a special trailer with a four-axle driving carriage with all double wheels, and between it and the tractor was placed a similar intermediate four-axle truck-mounted truck.
(1974 - 1984)
The most famous and popular 55-ton chassis MAZ-547В was designed and then produced in parallel with the model 547А, but it was developed already in relation to the installation of SPU equipment of the Pioneer missile system. The first two prototypes of the MAZ-547В were assembled in the 1974 year and immediately sent to the Barricades factory for special equipment. With the full identity of the mechanical part of both machines, the requirements for installation and combat use of the new superstructure and special equipment led to insignificant modifications of the 547В model compared to 547А, which was most clearly reflected in its external outlines. As a result of rearrangement of the front part, only one former left driver's cabin remained on it, and the second right one was shifted slightly back and mounted about half a meter higher, which was dictated by the need to place the lower unit of technological equipment in front of it. This cabin had a special design with a triangular roof shape, two small side windows, a ventilation flap in the front panel and "hung" directly above the front right wheel. The front bumper with a tow hook and separate covers of light devices had a characteristic right cantilever folding section. In addition, on the MAZ-547В chassis, the engine and electrical power supply systems were improved, the location of the filtering unit was changed. As a result of modifications, the useful length of the mounting part of the frame was reduced to 7070 mm. Compared to the 547A model, the overall width was reduced by only 40 mm (from 3200 to 3160 mm), and the height on the roof of the right cab increased to 2840 mm. With the increase in the capacity of the two fuel base to 880 l power reserve amounted to 500 km. Before 1984, in Minsk, 538 chassis of the MAZ-547В were assembled, which mostly served for the installation of equipment for the Pioneer and Pioneer UTTH equipment.
Experienced machines series MAZ-547
The first trial version of the 547А appeared in the 1973 year as the MAZ-547B chassis, in which the designer N.I. Savitsky together with the experts of the E.O. Paton Institute of Electric Welding in Kyiv tried to significantly ease the overall design of the base machine. The only innovation on it was the carrier frame with spars and crossbars, welded from extruded aluminum, which gave a gain on the vehicle weight in 900 kg. At the factory site MAZ-547B with mounted SPU "Pioneer" successfully overcame the distance in 15 thousand km, but due to difficulties with reliable installation of the beam of the lifting mechanism of the rocket and the increased cost of the machine, further work on it was stopped. In the middle of the 1970-x, the 547G chassis with hydro-volumetric transmission for driving all 12 wheels remained in the design and demonstration stand, but the need to use two-stage planetary wheel gears and design complexity led to the collapse of these works. In contrast, the 547 model with the 1000-strong gas-turbine power unit was built in a single experimental model in the 1976 year and passed the tests, and then served as the main next electric chassis.
The third most original car in 1978 was the experimental model of the MAZ-547E towing vehicle, developed under the direction of V.E. Chvyalev on the 547А chassis and equipped with an electric transmission ТЭ-500-12 with a total power of 800 hp and eight electric wheels. The main purpose of its creation was the development of the design of the drive of all the wheels of the machine using individual AC electric motors and the prospect of their use on future super-heavy rocket carriers. The manufacturer of the power unit was the Leningrad Plant named after V.Ya. Klimov, all electrical equipment was developed and manufactured at the Novosibirsk Scientific-Research Institute of Integrated Electric Drive (NIIKE). Instead of a standard engine on a 547E chassis, a compact gas turbine engine GTE-1000A with a capacity of 1000 hp, a length of about 1,5 m, a height of only 890 mm and a weight of 960 kg was mounted. It was created for the T-80 tank and worked on diesel fuel, aviation kerosene T-1 or TC-2 and their mixtures. The time to bring it into operation at temperatures up to - 18? С was only 4 - 7 minutes; at elevated ambient temperatures (to + 30?) It was reduced to 75 - 77 seconds. The gas turbine engine served to drive the VSG-625 electric generator with 625 kW power, producing alternating current of 1200 Hz frequency and 380 V voltage. From it, electric power was supplied to DST-34 / 6 traction electric motors with frequency-controlled thyristor regulation and an oil-and-oil cooling system built-in built-in electric motors built-in cooling motors DST-2,5 / 1600 with frequency thyristor regulation and an air-oil cooling system, built-in built-in in-line inhaling embedded motors. wheel hubs with planetary gears and withstand 9600-multiple overloads. In the working range from 34 to 46 rpm, they developed power over 28 kW (84 hp). The curb weight of the machine was 47 t, full - 70 t. Maximum speed - 7907 km / h. The tests of the car confirmed the correctness of the choice of the overall drive scheme, the acceptability of the basic parameters and the perspective of the overall design of the car, although its overall efficiency in 7923% left much to be desired. Subsequently, this scheme was used on the experienced multi-axle chassis MAZ-XNUMX and MAZ-XNUMX.
Military use chassis MAZ-547
Practically all the 547-series chassis assembled in Minsk were delivered to the Barrikady plant for the installation of the SPU of the Temp-2С intercontinental missile complex and several variants of the Pioneer SRK of medium range, which included transport, reloading and special vehicles based on MAZ-547А cars. Similar machines were used for the installation of the SPD complex “Gorn”, overloading equipment of other systems and powerful crane equipment for the needs of the Strategic Missile Forces.
Temp-2С rocket complex (1971 - 1979)
The first in the USSR fundamentally mobile CPN 15P642 Temp-2С with intercontinental ballistic missile 15Ж42 capable of delivering a nuclear charge to overseas territories, was of epochal significance both in the entire armament system of the Soviet Union and in the field of the domestic automobile industry. It became the first Soviet wheeled missile system with a highly mobile SPU 15У67 on the unique for those times high-power MAZ-547A six-axle all-wheel-drive chassis and a predecessor of all subsequent strategic complexes Pioneer, Topol and Topol-M. Together with him, the development of the first transport and reloading units on multi-axle chassis, as well as various specialized life-support vehicles mounted on four-axle MAZ-543 vehicles, which were constantly accompanied by rocket complexes, were started.
The first two MAZ-547А chassis were sent from Minsk to the Barrikady plant in January 1970, where, under the guidance of the chief designer of the design bureau G. I. Sergeev, the development of the first SPU of the Temp-2C complex began under special secrecy. For this purpose, the chassis was additionally equipped with a horizontal positioning system, a control complex, a powerful lifting boom hydraulic cylinder to bring the missile system into a combat position, and four support screw jacks driven by hydraulic motors (two rear and two between the second and third axles), which served for hanging cars in a combat position. The SPU 15U67 was ready by October 1971 of the year and entered for testing at the Plesetsk test site, where the first launch of the solid-fuel three-stage rocket 15ХХ1972, located in TPK, took place on March 15. For this, the so-called mortar launching circuit with the inclusion of a main engine at a sufficiently high altitude was used, which allowed to protect the SPU and ground equipment from damage. The rocket had a diameter of 42 mm, the length of the warhead was 1790 m and the war weight was 18,5 t, including the warheads 44,2 kg. Its maximum range of destruction reached 1000 thousand. Km. Tests of the SPU continued until the end of 10,5, and ended with the launch of two missiles on training targets in the Pacific. In the same year, the serial assembly of 1974У15 launchers began at the Barricades factory. The combat mass of SPU with dimensions of 67x17,0x3,2 m reached 2,94 t, the maximum speed of movement on the highway - 82 km / h, on dirt roads - no more than 40 km / h. The complex included transport and handling units (TPA) for horizontal crane crane overload TPK.
The first two regiments, Temp-2, took over the 21 February 1976 combat duty. The presence of such powerful and inaccessible for detection and destruction of Soviet missile systems caused genuine fear and complete helplessness in the United States and NATO countries, which became the main reasons for the start of hasty negotiations with the USSR on the next limitation of strategic weapons, which ended with the signing of the SALT-18 Treaty. According to him, the Soviet Union committed itself not to manufacture the Temp-1979C complex, to stop its further deployment and to completely destroy it in the future. It was removed from combat duty in 2 and eliminated in 2 - 1986, and all the secret drawings, materials and photos at that time were destroyed. The loss of the intercontinental complex Temp-1988C was not so significant for the Soviet Strategic Missile Forces, as it was hoped for by NATO. During the development of the modernized rocket systems Temp-1990СМ2 and Temp-2СМ1, even more powerful and heavy missiles of increased range and accuracy of destruction were created and tested, which served as the basis for the future Topol missile system, which entered service at the end of 2 -h.
Missile systems "Pioneer" and "Pioneer UTH" (1974 - 1987)
Unlike intercontinental system "Temp-2S" new movable IBS 15P645 "Pioneer" ( "Pioneer-1") equipped with a two-stage solid propellant ballistic missile RSD-10 (15ZH45) middle third generation range, capable of engaging surface enemy targets at distances from 600 to 4700 km, in other words - any NATO units in Western Europe. The first launch of the rocket took place in September 1974 of the year at the Kapustin Yar test range, the tests of the complex ended in January of 1976, and on 11 of March of the same year, it was accepted for service. All equipment SPU 15U72 mounted on the upgraded chassis MAZ-547В. It was equipped with means of controlling the rocket’s technical condition and launching, upgraded hydraulic mechanisms for lifting and bringing the rocket into the launch position, as well as the chassis hanging system on four hydraulic screw jacks, which ensured stability at the launch of the rocket and complete unloading of the chassis undercarriage components. The driver and the crew commander were in his two separate single cabins, but there was no space for the operator. The new rocket 15Ж45 with a length of 16,5 m with one head and a launch mass of 37,0 t was housed in the TPK 15Я75 with a diameter of 2140 mm. Accuracy of hit was 400 m. Its launch was also carried out using a mortar set-up with a powder pressure accumulator, which ejected a missile from the TLC, and the rocket engine was switched on at a sufficiently large safe height, which excluded damage to the ground-based devices and SPU elements. The SPU curb weight without a rocket was 40 250 kg, with a fully fueled rocket and crew - 83,0 tons. Overall length on the chassis - 16 810 mm, on the container - 19 316 mm, width - 3240 mm. Height in transport position on TPK - mm 3475. The maximum speed in 40 km / h allowed the STC to move both along special unpaved roads and along a network of ordinary highways with virtually any surface.
The first Pioneer complex was deployed at the fastest pace in 1976 - 1981. By the end of 1977, 18 missile systems were in service, their number increased to 1980 in 135 and, according to official data from the USA, reached 1983 units by May 351. A more advanced version of the 1P1977K Pioneer-K became the direct development of the Pioneer-15 system in 645. Unlike the first SRK, it used the 15ЖX45 rocket with three separable warheads, which was placed in the TPK on the upgraded SPU 15Х106 with new launch preparation and remote control systems. By November 1987, several dozens of such complexes were deployed. In 1977, tests of the advanced 15P645М “Pioneer-M” advanced complex with the 15Х46 rocket and two-way ultra-shortwave radio communication were also carried out via telecode and voice channels between command points at a distance of 100 km. He did not enter production, but his equipment was used on the following versions of the “Pioneer” SRK.
Work on the second modernized complex 15P653 "Pioneer UTTH" with improved tactical and technical characteristics, which carried the unofficial designation "Pioneer 2", began in July 1977. It was also based on the MAZ-547В chassis, tested from August 1979 of the year to December of the 1980, and was adopted in April of the 1981 of the year. Unlike the first model, it was equipped with a new 15Ж53 high-precision missile with three split warheads and an 5500 km damage range, which was located at the TPK 15YA117 on the improved SPU 15Х136 with a new equipment for control, aiming, automation and hydraulic drive. Compared to 15У72, its overall dimensions remained almost unchanged, but, while maintaining its own own weight in the fully prepared for launching state, the SPU weighed one ton more. The deployment of the Pioneer UTHC complex was carried out in 1979 - 1985, and by the 1987, the RVSN had 252 of such systems. In the course of production, new modernized mobile controls, life support and combat watch support were introduced into their composition, and an experienced laser “gun” was created.
In the Pioneer complexes, MAZ-547А vehicles were used for the installation of transportation systems and crane-free overload of TPK with missiles on launchers. After the missile launch, an empty container was dropped from the SPU and then entered the special covert bases for servicing and reloading them with new missiles under factory conditions. For temporary storage and transportation of empty or charged TPK 15YA117 with a combat rocket, a mobile TPA 15Т116 was used, outwardly almost not different from SPU, but having a modified configuration of the side compartments and not equipped with a hydraulic system for lifting the rocket and the means for launching and controlling it. Charged containers were reloaded from storage facilities, railway cars or from the 15Т140 transport carriage to TPA and then to the launcher, from which the container with the previously fired missile had been previously dropped, was carried out by precisely joining the two machines one after the other and horizontally dragging the container across the ramps with special guides. To do this, the chassis was additionally equipped with leveling systems and ensuring the docking of injection molding machines and SPU, as well as a winch to drive the cable mechanism. The reloading process took about 30 minutes. The operating speed of a loaded TPA 15Т116 was 15 km / h. Dimensions without container - 17 330x3200x2905 mm. Length with TPK - 21 050 mm, height - 4350 mm. Own weight is 39,5 t, with TPK and rocket around 83,0 t.
For the first time, an original multipurpose 15Т316 machine on the MAZ-547А chassis without jacks appeared in the Pioneer complexes, which externally resembled both a launcher and a pipe carrier truck or a capacious tanker with a long cylindrical capacity, which was confirmed by the words “flammable” on the boards. In the Strategic Missile Forces she wore different symbols and performed various tasks. Usually, she closed the column of the CPK and justified her names “combat support vehicle” or “technical circuit assembly”, providing emergency towing and evacuation of damaged heavy equipment. Under the designation “weight-and-weight layout,” the machine was used to train the driver-mechanics of mobile SPUs, since in terms of overall dimensions, the total weight with water poured into the tank and the location of the center of gravity fully corresponded to them. In a number of modern non-professional media, it is believed that these units also served to deliver fuel and even to disguise combat missile systems for conventional tankers and pipe carriers, which allegedly had to carry out distracting maneuvers and cruise along false routes.
The Pioneer missile systems, which posed a serious threat to US allies in Western Europe, also haunted NATO member countries. In the middle of the 1980-x, this led to another massive attack on the new Soviet leadership, which at that time undertook an active restructuring of the USSR, into which the complete disarmament of the country and the transfer of military production to peaceful pots and pans fit perfectly. As a result of such short-sighted 7 policy of December 1987 of the year under the Treaty on the Elimination of Medium-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles (INF), the Pioneer complex was to be decommissioned and later destroyed by the United States. By that time, 405 launchers of the Pioneer missile defense system and 105 non-deployed systems were on combat duty. From the beginning of 1988 and until May 1991, 56 Pioneer regiments were disbanded in the USSR, 509 SPU and 126 TPA were eliminated, all missiles with the TPC were dismantled and their combat support equipment was unmounted. After the destruction of traces of their military use, the chassis of the rocket complexes subsequently entered the national economy in small quantities, but there only served as the basis for heavy truck cranes of a single production. Several dismantled SPU "Pioneer" preserved in a number of Russian and foreign military museums.
Other equipment on MAZ-547 chassis
In addition to the well-known Temp-2C and Pioneer complexes on the MAZ-547 chassis, from the beginning of the 1980-s, the launch vehicle for the top secret command missiles 15Ж56 of the Strategic Missile Forces, which was part of the little-known 15P656 Horn complex, was based. According to the general scheme, design and external features, it practically did not differ from the Pioneer SRK. It also used containers 15Я117 and TPA 15Т116. Launchers complex "Gorn" was collected only nine copies. All of them were part of the same regiment, where they played the role of spare rocket systems and served to create an additional strike force in the event of a sudden nuclear attack on the Soviet Union. In the 1989 year, in times of disarmament euphoria, this formation was disbanded as superfluous.
On modified 547А / 547В chassis with special body add-ons in the DPRK and Pakistan, in different years, they assembled their own Musudan (Musudan) and Hatf-3 Gaznavi strategic missile systems, respectively. In China, MAX six-axle vehicles served as the basis for the Wenshan WS2500 multi-axle powerful weapon armament.
As part of the high-precision mine complex ABM A-135 "Amur" (5Ж60) of Moscow and the Central region are transport vehicles on the chassis of MAZ-547А, representing the development of mobile TPA 15Т116, created for the complexes "Pioneer". They are used for delivery from storage sites to the launch position of 81P6 containers with 51Т6 high-speed missiles with a length of about 20 and long-range interception and placing them on transport and installation systems. In terms of the overall design and horizontal horizontal crane overload, these units with hydraulic jacks and a welded frame with longitudinal guides are similar to 5Т93 machines on the MAZ-543М chassis for transporting 53Т6 short-range missiles. The development of such systems has been carried out since the beginning of 1970-ies, setting on combat duty began in 1990 year and ended only by December 1995-th. They were adopted by the Russian air defense in 1996 year.
At the end of the 1970s, a heavy military hydraulic truck crane KT-547 (KS-80) with a load capacity of 7571 and max. Outreach telescopic boom 80 was created on the chassis of the MAZ-32А. By order of the Ministry of Defense, it was created at the Odessa Crane Plant named after the January Uprising for the installation of radar posts of anti-aircraft missile systems C-300 of all modifications to the universal mobile 25-meter tower 40В6М. When the 1980B40MD tower with 6 height appeared in the middle of the 39-s, this jib crane version was used to mount an additional 13-meter section and place the upgraded 5H66М low-altitude detector or other radar equipment on it. The assembly time of such systems reached two hours.
SECOND SIXTH FAMILY MAZ-7905 / 7916
During the operation of the MAZ-547B chassis with the Pioneer missile systems, its serious shortcomings manifested themselves, primarily relating to the unfortunate placement of special technological equipment and the erroneous use of two cramped and uncomfortable single-seater cabs for the driver and commander, the second cabin having insufficient visibility and suffering by vibration. At the same time, there was no place for the third main crew member, the SPU operator, at all. As a result, at the beginning of the 1980-s, for the perspective replacement of the 547 chassis in Minsk, several MAZ-7905 prototypes were manufactured with a new 710-strong engine and two single-seaters, which were carried far forward to the front overhang. At the end of their tests, it was decided to launch the production of a modernized version of the 7916 with cabs for three crew members, which later mounted the SPU of the advanced Pioneer-3 missile system. Both cars formed a more powerful and practical family of rocket chassis of the second generation, however, due to a number of technical errors, changes in the military-political situation in the country and the elimination of the Pioneer complex, their mass production could not be established, although the constructive ideas contained in them received development in the mobile base of the new complex "Topol".
(1980 - 1982)
In 1980, the UGK-2 of the Minsk Automobile Plant developed the six-axle vehicle MAZ-7905 with a load capacity of 58 t, built on the 547А chassis and temporarily occupied an intermediate position between the 547-series vehicles and the seven-axle rocket chassis family. Considering that its main task was to replace MAZ-547В, on the new chassis the front overhang was extended to almost 5 m and technological equipment and two identical single cabins from the 547А were transferred to it. This made it possible to completely eliminate vibrations, improve working conditions and achieve an incredibly high degree of smoothness. Witnesses of those events recollect that it turned out to be so large that during the movement of drivers it sometimes swayed, and small objects left on flat surfaces remained in place during the entire test cycle. However, at the same time, the angle of climb was significantly reduced and the permeability was seriously affected, although these qualities were not decisive on smooth dirt roads. The main technical novelty of the MAZ-7905 was the use of the B-58-7 V12 engine of the tank type with the 710 horsepower, which by that time was already used on the 7912 and 7916 models. The total mass of the chassis was 30 tons. Before 1982, six 7905 prototype machines were assembled, which were received for state tests at 21 NIII, and at the same time, Pioneer UTTH rocket systems began to be installed on five of them. According to the test results, significantly worsened chassis performance in maneuverability and maneuverability, insufficient payload and poor handling, which led to the closure of this project, were ascertained.
(1979 - 1988)
Since the end of 1970-s, a more sophisticated MAZ-2 (7916X12) missile chassis (12X63) with a payload of 547 t, also based on the MAZ-3960А, but received new units and “died” before the squadron, under the leadership of V. Ye. Chvialev, has been designed at UGK-2. the frame that made up the total 7917 mm. The first two-door XNUMX-seat fiberglass cabin and the right single seat were mounted on it for the first time, which finally allowed the entire crew of the launcher to be in their own workplaces in one car. Initially, this option was not intended for the installation of the Pioneer missile system, but served only as an experimental base for testing promising constructive ideas and cabins, exploring the possibility of using new diesel engines and units with the subsequent implementation of the results obtained on the MAZ-XNUMX semi-axle rocket chassis.
The first prototype of the 7916 was built in November of the 1979 of the year, and soon four more experienced chassis followed. All were equipped with a 710-strong B-58-7 power unit, a modernized torque converter, a former 4-speed hydraulic transmission from the 547-series, driving axles with a permissible load of 14,7 t and a tire pressure control system. Compared to the MAZ-547, the curb weight of the 7916 model increased by 4,5 t and reached 32 t, overall length - 16 320 mm (+ 820 mm), the minimum turning radius increased from 22 to 27 m, the maximum highway speed was 45 km / h The 7916 chassis successfully stood the test. According to their results, 1985 machines were also assembled in 1986 - 26 for the installation of the equipment of the new generation of the upgraded launcher “Pioneer-3”. Subsequently, in Pakistan, the modified 7916 chassis with special body superstructures and cabs installed their own strategic missile systems, Shaheen-2 (Shaheen) and Hatf-7 Babur (Babur).
The Pioner-3 mobile medium-range missile system (up to 7500 km) was developed from the 1983 year and was located on a specially prepared MAZ-7916 chassis, re-equipped by the Barricades factory. He had two experienced basic versions with different types of new 17-meter rocket - a variant 15P655 with a monoblock 15Х55 rocket with a fusion head and 15P657 with a 15Х57 rocket equipped with three separate warheads of individual targeting. The first ground tests of the CPK took place in May 1985 of the year, after which final state tests took place in 1988, which recognized the 7916 chassis suitable for mounting weapons. Unlike the first systems, the Pioneer-3 was supplied with new control equipment and had an increased accuracy of shooting. The total mass of the SPU was 83 t, the maximum allowable travel speed was 40 km / h. In the prospective task for 1986 - 1990, it was planned to design an even more advanced Pioneer-4 complex, but all these developments were interrupted by the signing in December of the 1987 of the INF Treaty. As a result, all work on new missile systems and chassis was stopped, and by May 1991, several experienced Pioneer-3 SPUs were destroyed along with the rest of the Pioneer systems of the first releases. Their literally barbaric liquidation was to cut the back of the frame of the car for the length of 78, where they mounted the lifting and supporting mechanisms of the rocket, but later it was replaced by a simpler, cheaper and least time-consuming method of blasting the missiles directly inside the launch containers.
Thus, the first “pioneering” era of the development of Soviet strategic missile systems on automobile chassis ended disgracefully and shamefully, but by that time everything was ready for the massive deployment of fundamentally new Topol missile systems. In that difficult moment for the Minsk Automobile Plant, the 7916 chassis was saved, and in 1994 at the MZKT enterprise it was transformed into an upgraded 50-ton 79161 version for mounting various military and civilian equipment.
SEMIOS CHASSIS MAZ-7912 and MAZ-7917
Unique for both the Soviet and the global military-automotive industry, the all-wheel-drive 63-ton semi-axle MAZ-7912 and MAZ-7917 chassis with the unusual wheel formula 14x12 were created and used only to carry the Topol intercontinental missile system, the first “real” advice PGRK, remaining in service with the Russian Army to the present. Together with the 543 and 547 series vehicles, its chassis also belonged to the second family of military vehicles of the Minsk Automobile Plant and, from a constructive point of view, was a direct development of the 547 range, to which was added another uninformed steering axle. Such an original and controversial decision with an odd number of pairs of support wheels was dictated by the requirements of a minimum increase in the machine's own weight and simplify its design. An unconventional asymmetrical scheme led to the creation of a more durable middle bridge, which, during the overcoming of low uneven ground tracks, for a short time could account for almost the entire combat weight of the vehicle exceeding 100 t. The maximum unified 7912 and 7917 chassis were based on their six-axle predecessors MAZ-547В and MAZ-7916, respectively, from which two different cabins are inherited, but compared to them were supplied with new or modernized units and reinforced elongated and frames.
Cars 7912 and 7917 have the same structure with four pairs of front steerable wheels, deviates in one direction, wherein substantially the only essential novelty is the four-stroke multi-fuel engine in-58-7 (A-38-7) V12 (38,9 l, 710 - 720 l .c.) produced by CTZ, equipped with direct injection and turbocharging. It was unified at once with both previous power units — the D12-650 and B-38 of the tank type, which developed 650 forces. The main differences from the B-38 diesel engine include liquid cooling systems with increased capacity and combined lubrication with electric booster and suction pumps, heated oil tank and two 115 sectional radiators, as well as new PZH-8E heating capacity. 600 thousand kcal / h He ensured that the power unit was warming up from temperature - 40? С to taking full load in 30 - 35 minutes. In this case, the B-58-7 diesel engine was supplied with the same air cleaner and exhaust system, duplicated by the start and anti-vibration on the end of the crankshaft. The new step-up reducer had bends for driving the electric generator, hydraulic pumps, compressor and power take-off up to hp 140. in steady state and in motion - 35 hp The complex torque converter with a reduced transformation ratio was supplied with an automatic activation of the hydraulic locking mechanism when working in the third and fourth stages and forced locking in second gear. The front and rear leading three-axle bogies with cross-axle differentials remained the same with the only difference in the numbering of the rear axles. In this case, the torque was first fed to the main main transmissions of the middle and fifth bridges, and then successively redistributed to the neighboring - second and first, sixth and seventh. In addition to the symmetrical center differential in the reduction gear in the main transmission of the second bridge was mounted additional center differential front truck. The main novelty, thanks to which the entire seven-axle family appeared, turned out to be a fairly simple fourth non-driving axle with an increased suspension travel of two single-pivoted steered wheels mounted in steering knuckles with bearings and withstanding triple loading. In general, both chassis had 25 drive shafts with crosspieces on needle bearings. While maintaining the former independent hydropneumatic suspension of all the wheels, the hydrobalance couplings of the adjacent rear axles changed and included only one side of the fourth and fifth, sixth and seventh axles in pairs. In addition to the unchanged main dual-circuit pneumatichydraulic braking system, auxiliary engine braking was applied when driving in second gear with a locked torque converter. On both chassis there were collapsible disk wheels with new wide-profile 24-ply tires of the previous size VI-178AU (1600xXNNXX-600). The centralized pressure control system in them did not change in principle, but its range was slightly extended (3,0 - 4,4 kgf / cm2). The time for pressure reduction and its increase to the nominal value was 10 and 45 minutes, respectively. All other chassis units corresponded to the 547 series: planetary hydromechanical 4-speed gearbox with two reverse gears, single-wire 24-voltage electrical equipment with the same components, steering mechanism with double-acting hydraulic booster, drum wheel brakes, reinforced welded frame of two longitudinal spurs. The new machines also used light and durable materials, including titanium sheets and castings, which made it possible to bring the ratio of carrying capacity to its own weight to a record high 2,2 value.
Unlike the 547-series, the wheelbase of the 7912 and 7917 chassis reached an incredibly large at that time size - 12 700 mm. While maintaining all of its dimensional components from six-axle machines, the increase occurred only due to the introduction of the 1800 mm distance between the fourth and fifth axles, that is, now the wheelbase had an even more complex look - 2300 + 2300 + 2800 + 1800 + 1750 + 1750 mm. The extended track of all wheel pairs was 2700 mm, and the mounting height of the frame (1530 mm) for both cars has been preserved since the time of the MAZ-543А chassis. The ground clearance under the axles (475 mm) and the maximum speed of 40 km / h also did not change, but the minimum turning radius reached 27 m. The control fuel consumption of both chassis was at the level of 200 liters per 100 km. The acceleration time of loaded cars from zero to maximum did not exceed 65 seconds. They were also adapted for use in extreme climatic conditions, with the short-term work height in the highlands increased to 2000 m above sea level. Cars overcame 1,1-meter ford, longitudinal 10-degree rises and slopes of 5?, Although they kept the lateral roll in 40? In a static state. Warranty mileage also reached 18 thousand. Km, engine - 500 operating hours, service life and storage - 10 years.
(1977 - 1985)
Work on the first MAZ-7912 seven-axle military chassis (14x12) unique in Soviet history in July 1976 was started by chief designer B. L. Shaposhnik, adopting his six-axle MAZ-547А chassis with cabs from the 547В model and the lower device of technological equipment. The prototype appeared already in 1977 year and was tested at the factory site, in 1979-m began mass production of machines 7912, then received at the plant "Barricades" under the equipment equipment of the first variants of the Topol missile system. The 710-strong B-58-7 engine with improved lubrication, cooling and heating systems and an average non-driven steering axle appeared on this chassis for the first time. All other units and assemblies remained the same with minor upgrades, associated primarily with the introduction of another pair of wheels. Like on the 547B, the new chassis was equipped with two separate single-door fiberglass cabins: left for the driver on the front overhang of the frame and right raised up for the commander of the crew. At the same time, the front bumper with two enclosed housings of light devices had a right folding console section, which in some cases was mounted on a swivel bracket.
The curb weight of the MAZ-7912 chassis is 31,5 t, that is, 4 t more than for the 547 series. Overall dimensions - 17 200x3390x2980 mm, the length of the front overhang reduced to 2740 mm. The average driving speed with full load on paved roads and unpaved roads fluctuated between 21 - 27 km / h, on the ground - 9 - 11 km / h. The total amount of fuel in two identical fuel tanks with a capacity of 450 l provided a power reserve of 440 km, the operating expense was within 310 - 410 l per 100 km. Despite the lengthening of the car, its minimum turning radius remained at the level of 22 m. Up to 1985, the order of the 100 MAZ-7912 chassis was collected.
(1984 - 1992)
The seven-axle vehicle MAZ-7917, best known as the base chassis of the Topol serial PGRK launcher, was the first real fruit of the UGK-2's work under the direction of V. Ye. Chvyalev to improve the machines previously created for this purpose. The former 7912 chassis, like its basic version of the 547В, did not have one simple and completely natural thing - its own seats for all three members of the SPU combat crew, or rather, the third place for the launcher operator. This problem was solved in 1979 year with the advent of the first sample of the six-axle MAZ-7916 chassis with the 4-meter front overhang, which allowed the installation of cockpits on it for all crew members. It was this prototype machine, also created on the basis of the 547 series, that was a direct predecessor of the MAZ-7917 chassis, which, in its overall design, was completely unified with the 7912 model. Work on it began in 1982, the first prototype appeared in 1984, and a year later it went into series production, replacing the 7912 version. Its main novelty and distinctive feature were two separate fiberglass cabs with the same flat side slopes of the roof - the left two-door 2-seat for the driver and commander and the right single for the operator, to which was attached a "normal" bumper with built-in light units and a towing device. And compared with the 7912, has the front entry angle decreased from the 20? until 16 ?, but when working on fairly smooth dirt roads, this was no longer given special attention.
All these innovations immediately reflected on a slight deterioration in the main dimensional, weight and operational parameters. The curb weight of the 7917 chassis increased by 1 t (to 32,5 t), overall length - by 1,5 m (to 18 710 mm), the turning radius reached 27 m, but the height of the cabs was reduced to 2570 mm. Working speed in laden condition for different types of pavements ranged from 18 to 32 km / h, on the ground - 11 - 13 km / h. The chassis was completed with two different fuel tanks with a capacity of 395 and 450 l, providing a power reserve of 413 km. Operating fuel consumption amounted to 265 - 365 liters per 100 km. In total, 402 MAZ-7917 chassis were assembled for the needs of the Strategic Missile Forces.
Rocket complex "Topol"
(1984 - 1992)
The development of the intercontinental strategic Topol PGRK began in accordance with the secret Decree of the Council of Ministers on July 19 of the year 1976. After that, at the Minsk Automobile Plant, the development of the advanced MAZ-7912 chassis with two rear jacks and two side bridges between the second and third bridges immediately began. At the same time, the design of the first 15У128.1 launcher began at the Barricades plant, capable of autonomous combat duty when moving along dirt tracks and to ensure the launch of missiles both from a hidden location and from any point of the route. In February, 1983 of the year at the test site in Plesetsk began trial launches of the fourth-generation mono-block ballistic missile RT-2PM (15Ж58) of the fourth generation (under international agreements - PC-12М). The first SPU, developed at the Central Design Bureau of the Barrikady plant under the leadership of V. M. Sobolev and V. A. Shurygin, was built in the autumn of 1984. Launches from it began in December, and already on July 23 of 1985, she took up combat duty as part of the 15P158.1 experimental missile system. He wore the symbol of "Topol-T" and was a transitional version from the system "Pioneer" to the future serial PGRK "Topol". In the meantime, until the end of 1987, all its components underwent lengthy tests, field shooting and rework. In the course of these works and trial operation, not only the chassis systems, SPU and missile weapons were tested, but also the overall composition and organizational structure of the entire invulnerable complex for combat duty in constant motion, the like of which did not exist anywhere in the world.
From 1987, the modified and tested 15P158 “Topol” missile system, which became the most successful and effective Soviet SRK, was based on the new MAZ-7917 chassis. The equipment of the modernized HNPU 15U168 with TPK for a three-stage solid-fuel intercontinental 15ХХ58 rocket with a diameter of 1,8 m and a length of 20,5 m capable of hitting enemy targets at ranges up to 10,5 thousand km. Fully equipped SPU was tested before the end of 1988, and 1 in December of the same year, that is, shortly after the signing of the INF Treaty, the Topol complex was officially adopted by the Strategic Missile Forces. For the first time, he was publicly presented at a military parade on Red Square 7 in November 1990 of the year. The deployment of this system continued until the 1992 year.
Under the mounting of the SPU, the MAZ-7917 chassis was equipped with four hydraulic supports with an accelerated lowering system on the ground, which made it possible to reduce the entire deployment process from the traveling to the combat position by two minutes. The 15Ж58 missile with a launch weight of 45,1 and a monoblock 1-ton thermonuclear warhead with a power of 0,55 Mt was placed in an airtight container with a diameter of 2,0 and 22,3 m. working from the hydraulic pump driven by the engine of the base car. A powder pressure accumulator was also used to shoot the TPK upper protective cap and pre-eject the rocket to a low altitude, after which the first-stage sustainer was launched. The SPU consisted of combat control and life support systems, communications, navigation, temperature and humidity control inside the TPC, setting the chassis in a strictly horizontal position and protection against weapons of mass destruction. The autonomy and viability of the GMPU was ensured by its own power supply system from an alternating current diesel generator station with a power of 16 kW. The mass of the launcher without a container was 52,9 t, the full launch is 105,1 t. Its overall dimensions without TPK are 19 520x3850x3000 mm, length with container is 22 303 mm, height is 4500 mm. The maximum speed of the GMCU movement remained at the level of 40 km / h, the power reserve of the loaded vehicle in the combat state was 400 km. In the Topol complexes, self-propelled semi-axle injection molding machines were used for horizontal overloading of TPK with rockets, equipped with leveling and matching equipment for both machines. As of the end of 1996, the Topol 360 complexes were in the Strategic Missile Forces of the Russian Army; by 2002, their number had decreased to 330 units and as of July 2006, the PGRK had been on combat duty. 243 May 9 and 2008, these complexes were again presented at military parades in Moscow in honor of the anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War.
The Topol complex included a single multi-purpose auxiliary machine on the MAZ-7917 chassis without jacks, which did not carry the rocket system. By purpose and general scheme, it was identical to the 15Т316 accompaniment machine, first created for the Pioneer Arena, but was already based on a seven-axis base. The new unit of combat support or technical circuit 15Т382 was also equipped with a long cylindrical steel tank, for which colloquially received the nickname "pipe". In the summertime, three of its necks were filled with ordinary water, and in winter they poured sand, which served to bring the total mass of the machine to a value corresponding to the total weight of the combat SPU. A spatial tubular structure was attached to the tank in front, indicating the front dimensions of the vehicle with a real rocket container. Behind the tank was placed a compartment for the transport of spare parts and accessories, similar to the control cabin of the tanker. Under it was fastened a steel pipe rigid coupling, and at the rear end of the frame hung imitation chain of grounding machine. On both sides of the "pipe" were longitudinal working platforms with railings and stairs. The main purpose of the 15Т382 unit was the practical training of driver mechanics and the training of combat crews of real rocket launchers, as well as work as a repair and recovery vehicle for towing emergency SPU and other heavy vehicles moving in escort columns. For this purpose, the chassis was additionally supplied with a winch and taps to power the brake system and the steering power steering of the towed vehicles. Overall dimensions of the unit - 23 030x3385x4350 mm, gross weight - 103,8 t.
FAMILY OF THE SUPERHEARED MULTIPLE-PREPARED CHASSIS
With the advent of the new heavy intercontinental missiles in the USA since the end of the 1970-s, the USSR conducted active research and development of its own even more powerful missile strike systems and highly mobile multiaxial all-wheel drive vehicles of ultrahigh-capacity for uneven ground handling. Traditional automotive principles of creating such heavy off-road equipment were no longer suitable for them, and the possibilities of automobile and tank diesel engines known at that time were already exhausted. The creation of fundamentally new layout schemes and the development of recommendations for the general design of such equipment was carried out by the 13 department of 21 NIII within the framework of its research topics “Motion”, “Wave”, “Potash”, “Tuzhurka”, “AutoRally” and others. As a result, in the first half of 1980-s, efforts of UGK-2 MAZ created previously unseen multiwheel transporters of the most unusual and original search designs, designed to carry super-heavy SPU of new intercontinental missile systems.
For the first time, the idea of creating special vehicles for delivery over land of ballistic missiles and spacecraft directly to the launch positions of the Baikonur cosmodrome in 1960-s was expressed by the legendary designer of rocket and space technology S. P. Korolev. At that time, the Moscow Automobile Plant began to develop the 100-ton self-propelled conveyor ZIL-135MSH with 32 driving wheels with electric drive, but later it was necessary to abandon the implementation of such a complex and expensive idea. Again, the designers of MAZ turned to it at the beginning of 1980's. The main inspirer of the embodiment in metal of fantastic ideas about unique super-heavy multi-axle machines was the chief designer B. L. Shaposhnik, but their detailed elaboration in the mode of extreme secrecy was carried out by the UGK-2 team under the leadership of its 1 second, and then chief designer V. E. Chvyalev.
In response to the creation of an intercontinental MX missile with a launch mass of 88 in the USA, the Ukrainian Yuzhnoye design bureau developed an even more powerful ballistic missile RT-23 with a combat weight over 100 and several split nuclear warheads with an estimated range of 10 thousand kilometers. The main options were mine-based 15Ж60 and 15Ж61 of the Molodets railway complex, the development of which was the rocket for the Celina pneumowheel system. The first giant twin-engined six-axle MAZ-1980 chassis (7904x12) with a load capacity of 12 t, which in practice did not justify the hopes placed on it, was created for the installation of the launcher of this complex at the beginning of the 220-s in Minsk. A little later a design perspective mobile missile system 15P162 "Tselina-2" with independent launcher 15U157 plant "fence" and upgraded three-stage intercontinental missile RT-23 UTTKh (15ZH62) diameter 2,4 m length 23,3 m and a launch weight 104,5 t, wherein step worked on liquid and solid fuels. It was mounted in the TPK, unified with the missiles of the two other types of base and equipped with an 4-ton warhead with 10 separating nuclear warheads of individual guidance with an 550 CT power and an enemy missile defense system. Preliminary recommendations on the general construction of special 150-ton off-road conveyors for mounting transport-launchers of the Celina-2 system were developed at 21 NIII as part of the research theme “Jacket”. Based on them, two prototypes of super-secret chassis were designed and built on MAZ - an eight-axle 7906 (16x16) and the most original articulated 12-axle 7907 with a unique wheel formula 24x24. These machines were supposed to be used as autonomous launching and transport vehicles of the new Soviet SRK, capable of performing their functions in the most remote and sparsely populated steppe and desert regions in the absence of roads, refueling and repair bases under extreme climatic and temperature conditions and with high dustiness of the surrounding air. . Subsequently, some of these solutions were used on new multi-axle soil rocket carriers, although in general all these supergiants for any reason did not receive any further development.
Only a narrow circle of military men, designers and testers knew about the existence of such top-secret systems. And when the all-knowing publicity rushed over the country, the distracting legend about their use at Baikonur as transporters of large-sized parts and blocks of the Energia-Buran space system was fixed for these machines for a long time. And although all the superheavy chassis were only embodiments of unbridled fantasies of their creators, but in practice they proved to be incapable of performing the tasks assigned to them, they still have no equal in the world in originality and ingenuity of design, power, dimensions and carrying capacity. So far, they have been tagged on their heels by the image of the most unusual, heavy and expensive domestic self-propelled military wheeled vehicles, the creation of which in the conditions of the Cold War could only be afforded by the great Land of the Soviets. Despite errors and omissions in the overall layout and design, great complexity, cumbersome, low efficiency, inability to real service and practical uselessness, these unique creations again, for the last time, proved the power of the Soviet military-industrial complex, the automotive industry of the USSR and the collective talent of designers capable of for a short time surpass the notorious world level.
(1983 - 1984)
This is an off-road six-axle twin-engine chassis with a total capacity of 1830 hp. with two 2-seater two-door cabs, placed on the front overhang of the frame, it was equipped with three biaxial driving bogies with 12 huge driving wheels with a diameter of 2,8 m each. From the side it seemed like an enlarged copy of the MAZ’s “normal” missile chassis, but its payload reached an unprecedented load magnitude - 220 tons. The sole purpose of this machine was to carry the equipment of the transport and launcher of the first Tselina missile system. The development of the MAZ-7904 began in accordance with the order of the USSR Minister of Automotive Industry of February 19, 1980, and the transportation of large indivisible cargo for new generation space rockets was considered the main version of its application for a long time. The main power unit of the 7904 chassis was a 12CHN18 / 20 (M-351) V12 diesel engine (42,4 l, 1500 hp) with a turbocharger designed for small fleet and located in front between the cabs. He brought two hydromechanical 4-speed transmissions with two reverse gears mounted on a powerful welded support frame between the first and second axles of the front bogie. From them, the torque was supplied to three front and three rear axles, and for synchronization of their work, matching and summing reducers were introduced into the transmission. The four wheels of the front and rear bogies were controlled, synchronously turning in different directions by means of steering mechanisms with hydraulic amplifiers. Each wheel was suspended on a hydropneumatic suspension, and each pair of wheels on the right and left sides was equipped with hydraulic balancing links, which allowed changing the height of the carrier frame. They mounted huge 51-inch tires measuring 3180x1010-1295 (36,00 - 51) manufactured by the Japanese company Bridgestone. The second 330-horsepower turbocharged YaMZ-238F V8 automobile engine served as a drive for hydraulic pumps, electric generators, cooling system fans, high and low pressure pneumatic compressors. The chassis had a curb weight of 140 tons and a full weight of 360 tons. Its overall length reached 32,2 m, its width was 6,8 m, the cab height was 3,45 m. The track of all wheels was 5,4 m, and the ground clearance was under the elements. the suspension was 480 mm and was only 5 mm larger than that of the 547 series, but the turning radius increased to 50 m.
The assembly of a single sample MAZ-7904 was carried out in experimental workshop No. 2 and completed in June 1983 of the year. Its run-in and factory tests took place only in the dark and by agreement with the military, who established an exact schedule of work when enemy satellites did not “hover” over a given USSR territory. After the end of the test cycle with a mileage of 547 km, the car was dismantled and loaded onto a special 12-axle 120-ton trailed platform, on which XANUMX arrived in Baikonur in January. In February, new tests began in the Kazakh steppe, during which the chassis traveled 1984 km distance and reached a maximum speed of 4100 km / h. This is where his main deadly flaw was revealed - the excessively high specific pressure on the bearing surface, due to the giant axial weight of the machine in combat configuration - 27 t and the huge load on each wheel - by 60 t. The result was a low basic throughput, stiffness and poor handling, which significantly reduced the scope of the chassis and limited them to specific areas and zones, and most importantly - they would have a negative impact on the secrecy of the missile complex. In addition, in connection with the revision of the strategic objectives for the use of the Tselina missile system, the design of the new Tselina-30 with the PT-2 UTTH rocket was deployed. As a result, all work on the 23 theme was discontinued, and at the same time the assembly of the second sample was stopped, but new and even more original multi-axle missile chassis with reduced specific pressure and increased smoothness appeared.
(1984 - 1987)
Development of the second lightweight 150-ton eight-supershassi MAZ-7906 (16x16) began 23 March 1983 years, ie a few months before the release of PSM from 9 August of the same year the creation of a single unified RT-23 UTTKh mine, rail and road-based ballistic missile . The first 7906 sample was assembled at the end of June 1984 of the year and entered for acceptance testing, until the end of the year it was followed by a second machine. From the side, the new chassis looked like a version of the first 7904 model elongated by one biaxial trolley, but in fact it was less powerful and load-carrying, shortened and generally more modest machine with wheels of “normal” diameter and four front axles to be controlled. On the front overhang of the frame were two separate extended 2-local single-door cabs, and the engine compartment located behind them housed the former 1500-strong marine diesel M-351. All wheels were supplied with wide-profile tubeless tires of size 1980xXNNUMX-750 with constant internal pressure (737 kgf / cm4). The rest of the overall design of the machine corresponded to the MAZ-2: two hydromechanical 7904-speed transmissions with their own gearboxes with additional selections of power for auxiliary equipment, individual hydropneumatic suspension with pairwise balanced links on the sides and power steering mechanisms. In total, this model had 4 drive shafts of all types of drive. Compared with its predecessor, curb weight was reduced to 45 t, full - about 68,3 t. Overall length decreased to 220 26 mm, width - 293 mm, height - 4850 mm. The design length of the launcher is 3760 m, the height is up to 28 m. The maximum speed shown on the tests is 5,5 km / h. At the same time, the turning radius was only 30 m, but the load on one bridge in 30 t still did not satisfy the military.
The development of the 7906 chassis was carried out simultaneously with the creation of the second alternative, the most original 150-ton self-propelled off-road vehicle MAZ-7907, and both machines passed joint tests to determine the mutual advantages and disadvantages. On them, the Barrikady plant assembled an overall weight model imitating the 15U157 launcher of the 15P162 “Tselina-2” missile system with the UTTH intercontinental ballistic missile (23Х15). From March 62, the 1986 chassis with the model SPU was on comparative tests in the Kalinin region, which later received a similar system based on the 7906. The tests continued until September of the 7907 year, when the SPU based on the MAZ-1987 had already traveled a distance of 7906 km, but not a single chassis was approved.
(1985 - 1987)
The most original, progressive and “most multi-axle” Soviet military vehicle MAZ-7907 (24X24) with an electromechanical transmission TE-660-24, which had no foreign counterparts, was a two-tier low-profile 12-axle self-propelled platform with a load capacity of 150, and a tart. 24 leading single-wheel and saturated with new design solutions. Work on it also began in March 1983, the first prototype was ready in March 1985, and the next in the second quarter of the same year. Unlike the two previous chassis, the power unit on the MAZ-7907 was a three-shaft gas turbine GTD-1000TFM (a variant of the GTD-1250 tank engine) rated power 1200 hp mounted on the front console of the 5620 mm spar frame under special 3-local a cabin with three front windows, life support systems and air conditioning. The engine was driven only by an alternating current generator VSG-625, from which electric power was supplied to the transmission units and 24 synchronous 30-kilowatt traction motors DST-180-6 with frequency control system with thyristor converters and air-oil cooling mounted inside the machine frame. Electric control units and oil radiators were placed in two parallel housings, arranged longitudinally at the rear of the chassis. All electrical equipment was also developed and assembled by the Novosibirsk Institute of NIIEE. The mechanical part of the transmission consisted of matching and lowering gearboxes, a power take-off, angle and wheel gears, numerous transmission and wheel drive shafts. The second design feature was an unusually long mounting part of the frame, which, when moving even along fairly even tracks, could bend and bend. To avoid this, it was cut into two six-axle sections of equal length and a simple horizontal hinge was mounted between them on bearings with one degree of freedom. He allowed both parts of the machine to move relative to each other only in the longitudinal vertical plane at an angle to 8? and protected the frame with special superstructure against overloads and damage. This system did not have steering functions traditional for articulated machines. To change the direction of motion, only four front and four rear driving axles with wheels, simultaneously deviating in different directions by a certain angle depending on their location, served. Individual hydropneumatic suspension with a pair of on-board balance links matched the 7906 machine. All wheels equipped with wide-profile chamber tires VI-207 of a very modest size 1660x670-685 with constant internal pressure (3,5 kgf / cm2). The curb weight of the machine reached 65,8 t. The bases of the front and rear carriage are 9065 and 9220 mm with uneven distances between the axles of adjacent wheels (1750, 1800 or 1855 mm). Chassis length - 28 187 mm, width - 4690 mm, height of air conditioning on the cabin - 4450 mm. All-wheel track - 3330 mm, maximum ground clearance - 485 mm. The design length of the launcher - 32 m, height - up to 5,6 m. Turning radius decreased to 27 m.
After factory testing, the 7907 chassis was sent to Volgograd, where the Barrikady plant mounted on it an overall prototype of the 15У157 launcher of the 15P162 “Tselina-2” launcher, which, together with a similar system based on the MAZ-7906, from September 1986 on the year, was turned on. held comparative performance tests in the Kalinin region on special sections of public roads. For layout reasons, the TPK with a rocket had to be raised above the frame level, and a system for controlling the height of the container was added to pass under bridges on the chassis. Until September 1987, the simulation SPU covered the distance 2054 km, showing the maximum speed of 25 km / h.
According to the results of all tests, the main disadvantages of the 7907 chassis were low efficiency and low efficiency of the electric transmission, poor permeability on soils with low bearing capacity, increased axial load (18,5 t) and insufficient acceleration dynamics. According to the historians of the Minsk Automobile Plant, the final conclusions of the MAZ-7907 commission were recommended for production, as they had significant advantages over the 7906 model in axial load, controllability, better cabin sound insulation, increased mobility in case of eight-wheel drive damage. . According to 21 reports, the NIII chassis 7906 and 7907 did not meet the requirements, “methods and means to improve the supporting maneuverability were not found either theoretically or experimentally,” and due to the identified deficiencies, further refinements of both machines were deemed unpromising. Soon, for these reasons, the main destructive force was added - perestroika. Work on a very promising project "Tselina" was discontinued. All these unique transporters were never destined to become either the legendary Soviet rocket launchers, or to play any role at all in enhancing the power of the Soviet Strategic Forces, which by that time were also considered completely unnecessary.
EIGHT-CHASSIS MAZ-7922 and MAZ-7923
In the Soviet period, the latest chord of the UGK-2 activity of the Minsk Automobile Plant was the creation of the eight-axle MAZ-7922 and MAZ-7923 (16x16) eight-axle chassis with different power units developed under the guidance of V. Ye. Chvyalev and also without any foreign analogues. They were made on the basis of the 7917 machine by replacing the middle non-leading bridge with one biaxial driving carriage and were intended to install the future most powerful and perfect domestic PGRK Topol-M, which at that time wore the designation “Universal”. Its history began in September 1989, when the Soviet government decided to create a new intercontinental missile system in mobile and mine versions. For them, it was supposed to use the universal solid-fuel three-stage ballistic missile RT-2PM2 with a length of about 23 m, from which the whole complex was initially called “Universal”. It was supplied with 10 with various divided head parts, including thermonuclear 0,55 MT, and was placed in a sealed TPK with a diameter of 2050 mm.
For the installation of the SPU of the new complex in Minsk, 1987 developed two experimental alternative 80-tonne chassis 7922 and 7923 with onboard control systems for the main units, presented in 1990, almost simultaneously. Both were designed to carry promising rocket special superstructures with a full mass of SPU up to 125 and differed constructively from each other by the type of power unit and type of transmission. They used many of the original original research and designs of serial multi-axle machines, as well as recent explorations of the MAZ-547E model and the Celina complex. As a result, on the new chassis with the distance between the centers of the extreme bridges increased to 13,5 m, the wheelbases of the four two-axle bogies were 1750 and 1800 mm, and the distances between them were also not uniform and ranged from 1800 to 2400 mm. In contrast to the previous cars, the wheels of three front and three rear axles, which deviated in different directions and allowed to significantly increase the maneuverability of the 20-meter conveyor, were controlled. The former units and assemblies included reinforced combined welded frame, single-shed wheels on individual independent hydropneumatic suspension systems with twin onboard hydrobalance couplings, wide-profile tires, XIUMNXXAU (178X1600 - 600) with adjustable internal pressure, and two glass plastic layers, and they were covered with their respective structural graphs. 685-local and right single. The ground clearance for both variants was 7917 mm, the turning radius is 2 m. The maximum speed is 475 km / h, the depth of the ford is 18,5 m.
The base car MAZ-7922, codenamed "Bison", assembled in February 1990, was a direct development of the 7917 chassis and was equipped with a new diesel engine YMZ-8401 V12 (25,9 l., 780 hp) with turbo-supercharging and the old hydro-mechanical XNUM speed transmission with two reverse gears. It had a curb weight of 4 T and a power reserve of 39 km. The second more original version of the Bison cipher, which appeared at the end of 400, was unified on the chassis with the 7923 model, but on an aggregate basis it became a development of the previously created 1990Е and 7922 machines with gas turbines and electrical transmissions. It used a modernized electromechanical transmission TE-547-7907 with frequency regulation, consisting of a compact gas turbine tank engine GTD-700A with power 16 hp (from 1000E) and an upgraded generator set VSG-1000М (from 547). From it, 625 V voltage and 7907 Hz frequency electric power was supplied to synchronous traction electric motors DKM-380-1200 (electric motor-wheels) with 180 kW power with fully oil-cooled, embedded in the hubs of all 63 driving wheels with planetary gears. In the electrodynamic braking mode for 30 minutes, they provided braking force with an output of 16 kW. In this chassis, all the previous shortcomings inherent in machines with electrical transmissions were again manifested: complexity, increased own weight, low reliability of imperfect electrical equipment and control systems. So the total weight of the 20 thyristor converters (21 kg) was 16 times the mass of one generator.
Created by the order of the USSR Ministry of Defense, the 7922 and 7923 chassis passed only factory tests and then proved to be unnecessary. By that time, no further funding for this project already existed, and the state tests of both machines were not carried out. Moreover, with the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine became independent, which led to the freezing of promising work in the field of rocket technology, but the Republic of Belarus expressed readiness to continue military-technical cooperation, to refine its missile chassis and deliver them to Russia. In March, 1992 was decided to create a new fully Russian rocket for the Strategic Missile Forces, and in the same year, the 7922 chassis was delivered to Bronnitsy and demonstrated to the top military leadership at the 21 test site, NIII, and then it was put to the test. A year before these events, all work on the second 7923 machine was stopped. With the signing of 27 in February 1993 of the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation, full-scale work began on the most advanced intercontinental range 15P165 Topol-M mobile ground-based missile system, which replaced the first Universal system. It was equipped with a modernized monoblock ballistic missile RT-2PM2 (15ZH65 or PC 12M2) with a starting weight of 47,1 t, range 11 thousand. Km and hit accuracy 350 m, developed at the Institute of MIT and unified with the "Bulava" missile for nuclear submarines. The question of choosing a chassis for mounting the SPU has actually been a foregone conclusion. Given the maximum unification of the 7922 model with the already tested and mastered 7917 machine, the military preferred it with recommendations for increasing power and introducing minor modifications to electrical equipment and some basic dimensions. So, by the year 1995, the modified MAZ-7922 turned into a modernized MAZ-79221 chassis with a new multi-fuel engine YMZ-847.10 with a power 800 hp.
The production of this machine for production, and the new PGRK on combat duty was preceded by the long and difficult years of the restoration of the Russian military industry and science, the testing of experimental systems and a fundamental review of the entire strategic military doctrine of the new Russia. Tests of the Topol-M PGRK on the 79221 chassis began in September 2000 of the year, immediately after the signing of the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation V.V. Putin on the launch of its mine variant, which was preferred over the mobile system. In the 2003 year, after another adjustment of Russia's military priorities, an important decision was taken to give the Topol-M complexes the status of the country's main nuclear potential and the most sophisticated Russian weapon of the 21st century. The launch of the PGRK on combat duty began only in 2006 year. In 2008, six Topol-M mobile systems were part of the Strategic Missile Forces, and by the end of 2010, their number increased to 18. Initially, in the 2006 year, in accordance with the State program of re-equipment of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, before 2015, the Strategic Missile Forces were supposed to deliver combat systems “Topol-M” to 80 on combat duty. However, in the 2010 year, in the course of the regular reorganization of the Armed Forces, it was decided to replace them with a more advanced Yars missile system with divided warheads.
The military production of the Minsk Automobile Plant, which was renamed MZKT, caused enormous damage to the collapse of the USSR: at first, it lost almost all of its main military orders from Russia and was forced to urgently re-arrange for conversion works and the production of commercial vehicles. Subsequently, the MZKT under the direction of chief designer V.Ye. Chvyaleva again began to work on the creation of modernized multi-purpose vehicles and tractors for Russia in order to replace previous generations of production military vehicles, as well as new multi-axle missile chassis. In the absence of such a new domestic technology, some of them were taken to supply the Russian Army. And yet, contrary to unofficial military laws, the main supplier of heavy army and rocket vehicles remained the representative of a friendly, but foreign, state. In 2000-s, when new heavy vehicles of the Bryansk Automobile Plant appeared, this list was partially corrected, forcing MZKT to look for new military customers in its own country and abroad. At the same time, the shrewd chief designer Chvyalev left the high post and, having completed all secret affairs and having lost faith in everything, left X. NUMX in his homeland.
* * *
Unfortunately, the optimistic example of the creation of a new multi-axle chassis for Topol-M mobile missile systems was the only and most successful exception to the rule that would not have continued without active support and assistance from top leaders of the Russian Federation. As for the rest, even before the official collapse of the great Soviet state, the situation in the military-automobile complex, which was almost completely destroyed, seemed disastrous. And if the largest Russian car factories were able to reorient themselves to the fulfillment of commercial orders, the once-powerful Soviet system for creating secret vehicles and strategic weapons was on the verge of total financial and moral collapse, when their creators forever broke the spirit of creative creation. The ill-conceived policy of completely eliminating and suspending the development of dozens of the most advanced and promising types of armament on automobile chassis led to almost complete degradation of this industry, the outflow of qualified personnel, the loss of the most important scientific and technical developments and technologies, optimism and hopes for a quick improvement.
During the years of subsequent reforms, the Russian automobile industry was never able to create fundamentally new multi-purpose trucks and avant-garde trucks, and all of the past world achievements of the USSR in the field of special military vehicles, unique multi-axle chassis-rocket launchers and mobile missile systems were quietly forgotten as remnants of the Soviet regime and the terrible period of the cold war. Democratic Russia found itself in a ring of not too benevolent neighbors, at whose disposal remained many large centers for the production of military equipment, once directly turned against the Russian Army. In the new conditions of the free market and the universal desire for disarmament, accompanied by constant military conflicts in many parts of the world, literally all foreign countries constantly and actively replenish their arsenals with the new army auto equipment. And only the Russian Army is still content with outdated or modernized Soviet-era trucks and imported diesel engines, and the best domestic Iskander and Topol-M missile systems are now delivered on vehicles manufactured outside Russia. Until now, dreams of reviving a powerful independent domestic military-industrial complex in the guise of a developed scientific and production basis for the economy of the Russian Federation and reliable military and political defense of the country still remain illusory. Together with the Soviet times that had gone into the past, hopes were dispelled for the imminent emergence of a new advanced domestic military motor vehicle, for the return of former world power in this area and the preservation of high international prestige of the country that created them. And these times will never return.
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