Military Review

A space corporation is being created in Russia

18
A new state-owned corporation is being created in the Russian Federation, to which the task of bringing Russian cosmonautics out of the crisis will fall. The eighth Russian state corporation will be formed on the basis of the United Rocket and Space Corporation (ORKK) and the Federal Space Agency. They will be merged into a single state corporation "Roscosmos". This proposal of the Russian government has already been supported by Russian President Vladimir Putin.


A feature of state corporations is that they can be created only on the basis of federal law. These non-profit organizations are distinguished by special working conditions and powers. For example, the property transferred to state corporations becomes their property, and Russia is not responsible for the obligations of state corporations, nor is they responsible for the obligations of the state.

State corporations differ from existing in our country with the predominant state participation and federal state unitary enterprises (FSUEs) in that they are not subject to information disclosure provisions, and state corporations are removed from the control of a number of state bodies in terms of requesting information, conducting inspections control of spending. In addition, these corporations, unless otherwise specified, are not subject to the provisions of laws on public procurement and bankruptcy. State corporations provide reports on their activities only to the government of the Russian Federation. In most cases, their leaders are appointed by the president of the country.



At the same time, Roskosmos has already been assigned the task of leading Russia into the leaders of space exploration. The new program of the corporation will contain items relating to the work of the Russian teams onboard the ISS, as well as the development of high-tech manned vehicles. This was stated by Igor Komarov, appointed to the post of head of the new state corporation "Roskosmos". According to him, one of the priorities will be the restoration of leadership in space exploration, the desire to achieve superiority in this area over the geopolitical opponents of the Russian Federation.

At the same time, Igor Komarov noted that the new state corporation will not have a ministry structure. “What will be - will be something new, as ORKK was engaged only in the management of industry. We do not want to create a ministerial structure, rather something mobile with the possibility of the transfer of authority, ”said Igor Komarov. According to him, in addition to industry in the rocket and space industry of Russia, there are also research institutes and related infrastructure, and part of the tasks will be transferred to them. Igor Komarov noted that the idea of ​​creating a new state corporation arose quite a long time ago, and this decision was discussed several times. The decision to create a new state-owned corporation was also connected by its new head with turbulence in the country's economic situation, sanctions and a general foreign policy situation.

According to Igor Komarov, the process of legal registration of Roscosmos GC will be completed within 6 months. Speaking about the creation of a new state-owned corporation, Komarov expressed confidence that this could be done during the first half of 2015 of the year, by July 1. He assured that by this period all necessary measures should take place, including the approval of the law and all the preparatory measures for the creation and registration of Roscosmos State Corporation.

Also in the coming weeks, Roskosmos will have to decide on the exact timing of the transfer of all facilities of the Vostochny space center under construction. According to the leadership of Roskosmos, the construction time of the cosmodrome in the Far East is in the final stage, there is no possibility to transfer something. At the same time, Komarov sees certain problems in construction, but he expects, in close cooperation with Spetsstroy of Russia, to have time to achieve the construction readiness of all the cosmodrome facilities necessary for the first launch, which should take place at the end of 2015 of the year. Komarov acknowledged that this task is not easy.



The spaceport in the Amur region must pass before 30 November 2015 year. At the same time, the builders had repeatedly stated their lagging behind the schedule at certain facilities of the Vostochny cosmodrome. Another unpleasant surprise was the overstatement of the cost of the cosmodrome. Auditors of the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation found that the cost of estimated standards used in construction in Russia today leads to an increase in the cost of individual facilities being built on 20 — 45%. In particular, with the construction of the Vostochny cosmodrome, the estimated construction cost increased by 13 billion rubles, or by 20% of the initial cost, is indicated in the published report of the Accounts Chamber. Dealing with this difficult asset will have a newly created state corporation and its head.

In turn, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, who oversees the defense industry, said what the new state corporation will do. “We set tasks for Roskosmos 3. The first task is the creation of an efficiently operating high-tech industry, which would be based on advanced science. The second is to extract the maximum benefit for our entire state. The third is the restoration of the leadership of the Russian Federation in space activity. ” In addition, Rogozin announced that by 2025, the labor productivity in the Russian space industry should triple, and wages should double. Dmitry Rogozin also stressed that in the next few months it was entrusted with the new structure to submit a draft of the Federal Space Program, which would clarify the future of the ISS and manned cosmonautics as a whole.

It is worth noting that the reform of the space industry in our country began in the year 2013. As a result of this reform, the United Rocket and Space Corporation was created, which, in fact, did not exist in its original form even for two years. Skeptics, having learned about the next reorganization with the union, have already remembered one famous Krylov's fable.



Prerequisites for reorganization

Despite the inheritance of the old name, the new Russian state-owned corporation Roskosmos will actually be built on the basis of the ORCC, and not the eponymous agency. According to Expert magazine, the backbone of the new state corporation will be composed of industry representatives. They will be able to join the space agency staff, but not all of them. According to Komarov, the staffing level of the new state corporation will be less than the total staff merged together by the space control committee and Roskosmos. In this case, the main layoffs affected exactly the agency. For example, a large-scale reduction is expected in the MCC: from 800 employees, it is planned to reduce 200 people. In this case, layoffs will be held in stages until April 2015, mainly they will affect pensioners.

The clouds over the space agency began to thicken in 2013, when in Kazakhstan at the Baikonur cosmodrome there was a resonant accident with the Proton-M launch vehicle. She caused a very loud scandal in the entire industry and even abroad. The interdepartmental commission, which investigated the causes of the catastrophe, concluded that the primary source of the problem that led to the fall of the rocket was “lack of production discipline”, as well as a superficial attitude to their duties on the part of Roscosmos officials and criminal negligence. ”

At a meeting of the commission, which was held on 5 on August 2013, Dmitry Rogozin formulated the existing claims to the Russian space agency: “First of all, poor management. Secondly, the presence of excess capacity. Thirdly, a muddy understanding of the objectives of space activities. ” At the same time, it was reported that one of the possible ways out of the crisis that has arisen, which is developing in the Russian space industry, could be the consolidation of the industry.



The crisis in the space industry

What is the crisis that is observed in the Russian space industry? At the end of 2014, the expert council of the Military Industrial Commission began to study the real situation in the industry. The result was disappointing conclusions that the Russian space program was faced with systemic problems. In essence, the experts noted the same thing that Dmitry Rogozin said earlier: there is a "muddy understanding of the goals of space activity." There is a crisis in setting goals, it is not clear what exactly Russia wants to achieve and what it will need.

Roscosmos did not actually have a clear and clear strategy for the development of the national space program. The existing programs do not represent a holistic strategy, but rather a poorly coordinated collection of proposals by enterprises in the industry, in which neighboring chapters may even contradict each other, experts of the military-industrial complex noted. The presented space programs attempted to cover everything at once: the construction of heavy launch vehicles, the development of orbital stations, the circling of the moon and the construction of the lunar base. At the same time, a clear understanding of the prospects of these programs was not presented, and, more importantly, the timing and mechanisms of impact from them. All the submitted projects are very expensive and are focused only on funding from the state, and the Russian budget does not count on such spending and is not ready for them.

The latter is very important. As among the identified problems in the industry and strategic planning in the space sphere, experts of the military-industrial complex note that departmental and sectoral tasks were set outside the context of national priorities and problems. In its conclusion, the expert council of the military-industrial complex pointed out insufficient attention to the initiatives of private business and the development of public-private partnerships, as well as the lack of work to achieve consensus in society regarding the future of Russian cosmonautics.



Interestingly, similar problems were faced in their time in the USA, especially in manned space programs. Americans had to solve exactly the same problems as we do today. This is the lack of a national consensus on the long-term goals of space exploration after completing flights to the Moon, and the orientation of the American space industry to resources from the state budget of the country, and the mismatch of the nomenclature and the amount of the planned space programs to the real possibilities of the country's budget. Surprisingly, even the problem of attracting new personnel to the space industry in the United States is as acute as in Russia.

The United States was able to respond to the emerging challenge by reviewing its space program. Back in the beginning of 2010, Barack Obama decided to abandon the implementation of the “Constellation” program (the development of manned cosmonautics for flights to the moon, and in the long term, and Mars). Instead, it was decided to encourage private American companies to create spacecraft to deliver astronauts onboard the ISS. And instead of “returning to the moon,” the idea of ​​flying to one of the asteroids appeared.

At one time, American parliamentarians also attacked NASA with criticism for the vagueness and vagueness of the wording of the goals, as well as for the huge, but not reasonable appetites for funding. The result was the creation of an ad hoc temporary committee composed of 12 experts, who conducted a comprehensive analysis of the strategic direction of the US space agency and prepared the report “Strategic Direction of NASA and the Need for National Consensus”.

Russia, like the United States, today needs clear, achievable and coordinated goals in space that could ensure the emergence of new talented personnel and the inflow of investments. It is the development of such goals, which could be realized in real reasonable terms and which would receive the support of the country's leadership, the professional community and the public, that the Roscosmos state corporation should take on. Whether the new state corporation headed by Igor Komarov will cope with this challenge, or will it all end with reforming for the sake of reforming, as has happened before, the near future will show.

Information sources:
http://expert.ru/expert/2015/06/na-lunu--i-podeshevle
http://www.vz.ru/news/2015/1/30/727021.html
http://www.newsru.com/russia/22jan2015/rogozinroscosmos.html
http://scientificrussia.ru/articles/roskosmos-stanet-goskorporatciej
http://ria.ru/space/20150209/1046605215.html
http://ria.ru/space/20150122/1043821152.html
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  1. saag
    saag 11 February 2015 07: 22
    +4
    "... Second, there is excess capacity."

    Yeah, it's not about the Khrunichev plant for an hour, they say, to see "excess capacity" or to take it somewhere else from Moscow, and on the vacated area to have a "diamond" gesheft, as the people are now crushing, shopkeeping is openly rushing from all cracks
    1. Orel
      Orel 11 February 2015 08: 37
      +9
      I see the main problem of our space industry in that we ourselves still cannot understand why we are flying into space. There is no clear goal. The main goal. Ambitious, which would pull the development of many high-tech industries. There is no long-term program. Every month, we fly to the Moon, then to Mars, then we don’t fly anywhere, then we make an extra-heavy rocket, we don’t do it, we either need manned space flight, we don’t need it, we need the ISS, we’ll build our own station. We hang from side to side and stand still. You just need to calmly identify what we want to achieve in space and go towards this goal.
    2. Jurkovs
      Jurkovs 11 February 2015 12: 00
      0
      The hangar will be done in Omsk on Flight. What Khrunichev will do after the cessation of Proton, one god knows.
      1. saag
        saag 11 February 2015 12: 08
        0
        Quote: Jurkovs
        What Khrunichev will do after the cessation of Proton, one god knows.

        Rogozin will build a shopping center or luxury housing there, now they can’t do anything else
    3. chunga-changa
      chunga-changa 11 February 2015 12: 43
      +1
      Finally, they recognized that in the space industry we have a crisis, and not "unparalleled" achievements. Although, of course, the way of overcoming it does not cause anything but amazement, well, of course, if you are not an ardent liberal and a fan of Gaidar's economic theories or not a graduate of the Higher School of Economics. At one time, to overcome a similar crisis in shipbuilding, the USC was created, which, in addition to enriching individuals, did not solve any problems and now weighs on the neck of the state. As soon as large government orders disappear, USC will have to be dispersed, otherwise it will turn into a black hole devouring resources with zero exhaust, with the Roscosmos corporation it will obviously be the same story. We must not toil with pseudo-liberal nonsense, but to restore the relevant ministries while the old cadres are still alive.
  2. Andrey Yuryevich
    Andrey Yuryevich 11 February 2015 07: 48
    +2
    At the beginning of 2010, Barack Obama decided to abandon the implementation of the Constellation program (the development of manned astronautics for flights to the Moon, and in the long term Mars)
    lol always laughing at "the Americans flew to the moon" laughing in 1961 Gagarin flew into space, and in 1969 the Americans were on the moon! this is a breakthrough! this is technology! and then bam, and forgot how! as much as half a century! still racking their brains, how to fly ??? ... rzhunemagu! here is the world scam ... laughing hippo !!!
    1. saag
      saag 11 February 2015 07: 53
      +2
      Quote: Andrey Yurievich
      and in 1969, the Americans are on the moon! this is a breakthrough! this is technology! and then bam, and forgot how! as much as half a century! still racking their brains, how to fly ??? ... rzhunemagu!

      And in the USSR no one doubted this, even Boris Chertok
      1. Andrey Yuryevich
        Andrey Yuryevich 11 February 2015 07: 58
        +2
        Quote: saag
        And in the USSR no one doubted this, even Boris Chertok

        I repeat: WORLD LOGOTRON !!! Leonov, Chertok, and Putin have no doubts, and everyone is entitled to ... they say what needs to be said, but common sense somehow does not agree with this .. request .
        1. saag
          saag 11 February 2015 08: 00
          +3
          Quote: Andrey Yurievich
          I repeat: WORLD SCAM !!!

          for God's sake, everyone has his own hobby :-) Someone is engaged in astrology, someone is astronomy, someone is conspiracy theories :-)
        2. Bayonet
          Bayonet 12 February 2015 06: 06
          0
          Quote: Andrey Yurievich
          and common sense somehow does not agree with this.

          Common sense, just agrees!
  3. apro
    apro 11 February 2015 08: 41
    0
    And you guys, as you don’t sit down, you weren’t good at musicians. Why are there new offices? There are few old ones? You don’t need to change chairs, you need to expel sidaks, but we’ll lose what we have.
  4. Pencil
    Pencil 11 February 2015 08: 52
    +1
    Quote: Orel
    Every month, we fly to the Moon, then to Mars, then we don’t fly anywhere, then we make an extra-heavy rocket, we don’t do it, we either need manned space flight, we don’t need it, we need the ISS, we’ll build our own station. We hang from side to side and stand still. You just need to calmly identify what we want to achieve in space and go towards this goal.

    But this is a series of public official statements and surprisingly, no one blushes. Everyone who publicly blundered and did not keep his word should be dismissed with shame.
  5. Cossack Ermak
    Cossack Ermak 11 February 2015 10: 17
    0
    If only not another RUSNANO
  6. zol1
    zol1 11 February 2015 10: 20
    +5
    "Tundra" will be only in the summer
    As Kommersant learned, the launch of the first satellite of the Unified Space System (CEN) Tundra due to technical unavailability will take place no earlier than June 2015. Back in 2013, he was supposed to replace the outdated satellites of the Oko-1 ballistic missile launch detection system, which is part of the missile attack warning system (SPRN). Now there is nothing to replace: the last 73D6 devices, launched in 2007-2008, worked out beyond the service life and failed. However, the general designer of the SPRN Sergey Boev told Kommersant that all missile-hazardous areas are controlled by radar stations that are part of the ground segment of the system.
    Several sources in the rocket and space industry reported on the delayed launch of the Tundra spacecraft (product 14F142) Kommersant and confirmed by an officer of the Ministry of Defense. Initially, the device was planned to be launched in 2013, then at the end of 2014 and in the first quarter of 2015. Now, the satellite’s launch into a highly elliptical orbit from the Plesetsk cosmodrome using the Soyuz-2.1b launch vehicle and the Frigate upper stage is planned for June 2015. The main reason for the delay was the technical unavailability of the device, say Kommersant’s interlocutors. According to them, neither the customer (aerospace defense troops) nor the lead contractor (Comet Corporation, which is responsible for the payload) want to risk launching the first CEN apparatus.

    In September 2014, Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu called the creation of the CEN "one of the key areas for the development of nuclear deterrence forces and means." Yesterday, a Kommersant source in the Ministry of Defense explained that the situation with product 14F142 is under the personal control of the Minister and they report to him on the progress of work on the CEN almost weekly. “In 2013, new schedules and the corresponding terms of reference were approved, if the device is not ready by summer, rigid organizational conclusions will follow, we do not intend to tolerate systematic breakdowns,” he said.

    The Eye-1 system inherited from Soviet times was criticized by the Ministry of Defense back in 2005. General Oleg Gromov, who was then deputy commander of the space forces for armaments, speaking in the Federation Council, ranked the geostationary 71X6 and highly elliptical 73D6 as "hopelessly outdated." The characteristics of the new device are significantly superior to their predecessors: as Kommersant already reported, the Tundra will most likely be able to indicate the area of ​​destruction not only with ballistic, but also with other missiles (including those launched from submarines). In addition, a combat control system will be installed on the satellite, and if necessary, a signal can be sent through the device to strike back. Recall that the last 71X6 spacecraft failed in April 2014, and the remaining two 73D6s in orbit could only work for several hours a day. But, according to Kommersant’s information, by the beginning of January 2015, having worked beyond the expected service life of five to seven years, they also failed (indirect evidence of this is the data of the American NORAD system, which did not record satellite corrections for more than a month). Thus, after removing the Oko-1 system from combat duty and before launching the Tundra, there will not be a single satellite in the SPRN space echelon.


    We are now blind, and despite the fact that we have repeatedly put Western spy satellites into orbit with our carriers! For such a pancake ***** at one time put to the wall! And they did it right.
    1. Ascetic
      Ascetic 11 February 2015 12: 05
      0
      Quote: zol1
      "Tundra" will be only in the summer


      Here the point is not only in this particular EKS spacecraft is being created not only as a tracking system for ICBM launches in a certain area like "Oko" but will also be able to track the launches of operational-tactical and even tactical missiles; calculate the trajectory of launches and the affected area; perform guidance functions. It is a direct analogue of the American SBIRS system.
      In Kurilovo, the command post is already being rebuilt for the tasks of the EKS, and in the summer the KP should take control of the Tundra spacecraft, which will initiate the formation of the EKS. The composition and purpose of the constellation and the terms of the spacecraft readiness and launch into orbit are classified.

      they also failed (indirect evidence of this is the data of the American NORAD system, which did not record satellite corrections for more than a month). Thus, after removing the Oko-1 system from combat duty and before launching the Tundra, there will not be a single satellite in the SPRN space echelon.


      This is not true. Cosmos-2422 and Cosmos-2446 are still working and transmitting information in real time to the eastern control point Serpukhov-15 (the village of Kurilovo, Kaluga region) and the western control point located in the Komsomolsk-on-Amur region.
    2. Bayonet
      Bayonet 12 February 2015 06: 10
      0
      Quote: zol1
      We are now blind, and despite the fact that we have repeatedly put Western spy satellites into orbit with our carriers!

      But about spy satellites, please read more! They have already called the telecommunications satellite a spy, is that what you mean?
  7. loaln
    loaln 11 February 2015 11: 17
    +1
    Yes, there was turbidity, the turbidity remained, the turbidity lived for a long time ...
  8. Jurkovs
    Jurkovs 11 February 2015 12: 03
    +1
    I heard that Roskosmos consulted with Rosatom on the subject of borrowing a management structure. RosAtom is a successful company, if RosKosmos becomes the same, then the flag is in their hands.
  9. 16112014nk
    16112014nk 11 February 2015 12: 44
    0
    I congratulate everyone on the construction of the next feeding trough for officials, their children and relatives. No need to look into the future, everything can be seen from here. There will be where to feed in the crisis to our creams from astronautics.
  10. Nitarius
    Nitarius 11 February 2015 13: 44
    +2
    Just a couple of reforms .. and in space we ourselves will fly on the trampoline!
  11. Sergey-8848
    Sergey-8848 11 February 2015 14: 31
    +1
    The eighth corporation.
    If the eighth in a row in the rocket and space industry, then I would like to know the results of the previous seven. However, here, everything with regret is clear.
    If the eighth in the country at all, then where are the revolutionary shifts and breakthroughs in the economy that occurred after the formation of the first seven (and which?)? I think that for each of the first seven (who are they?) Corporations there will be questions - mom, do not worry!
    Irony is just a mask, as an accessory to a very serious question - what kind of fool to keep us?
  12. valokordin
    valokordin 11 February 2015 19: 16
    0
    And you friends do not sit down, everyone is not good at musicians. Under such a system and leadership of an oligarchic format (I exclude Rogozin for now) they stole and will steal. That volume stood and will stand the current system.
  13. Shuev
    Shuev 14 February 2015 21: 30
    0
    A new state corporation is being created in the Russian Federation, on which the task of leading the Russian cosmonautics out of the crisis will lie

    By themselves, constant, absorption, and reorganization, as it were, do not create a crisis like in the times of Yelitsin by definition? "If you constantly prune a tree and replant in new places," and declare "for some reason, it does not grow well"
    How, for example, to take the surviving Sukhoi Design Bureau to the KLA, appoint Pogosyan the head of a new formation, and then give a formal position in this structure, looks like open sabotage
    To rely only on the nuclear "self-destruction" button in the containment strategy is somehow the same.
  14. studentmati
    studentmati 14 February 2015 21: 59
    +1
    Rogozin announced that by 2025 labor productivity in the Russian space industry should triple, and wages should double.

    Illogical.
    1. Thunderbolt
      Thunderbolt 14 February 2015 22: 02
      +1
      but patriotic, patriotic
      1. studentmati
        studentmati 14 February 2015 22: 07
        0
        Quote: Thunderbolt
        but patriotic, patriotic


        Hi Aleksey! For DOR throw slogans that listen to the radio.