Experimental Kalashnikov assault rifle 1964 (Russia)
Experienced Kalashnikov assault rifle 1964 with a balanced automation system. Most automation systems with a gas engine are distinguished by a complex pulse diagram, which is especially sensitive in an individual weapons. When shooting, the shooter sequentially experiences a series of multidirectional impulses: the recoil of the shot, the reaction of the gas chamber, the impact of moving parts in the extreme rear position, and their impact in the extreme front position. In general, such “concussions” increase dispersion when firing bursts. Therefore, the struggle to improve the accuracy of the machine gun was accompanied by attempts to use new schemes to eliminate these shortcomings. One of them is “balanced automation”.
In the 1964 experimental Kalashnikov assault rifle, two rotating inertial elements are mounted above the barrel on a vertical axis, connected by rods to the bolt frame. The gas chamber has two nozzles to which the ends of the rotating elements are adjacent. Under the action of the powder gases generated during the firing, the elements rotate in opposite directions, colliding at the extreme points and thereby excluding impacts of the bolt frame into the receiver in the extreme rear and extreme forward positions. This increases the stability of the weapon when firing - and hence the accuracy of fire. At the same time, reducing the stroke length of the bolt frame increased the rate of fire.
The Kalashnikov 1964 machine gun remained an experimental search structure.
Tactical and technical characteristics of the Kalashnikov 1964 g.
Cartridge - 7,62x39
Weight without cartridges - 3,3 kg
Total length without a bayonet - mm 860
Barrel length - 415 mm
Sighting range - 1000 m
Rate of Shooting - 880 rds / min
Magazine capacity - 30 cartridges
Double barrel 80.002 (Russia)
In the 1966 year, during the beginning of work on the domestic machine gun for 5,45х39-mm cartridge, the engineer of the "mailbox" #7 (later world-famous TsNIITOCHMASH) Viktor Semenovich Yakushchev formulated a proposal on the feasibility of creating a double-barreled gun for a small-caliber cartridge In 1966-67 years , in collaboration with well-known domestic designers S.G. Simonov, V.V. Simonov and the young, while specialists I.M. Berozkin and P.A. Tkachev, was developed by an experienced 5,45-mm double-barreled machine AO-38. However, at that time, for a number of reasons, further work on this machine decided not to continue. However, the idea of a double-barreled weapon, but in a different guise, returned at the beginning of 70's.
In the 1973 year, already being a venerable engineer, creator of the theory of dynamic stability of automatic small arms and various methods of its evaluation, the author of the idea of how to improve the stability of the Kalashnikov assault rifle by installing a muzzle brake compensator and a number of other special works, VS Yakushchev proved the feasibility of creating a sample 5,45- mm / 12,7-mm multi-purpose double-barreled automatic individual weapons of the soldier (rocket launcher). During 1975-79, he, together with Yu.V. Minaev, V.I. Chelikin and G.A. Janov, was developed and created a prototype of such a weapon that received an 80.002 index, and experienced ammunition.
Structurally, the 80.002 automatic grenade launcher is made as a pair of two adjacent barrels - 5,45-mm on the right and 12,7-mm on the left. Shops on 30 (enhanced from AK74) and on 10 cartridges are located in front of the trigger guard. The weapon has a single trigger mechanism. Along with the standard 5,45-mm cartridge 7H6, it also used a new 12,7-mm cartridge with a bullet (grenade) of increased efficiency.
Automation weapons based on the use of energy of the powder gases discharged from the barrel, and provides alternate firing from either the 5,45-mm barrel with a single or automatic fire, or self-loading firing from the 12,7-mm barrel. The bolt carrier had a single bolt assembly and two pistons with rods made independently of each other, and one return spring, therefore the thickness of the receiver doubled. Practically according to the same design scheme, already at the end of 90-x, one of the prototypes, created under the OICW program, was made.
In addition to the ammunition caliber 12,7 mm for firing from a machine gun, the use of various rifle grenades above the caliber, worn before the shot on the muzzle brake compensator 5,45-mm barrel and fired with live ammunition.
The ballistic characteristics of the 5,45-mm "channel" are the same as those of the AK74. However, the stability of the new model when shooting is higher than that of the regular AK74. A specially designed 12,7-mm cartridge and an over-caliber grenade defeat group and single targets in individual body armor.
The aiming device consisted of an open sector sight, designed for a distance of up to 1000 m, and a front sight in a headset. Moreover, in order to conduct firing from both barrels, the sighting device had to be moved to the centerline of the weapon - the sight was placed in the center of the sighting block, and the base of the front sight had to bend to the left. Food was supplied from two separate box stores: 5,45-mm - with a capacity of 30 cartridges, 12,7-mm - with a capacity of 10 cartridges.
Some external similarity of the 80.002 grenade launcher with the famous Kalashnikov assault rifle can only be explained by the designers' desire to use the available weapon parts, thereby reducing the development cost.
Today it is known that the research and development of the 80.002 grenade launcher and its ammunition continued until the start of the 90's. This model of weapon became experimental: various solutions were worked out on it. During its creation, the designers were able to obtain the necessary knowledge and experience in such cases.
Tactical and technical characteristics of the machine-grenade 80.002
Weight without stores, kg 4,9
Length, mm 1000
Aiming range, m 1000
Capacity stores, pcs. cartridges
5,45 mm - 30
12,7 mm - 10
Experimental Kalashnikov sniper rifle 1959 (Russia)
Attempts to replace the self-loading sniper rifle made in the USSR and on the eve of World War II (the sniper version of the self-loading SVT-40, which was removed from production in October 1942) and shortly thereafter, the magazine rifle 1891 / 30 was kept in service. Again, work on replacing it with a self-loading chambered for 7,62x54R began in 1958. This year, the Main Missile-Artillery Directorate (GRAU) of the Ministry of Defense announced a competition for the creation of a self-loading sniper rifle. Several designers presented their options, including EF Dragunov, A.S., Konstantinova, S.G. Simonova. An experimental version of a self-loading sniper rifle was introduced in 1959 and the design team of MT Kalashnikov.
The Kalashnikov 1959 rifle, as well as the Dragunov rifle, carried the features of a Kalashnikov assault rifle (gas engine automation, locking the barrel by turning the bolt), but with a number of significant differences. In particular, the gas piston, combined with the rod, had a short stroke and was not connected to the slide frame.
Automation is based on the removal of powder gases from the barrel, the barrel is locked by turning the shutter. Fuse-translator shooting modes located on the right side of the receiver. Food - from a replaceable box-shaped store of sector-shaped capacity of 10 cartridges. The short cover of the receiver and the grooves in the front of the bolt-out frame allowed the attached magazine to be equipped from the clip. The receiver on the left has a bracket for mounting an optical sight. The Kalashnikov 1959 rifle had a split box that included a wooden butt, forend, and receiver pad. Butt had a semi-protuberance of the neck and cheek rest on the left side.
Kalashnikov 1959 rifles did not meet the requirements for accuracy of fire and remained experienced. The main contenders were rifles of Izhevsk designer EF Dragunov (who had previously participated in the production of the AK machine at Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant) and Kovrov designer AS Konstantinov. After long trials and debugging in 1963, a Dragunov sniper rifle (SVD) was put into service.
Tactical and technical characteristics of the Kalashnikov sniper rifle 1959
Patron - 7,62x54R (Sample 1908 g.)
Weight without ammunition and optical sight - 4,226 kg
Overall length - 1155 mm
Barrel length - 600 mm
Sighting range - 700 m
Magazine capacity - 10 cartridges
Experienced Kalashnikov light machine gun 1943 (Russia)
In a fairly extensive pre-war program of the new rifle armament of the Red Army did not provide for the modernization of light machine gun. The experience of the war did not require a substantial revision of the rules of combat use of a light machine gun, but service and operational requirements have changed. The need to create a more compact and lightweight sample without losing ballistic characteristics became obvious. Intensified work in two directions - the long overdue modernization of the DP machine gun and the creation of a new light machine gun that would be serviced and transferred along with the ammunition load by one fighter.
The GAU small arms department has developed requirements for a new normal-caliber light machine gun (7,62 mm) and already in 1942, almost simultaneously with competitions for lightweight submachine guns and machine guns, a competition was announced for the development of an 7,62-mm light machine gun weighing no more than 7,5 kg At the same time, a very tough fire regime was set for the machine gun - up to 500 shots without cooling the barrel, the combat rate of fire was at least 100 shots / min.
6-21 July 1942 was tested in ground test test machine guns, developed in the Design Bureau of V.A. Degtyaryov, as well as the development of S.Vladimira, S.G. Simonov, P.M.Goryunov and novice designers, including and M.T.Kalashnikov.
After his submachine gun was rejected, Kalashnikov decided to implement the machine gun he had conceived, for which he was seconded to the Central Asian Military District. Was issued the corresponding task of GAU. The Department of Invention of the People's Commissariat of Defense financed the work. The county has allocated several skilled workers to help the inventor. For two and a half months was made five or six copies of the Kalashnikov machine gun arr. 1943
The best results during tests at NPSVO showed an experienced machine gun Simonov RPS-6, but he, like samples Degtyarev and Kalashnikov, received a list of comments on the finalization. The competition as a result did not give an acceptable sample. The works on the modernization of the PD were more successful, and in October 1944 was adopted the modernized PDM.
Nevertheless, an experienced Kalashnikov 1943 light machine gun is of undoubted interest as an example of the early work of the subsequently renowned designer gunsmith, as a variant of the approach to the theme of lightweight light machine gun as part of a powerful rifle cartridge. It must be admitted that the task before the designers was difficult and to combine the requirements of reducing the size and weight of the machine gun with a sufficiently powerful rifle cartridge while ensuring high reliability was not easy. A new model was supposed to be high-tech, designed for mass production.
Kalashnikov chose a store-driven scheme and a retractable engine for automation - based on recoil of the barrel with a short stroke (experienced machine guns from other designers had a gas engine for automation). The barrel was locked with a swinging lever (wedge) in the receiver, propping up the shutter, the position of the lever was determined by the interaction of its figured window with fixed cams.
* 43 year. Before the advent of Schmeisser a whole year.
The trigger mechanism allowed only automatic fire. The impact mechanism of the shock type was operated by a return spring mounted in the rear part of the box. Drummer cocked after locking the barrel bore when moving to the front position. The non-automatic fuse box was located on the left side. In addition, there was an automatic fuse in the form of a lever (autostart), mounted in the gate and holding the drummer in the cocked position until the mobile system arrived in the extreme forward position. A box of a machine gun with a perforated barrel casing was hingedly connected to the trigger box.
Power Kalashnikov machine gun 1943 g. - from the box-shaped store sector, inserted from the bottom into the neck of the trigger box. Apparently, in order not to cling to the store body with soil when shooting from a bipod, the capacity of the store is limited to 15 cartridges, which can be attributed to the shortcomings of the system. Aim devices included reversible rear sight for five distance settings from 200 to 900 m and a front sight with a fuse. Sighting line length - 670 mm. The machine gun Kalashnikov 1943 g. Had a flame arrester, a handle for carrying. Butt - folding up and down with a folding shoulder rest. Pressed hinge bipod had cutouts for relief.
At the same time - in the first half of 1944, Kalashnikov carried out another work of the “machine gun” subject at the test site - he developed a device for the SG-43 machine gun for firing blank cartridges.
Tactical and technical characteristics of the machine gun Kalashnikov 1943
Cartridge - 7,62x54R (rev.1908 g.)
Weight without cartridges - 7,555 kg
Length with folded butt - mm 1210
Length with folded butt - 977 mm
Barrel length - 600 mm
Sighting range - 900 m
Magazine capacity - 15 cartridges
Kalashnikov submachine gun 1942 (Russia)
At the end of 1942, Mr. M. Kalashnikov submits to the Art Committee a proposal for a new submachine gun with semi-free locking and an independent percussion mechanism for a regular TT pistol cartridge (the proposal was registered in case No. 7743 from 08.02.1943 G). It was the second sample, and the first sample created earlier used automation on the principle of a free gate. Creating a submachine gun with a semi-free shutter, M.T. Kalashnikov sought to develop light, maneuverable semi-automatic weapons. The model was supposed to surpass in its fighting qualities the submachine guns that had already been adopted. This determined the use of a semi-free shutter, which could reduce the mass of weapons and provide a relatively low rate of fire.
The Kalashnikov submachine gun has a folding metal butt, folding down, a sector magazine on 30 cartridges and a pistol grip. The handle for the left hand is placed in front of the store. The barrel is protected by a casing. Handles are made of wood. The sample was developed for a pistol cartridge of the 1930 model. 7 TT, 62x25 mm, provided a target range of 500 m, had a total length of 750 mm (with a butt folded - 535 mm) with a barrel length - 250 mm, the mass of the pistol-machine gun with an unopened - 2,8 kg (for other sources - 2,9 kg), magazine capacity - 30 cartridges.
Interesting is not quite normal for submachine guns automatic with a semi-free shutter. After the shot, the frame of the bolt under the action of recoil moves back and moves the coupling connected to the skeleton of the bolt on a rectangular thread. The clutch with the backbone of the gate, moving backward, is screwed onto a special fixed tube, which is mounted at the end of the receiver and makes a complex movement (translational + rotational). In the process of firing, the clutch, moving progressively and rotating along a spiral tube, compresses the return spring and leaves the back of the bolt. The consequence of this complex movement of the coupling, due to the friction of the coupling on the stationary spiral tube and the internal rifled part of the gate, is a decrease in the rate of rollback of the gate.
The trigger mechanism of the Kalashnikov submachine gun allowed single and automatic fire and was equipped with an independent drummer. In the process of firing when the movable system rolled back to the extreme rear position, the clutch delayed the drummer by about 14 mm, and the whisper in the bolt under the action of the spring went down and turned against the platoon of the drummer. When rolling in the moving system, the coupling entered from the hammer rim on the 12 mm, and the drummer stopped on the sear.
The trigger was simple in design. When you press the trigger with the help of a transmission lever system, he raised the sear up and released the drummer, who, under the influence of the returning spring, impaled the cartridge cap. With automatic shooting, the sear, when the shutter was in the extreme forward position, was pulled down by the trigger lever, and a shot occurred. A flag-type fire interpreter, located on the left side of the trigger frame, at the same time acts as a safety device, locking the trigger. The front end of the barrel housing serves as a brake-compensator.
The design of the cleaning rod with a rub, which is made in the form of three telescopic tubes on a thread, was original. In the folded state the cleaning rod was screwed into the pistol grip.
Examination of the department of inventions of the Art Committee of the Soviet Aviation Administration of Ukraine carried out a thorough analysis of the design of the Kalashnikov submachine gun and subjected it to firing tests. The originality of the design was noted. However, "... the author failed to achieve a significant reduction in the rate of shooting and increase of accuracy ..." (compared with the machine guns, which are in service with the Red Army). Although the Kalashnikov submachine gun had a small mass and size, it was not accepted for service "... because of its production complexity, which was a significant drawback for such a massive weapon as a submachine gun."
An experienced copy of the Kalashnikov submachine gun is stored in the collection of the Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, engineering troops and communications troops.
Tactical and technical characteristics of the Kalashnikov submachine gun
Weight, kg: 2,9 / 3,233
Length, mm: 750 / 535
Barrel length, mm: 250
Cartridge: 7,62x25 mm TT
Caliber, mm: 7,62
Principles of operation: semi-free valve on the interaction of two screw pairs
Rate of fire, shots / min: 824
Sighting range, m: 500
Type of ammunition: sector magazine on 30 ammo
In addition to these samples are present:
Experienced Kalashnikov carbine 1952, №1 (Russia)
Experienced Kalashnikov carbine 1944 (Russia)
Experimental Kalashnikov 1946 AK-46 (Russia)
Experimental Kalashnikov PP-1 and A1-75