Military Review

Unknown Soviet aircraft

11
In order to restore its details and collect as much as possible more complete material about aircraft that are now completely unknown, we had to work more than one year. I think that the time has come to make public the search results, just as I ask everyone who can add something to this story to respond.


So, in the middle of the pre-war decade, Osoaviakhim (later DOSAAF of the USSR, now defense sports societies in the “new” * states (different names, even DOSAAF) decided to conduct high-speed aircraft races. The first took place at the aerodrome of the USSR Central Aeroclub named after A.V. .Kosareva (now - NAC of the Russian Federation named after Chkalov) 12new 1935 was in time for the government to show the achievements of aviation sport. Light-engine airplanes of various classes and schemes were involved, mostly not adapted for racing, because they were built in different ways. time and for different purposes. At the maximum speed, they differed quite significantly. For example, the sporting AIR-10 developed 220km / h, and the biplane of the initial training of the U-2 was all 150. It turned out that at the same time sprinters, sredneviki and weari .

In the summer of 1936, a group of Soviet aviation engineers were sent to France to familiarize themselves with the high-speed Codron aircraft and purchase the best of them, together with a license to manufacture Renault engines. On the basis of two or three types of machines, it was planned to develop a training fighter, as well as a light racing car. By the beginning of 1937, the French engines Renault "Bengal-4" and "Bengal-6" (the number corresponds to the number of cylinders) were studied with us, and their production began at the plant # 26 in Rybinsk. By the middle of the same year, they were produced in small batches. At the same time, we bought an L-shaped 12-cylinder Ro1 engine from Renault, which, unlike the first two, was not mastered by our production, and soon it was removed from the plan due to the great complexity in technology.

In addition to the well-known advantages of in-line air-cooled motors, engines of this type had other advantages. The inverted scheme, that is, with the upper crankshaft and tilted cylinders, provided a good front view from the cockpit, and also allowed to reduce the height of the landing gear, as the propeller was raised very high above the ground.

The engines that received our designations MB-4 and MB-6 recognized as the most suitable for sports aviation.

In 1937, the USSR Osoaviakhim announced another free competition for the design and construction of special sport-racing airplanes. Specifications and recommendations were prepared.

Desirable condition - the execution of machines in the single version. Enthusiasts were given a real opportunity to use the MB-4 and MB-b motors.

Many aircraft designers, mostly young, but experts who have already passed a good independent school responded: V.N. Belyaev, M.R. Bisnovat, A.A.Dubrovin, V.K. Gribovsky, A.S. Moskalev, D.A. Romeiko-Gurko, L.I.Sutugin, B.I. Cheranovsky, A.S. Yakovlev and others. Each of the participants in the competition with a gap of six months or a year presented their project to the technical commission of Osoaviakhim. A.S. Yakovlev, whose aircraft twice (1935, 1936) won first place in speed competitions, even managed to build a car, quickly remaking his UT-1 under the engine MB-4. The approved projects were put into production at several enterprises in the country with strong material support from Osoaviahima.

Works of Alexander Sergeevich Yakovlev **
"Yakovlevtsy" released at the end of 30's. three single sport aircraft based on the UT-1 (AIR-14) with Renault engines. The use of the prototype's construction in many respects accelerated the creation of new machines at all stages of their development. Replacing the star-shaped motor M-11G (115 hp) with a single-row MB-4 (140 hp). contributed to an increase in the speed of the UT-1 from 240 to 270 km / h, as the aerodynamics of the forward fuselage improved and the power unit increased. Motor drag has decreased due to the smaller cross-sectional area in the bonnet area. It carefully sealed joints trim. This improved its internal aerodynamics.

Unknown Soviet aircraft

AIR-18

The second car with the engine MB-4, received the name AIR-18, in OKB AS Yakovlev was the third in a row with the engine MB-4. A bit earlier, with the same power plant, we built a double training AIR-20 - a prototype of the serial UT-2. At AIR-18 in 1937, test pilot Yu.I. Piontkovsky reached the speed of 300 km / h, which was largely contributed to the improved aerodynamics of the fuselage, consisting in the use of a closed lantern cockpit.

For a good view from the cockpit, its sides were made transparent (like the glazing of Codron planes), occupying nearly half the height of the hull. The range of flight of the AIR-18 compared to the UT-1-MB-4 decreased due to the abolition of the wing fuel tanks in favor of the retractable landing gear, but this did not affect the main purpose of the vehicle.



The next type from the AIR family, the 21 aircraft, was equipped with a more powerful MB-B engine (hp 220). From the retractable chassis refused, because its rise and release was done manually using complex multi-link mechanisms. Despite this, the speed of “21” reached 322 km / h at the height of 2000 m and 290 near the ground.

Further improvement of the single race type was planned with the creation of the 25 aircraft. This device was developed in 1939, but was not completed: OKB A.S. By the decision of the government, Yakovlev was redirected to the design of the front-line fighter 26 (I-26) (Yak-1).

Works by Daniil Alexandrovich Romeiko-Gurko
The next participant in the competition is Daniil Alexandrovich Romeyko-Gurko (1898-1947), the designer-glider pilot, the winner of the all-Union rivalry for the best project of "safe passenger aircraft" in 1935. In 1938, he developed a completely original machine with unique styles and imagery. external forms. They could be easily performed in production with the existing level of aircraft technology. Using the common laws of aero- and hydrodynamics, the designer chose the form of a “shark” for his car. Apparently, he was prompted to this idea by an inverted scheme of the Bengali-b motor. The high-positioned bow of the propeller with the lower air intake of the cooling of the cylinders was transformed into the face of a marine predator. The "eyes" became the inlets of the suction nozzles of the motor. And the exit slit and the side hood louvers took the form of gill covers, from under which, like giant fins, wing consoles with elliptical ends stretched out. (Overall wing area - 8,6 м2). The lantern cockpit lantern turned out to be no less figurative - in the shape of a sickle-shaped dorsal fin and vertical tail, successfully supplemented with a tail crutch into a powerful shark tail.

The main landing gear along with the wheels were dressed in flippie-shaped fairings, resembling the pelvic fins of a fish. The coloring, white teeth in a smiling red mouth, dark turquoise sides and a white-blue belly would also be spectacular. Even on paper, the Romeiko-Gurko project “caused lively amazement.”



The design characteristics of the "Shark" were quite high, despite the fact that its creator is clearly a decorative appearance. The maximum speed is about 400 km / h with a take-off weight up to 900 kg.

Unfortunately, the designer did not finish his work. With 1939, he went to work at the Su Design Bureau. There he became the first deputy P.O. Dry, staying in this post until the last of his days.

Works of Vladislav Konstantinovich GriX6ovsky
The creator of many training gliders and light aircraft Vladislav Konstantinovich Gri6ovsky (1889-1977) commissioned by the trade union sports society "Spartak" built the X-1937 aircraft in 26, according to the type of previously created vehicles of the same scheme as the G-22 and G-23, but with a more powerful engine of domestic design MG-40 (hp 140), with a similar arrangement of cylinders and the Bengali-4 motor (MV-4) of equal power. The new single nyekoplan became, perhaps, one of the most beautiful among the likes of that time.



The relatively low power of the engine and the use of non-retractable chassis to a certain extent limited the maximum speed of 280 km / h. Nevertheless, for aircraft with engines of such a small displacement, this characteristic placed the Grnbovsky apparatus in the best race. Impressed with the long range - to 1500km.

After the transition of Gribovsky's ICB to 1940, another light-powered G-28 “Krechet” aircraft with an MB-B engine (220 ls.) Was built by him into submission to the People's Commissariat of the aviation industry. 22 May 1941 g, pilot N.V. Gavrilov conducted his factory tests. State tests of the training fighter (TI-28) were carried out by A. B. Yumashev, M.M. Gromov, P.M. Stefanovsky and others in the Air Force Research Institute.

Armed with a ShKAS machine gun (7,62 mm) with ammunition in 400 cartridges, he showed the maximum speed of 303 km / h when landing - 90,5 km / h.



Because of the war, flight tests were interrupted and ended after the evacuation of the Red Army Air Force Scientific Research Institute. The designer was offered to put a more powerful motor MV-6А (240 hp) to increase the maximum speed and, mainly, to reduce the length of the run, which was recognized too large - 280 m.

Subsequently, all work on TI-28 was closed, In war conditions, training flights were more acceptable on full-time combat fighters, and export and training flights were in two-place versions of their own (I-16 - UTI-4; Yakh-1 and Yak-7 - Yak -7B).

Works of Login Ivanovich Sugugin
In 1937, one of the creators of the Three Friends light aircraft (1928 g), deputy chief designer of the Central Design Bureau, associate professor at the Moscow Aviation Institute, the author of a number of classic manuals and textbooks on aircraft design, Login Ivanovich Sugugin (1893-1946) became the author of a no less classic project racing car. The single monoplane, which did not receive the name, was arranged under the L-type Renault Ro1 engine with a power of 390 / 450 hp. Focusing on the wing, as on the main source of aerodynamic drag of the aircraft, Sugugin did not follow the path of reducing the thickness of the profile, but chose a rather thick small curvature profile for him, the critical point of the LPS transition in the TPS, which was located on the 50 — 55% chord. But only this reduction in resistance was not limited. The wing of the area 10,5 м2 became the initial link, if you will - the center of crystallization of the aerodynamic layout of the future apparatus. The whole further design process was subordinated to him.

Preliminary studies of the wing-fuselage combination showed that the smallest value of interference resistance for a laminar profile of small curvature can be achieved with a medium wing layout. If we ensure the equality of the relations of the height of the fuselage to the height of the wing profile located above the profile cord to respectively below it, then we can expect an approximate equality of the local flow velocities washing the fuselage and the wing, which, as is well known, reduces the interference. The flattened side of the fuselage made it possible to abandon the use of the gumming at the junction with the wing.

The root of the wing had a greater narrowing than the "console" and served as a good container for fuel. The lack of lift at low speeds (inherent to the profile of the small curvature), the designer decided to compensate for the slit flaps, rejected during takeoff and landing. And the small values ​​of the critical angles of attack typical of the laminar profile (due to the sharp middle edge) were compensated by automatic slats, which occupied a significant part of the wing span, up to 40%. The maximum speed of the device, according to calculations, was 500 km / h, despite the relatively thick wing, which turned out to be advantageous in terms of weight, and a large lantern cockpit, providing a good overview in all directions. Estimated weight does not exceed 1200kg.

The features of the project include the chassis, which is tucked into the fuselage niches under the wing wing, and the reclining position of the pilot in a low cockpit, introduced to reduce the midsection of the fuselage.

The production base of MAI could not implement the project, but it deserves the highest praise. The sequence of the design process proposed by Sugugin, especially at the stage of establishing the overall layout, will probably still find its imitators. After all, the designer clearly showed how rationally it is possible to work using the results of experimental aerodynamic research.

Works by Alexei Alekseevich Dubrovin

OKB-301, headed by Alexey Alekseevich Dubrovin with 1937, took up the development of two types of French Codron planes - C.690 and C.713. They decided to use the achievements of the Marseille Riffard company in the aerodynamics and technology of wooden structures. At the same time, it was planned to take part in future races for the Osoavnakhim prize together with another Codron S.720, which was purchased in France. He passed the control tests with the engine "Bengal 4" (140 hp) in the Air Force Institute. He flew in 1937, PMM.Stefanovsky.





The first of the Soviet "Kodronov" was released similar type C.690 with the engine MB-B and a non-retractable Messier type chassis. Its design was changed in such a way that even the outward resemblance to the prototype remained approximate. The made improvements corresponded to our production technology, to metric system of measures (drawings were received with inch sizes). Also changed a number of structural elements and local aerodynamics. On flight tests with the participation of P.M. Stefanovsky, A.I. Nikashin and leading engineer A.T. Golyaev received characteristics in general not worse than the French “Codron” with the same engine in the 220 HP. The maximum speed was 385 km / h with take-off weight 1005 kg.



The second type, the Codron-II, built under the more powerful Ro1 engine (390 / 450 hp), had a somewhat larger size and weight, but was equipped with a retractable chassis. This aircraft was finished, because the Renault 12-cylinder engine was not mastered here, although it passed the full cycle of static strength tests. The design characteristics of the aircraft roughly corresponded to the data of a similar French fighter C713.



In the middle of 1939. The work of the Kodron OKB-301 was completed, and the plant with the developed technology of wooden structures began mass production of fuselages for the BB-22 short-range bomber. In 1940, the government’s decision was to entrust the enterprise to SA Lavochkin. They launched a pilot and serial work on the front fighter "LaGG" and "La."

During the development of the Kodron aircraft in the OKB-301, large aircraft designers E.G. Adler, A.A. Dubrovin, A.G. Brunov, Z.I. Itskovich, Yu.B.Sturtsel and others.



There was also such an interesting episode. A modification of C.713, armed with four machine guns, was launched in France under the designation C.714 and was used in hostilities in the initial period of the Second World War. In 1940, the Codron-Renault merger built about a hundred C.714 light fighters, which developed speeds up to 485 km / h. On one of them, the pilot Marcel Albert managed to make war. Before the war, he worked as a mechanic at the Renault plant, from 1942 he fought with the Nazis on the Soviet-German front as part of the Normandie-Neman division, the first Hero of the Soviet Union among French pilots, shot down an 23 enemy aircraft, that is, more than any pilot France in World War II.

Works by Boris Ivanovich Cheranovsky
Aircraft designer Boris Ivanovich Cheranovsky (1896-1960) was a constant supporter of the tailless layout scheme, which he tested for the first time on gliders at the beginning of the 20-s. A characteristic feature of most of its aircraft was a wide wing with a parabolic leading edge.

During the design of the new SG-1 racing aircraft (SCR-21), the designer applied his favorite scheme for him, but chose the wing shape not parabolic, but close to it - trapezoidal with a broken leading edge. The center-plane was straight, the consoles had a swept 25º, and only the wing tips were outlined along a gentle parabola. By the front view, the wing was a “reverse gull”, at the bottom of the breaks of which the fairings of the retractable landing gear were arranged. Because of the tailless scheme of the aircraft, its forms stood out among all the devices of the competition. Only the engine hood with the screw of the screw and the side hatches of the approach to the propulsion units remained normal.



The very short fuselage had a length with a rudder of no more than 4,74 m. The drop-shaped lantern of the pilot's cabin, along with the fuselage with a hexagonal cross section in the bonnet area, was continued back as a narrow stacker, turning into wedge-shaped vertical tail, the take-off weight of the SG-1 was the smallest compared to other race cars - total 643 kg with empty 526 weight. Due to this and the formation of a dynamic airbag under the wing in flight near the ground, the take-off and landing characteristics turned out to be simply outstanding. The “screen” effect reduced the landing speed to 80 km / h, and the run and mileage respectively 110 and 100 m. It was calculated with the forced motor MB-6А (240 hp) to reach 424 km / h.

Such unusually large numbers caused a critical attitude to the project of some aerodynamics and designers. The plane was predicted of a fiasco, because the French Codrons were considered inimitable perfection. But some experts gave positive feedback, among them - Brig. VS. Pyshnov Mr. I rank engineer A.S. Yakovlev.

How did it happen in practice? Due to the complexity of the engine supercharging system, its power, like that of the serial MB-6, was only 220l.s., and on flight tests it was possible to achieve 417 km / h. But this is only 7 less than the estimated speed! SG-1 was the best 1941 completed by the summer.

Works of Alexander Sergeevich Moskalev
Another contestant. The small OKB of the Voronezh aircraft factory, headed by Alexander Sergeevich Moskalev, was not included in it from the very beginning. Later, the designers created several light vehicles for various purposes with the Renault engine. Among them, one of the world's first triangular flying wing of small elongation (0,97) CAM-9 Strela, which became the prototype of modern supersonic aircraft has a tailless circuit. He with the engine MB-4 developed the maximum speed of 340 km / h. Soedavshe as a flying model of high-speed fighter "Sigma", and therefore did not claim the site in the races.



Meanwhile, even the five-seater (with a pilot) passenger CAM-10 and its pre-production modification CAM-10bis could successfully compete in speed with single-seater racing cars released in those years.

They had the same engines, but almost twice the take-off weight. The SAM-10 monoplane developed speeds up to 336 km / h. And he could fly faster. At first they decided to make the chassis folding back under the wing, but they did it fixed out and only closed with wide fairings - “pants”. The development of the model - CAM-10-2 bis already with a retractable nose wheel, remained at the design stage. The flight performance of the CAM-10 was higher than that of the similar Simon C.520 from Codron. This aircraft, with the same engine power and number of passenger seats, developed the speed of 300 km / h.

In 1939 1941 A.S. Moskalev was engaged in the creation of training and combat aircraft. Under the motor MB-6 laid training fighter CAM-12, It was developed in parallel with the machine VK. Gribovsky G-28 for a similar task. Aerodynamic calculations foreshadowed him a maximum speed of more than 400 km / h. This was considered an excellent result for an 220-strong motor. Again, the war is not allowed to release.

The design of the CAM-12 was mixed, with a predominance of wood. The main landing gear legs were retracted into the wing. It had a relatively small elongation (4,85) and was articulated with the fuselage in a low-profile pattern.



The bow support was laid under the engine, as was provided for in the project CAM-10-2-bis. The aircraft was distinguished by the extreme simplicity of the lines, combined in the correct aerodynamic shape.

The double version of the CAM-12 has remained even more unfinished. Interceptor fighter AS Moskalev, the SAM-13, was arranged in a double-gang scheme with the tandem installation of two MV-6 motors at the ends of a short fuselage nacelle, in which the pilot's workplace, fuel tank and equipment were placed between the engines. The total power of the power plant was only 440 hp, so the estimated speed of the device - 680 km / h exceeded the most optimistic assumptions.

A “reserved” attitude was shown to the CAM-13 project, but, despite this, the plane was built, was blown through the TsAGI T-101 pipe and literally on the eve of the war was handed over to flight tests. Even with a fixed chassis fighter, manned ND Fixed, showed speed 560 km / h. (Other designers achieved a similar result, removing the chassis and with the power of the motors over 1000 hp).



More could have been done, but the complexity of finishing the nose landing gear, which didn’t fit well in the fuselage niche, did not allow us to get the coveted figure of maximum speed. The actual value reached is 607 km / h.

The fact of significant aerodynamic superiority of Moskalev aircraft over other machines with the same energy capabilities is obvious. To this day, the success of the designer defies explanation, probably, like any talent.



During the war, the Moskalev Design Bureau evacuated to the East. At the new site, he created many samples of aviation technology, from which it is possible to single out multi-seat amphibious cabins and gliders, transport and ambulance airplanes, as well as the missile interceptors A.Ya. Bereznyak and A.M. Isaeva BI-1 (see “KR” 6-93).

Works of Viktor Nikolaevich Belyaev
In 30-e, flutter has become the path of higher flight speeds. Many scientists then tried to find effective ways to avoid the destruction of the machine in the air. Researches were conducted in several directions. One of the most interesting decisions was not the seemingly obvious increase in the rigidity of the wing, and not even the convergence of the center of mass of the structure with its center of rigidity, but giving the wing a special form. It provided a self-balanced (against flutter) condition of the structure at an ever-increasing speed regime. The wing was developed at TsAGI by VN engineers. Belyaev and V.I. Yukharin. It looked like a letter “M” stretched to the sides, had an extremely thin profile with a rather large elongation and span. This did not increase, but, on the contrary, reduced the rigidity of the structure in flight.

To check the calculations of the so-called elastic wing, the designers, in addition to the wind tunnel tests, built two special gliders that, by the summer of 1937, had successfully passed flight tests and provided valuable factual material needed to create a real high-speed machine.

In 1938, a group of Viktor Nikolaevich Belyaev (1896 - 1958) designed an experimental UK plane with an elastic hook, as it was called, butterflies.

The successful solution to the layout of the aircraft in low weight and small size contributed to the use of lightweight 12-cylinder engine Renault Ro.1 power up to 430 hp A thin M-shaped wing with an area of ​​11 m 2 had a profile of variable thickness along the span - from 7,5% to the root to 5% at the ends and connected to the aircraft fuselage in a low-lying pattern.

The wheels of the retractable landing gear were placed in the bottom of the fuselage and the front of the wing root, made for this with elliptical backing. The cabins of two crew members, a pilot and an experimenter, were located one after another. The gas tanks were placed in the wing in the backward swept sections of the consoles.

On their trailing edge were deflected landing flaps. The narrow two-section ailerons were located on the wing end sections with straight sweep. The "CC" was calculated on all aerobatic maneuvers, equipped with special instruments, fixing a measure of stability and deformation of the wing in various flight modes. The permissible overload ratio of the structure reached 13.

The maximum design speed was 510 km / h with take-off weight 1028 kg.

Developing a single version of the UK-1, designed for sports, the designers hoped to establish a new speed record for ground aircraft. This would be possible with an increase in the load on the wing, probably due to a decrease in its area. The official world speed record for ground planes in November 1937 was 611 km / h and belonged to the German Messerschmitt Bf.113Р *** with a power engine of 1000 hp.

The positive conclusion of the testers about the wing elasticity of the experimental gliders V.N. Belyaev, as well as promising data from the “Criminal Code” project, prompted the TsAGI leadership to take a decision on ... closing the theme of a light speed car. But they quickly launched work on a distant bomber DB-LC, which had a similar wing, but many large sizes. It was built in 1939, and on flight tests, which lasted up to 1941, showed better performance than serial DB-3M with the same M-87B engines and bomb load.

Despite the reorientation of TsAGI designers, headed by V.N. Belyaev, on a heavy machine (this was a prerequisite created by the designer himself: in 1935, he developed a project similar to the DB-LC of a passenger aircraft for the Aviavnito competition, which took second place after the project of DA Romeiko-Gurko), the idea creating a single-engine high-speed aircraft with an elastic wing is not left. On the instructions of TsAGI in OKB for light vehicles KAI (Kazan) under the guidance of 3. And, Itkkplicha (worked before in OKB-301 on the development of "Kodronov" to 1939 g.), And from 1940 g. - G.N. Vorobyev designed two similar devices: CC-1А with an elastic wing and CC-1B of a normal low-profile scheme. Both aircraft were two-seater and differed only in the wing for the purity of the comparative experiment, when all other differences in flight characteristics can be attributed only to the difference in the wings studied.

Since the Ro.1 engine, which was laid down in Belyaev’s projects, did not take root, the KAI planes were calculated using a single-row MB-6 motor. Because of the lower (twice) power plant capacity, the maximum speed of both options did not give reason to hope to set a speed record. However, these devices were quite suitable for participation in air races, on which, besides the main goal of the experiment, the designers pinned their hopes.

The first of the aircraft of the Kazan Aviation Institute with an elastic wing was built in 1940. In the spring of next year, it was transferred by the customer to TsAGI for flight research. They did not take place.

The second remained unfinished because of the war. (Detailed data on these devices have not yet been found.)

Works of Matus Ruvimovich Bisnovat
It is necessary to tell about one more project. At the beginning of 1938, it was developed by engineer Matus Rufimovich Bisnovat (1905 - 1979), in those years, the employee of the OKB N.N. Polikarpov, and later the chief designer in the field of aviation technology. The main emphasis he placed on the maximum possible reduction of drag of the aircraft by reducing its transverse dimensions and areas. In other words, an increase in the total elongation of the apparatus. Characterized by the complete absence of the speaker lantern cockpit. To improve the view, it took transparency of the fuselage sides for a fairly long distance - from the engine hood to the tail unit. In addition, a hydraulic lift was provided for the pilot’s seat, providing short-term improvement in visibility during takeoff and landing and at low flight speeds.

Achieving maximum speed in 450 km / h (but calculated) also required to increase the wing load to 130 kg / m2, which led to the establishment of a flight weight of at least 900 kg with a wing area of ​​just 7 m2.

These figures are quite possible to be implemented with engine power in 220 l. p., for example, the engine MB-6, as well as retractable landing gear. The designer was unable to bring the project, but later, turning to a similar aerodynamic layout, Bisnovat built two high-speed fighters “SK” and “SK-2”, which passed the flight tests in 1940 - 1941. and showed very good results. With 1050 hp motors they developed a maximum speed of up to 660 km / h.

Works by Sergei Alekseevich Kocherigin
Airplanes and projects of the design office of Sergey Alekseevich Kocheriigin, as a rule, were created for combat use (fighters, reconnaissance aircraft, attack aircraft). The DIT aircraft project was perhaps the most peaceful destination among its fellow OKB. Its name meant: a double fighter training. Such a device was not intended for this air combat.

The question of creating a training fighter here arose after another visit to the Soviet technical delegation of German aircraft factories, enterprises and institutions on the eve of the Second World War.

Among other objects of the German aircraft manufacturing, the training aircraft of the company Arado Ar-96 turned out to be of no interest. In the experimental version, this car appeared in the 1936 year. It was equipped with a small Argus 150 horsepower engine. and had two open cabins for the pilot and instructor. During the period of intensified militarization of the German economy, the ark-96A light engine nazkoplan designers of the company breathed new life. For the period from 410 to 465. Ar-1939 was built in a series and was modified several times. Many Luftwaffe pilots received flight training on it and its varieties.

Following the example of the German company Arad OKB S.A. Kocherigina, located at plant number 1, at the end of 1940, began a design survey on the same topic. For their DIT, designers chose the Renault Ro1 engine, which received the designation MB-12 (according to the number of cylinders). The inverted scheme of the motor (the cylinder heads were looking down) made it possible to remove the already tiny miniature propeller (automatic screw with a diameter of 2,2 m) from the ground and to use a very compact and also retractable chassis.

When cleaning the landing gear wheels fit into the niches between the front wall of the wing and the central coffered block, which was actually extended to 450 mm wing spar (following the example of the biplane I-207 A. Borovkov and I. F. Florov).

The DIT aircraft is arranged in a normal low-profile scheme with a two-seat cockpit. The lanterns of the pilots on the airfield, in an emergency situation and in the case of other necessity, had to be moved back along the rails attached to the upper side members of the fuselage. In general, the scheme and design were traditional. The composition of the onboard functional equipment planned to introduce RSI-3.

The armament consisted of a single synchronous ShKAS machine gun and a control-fixing photo-camera gun. DIT project was signed on December 12 1940.

As is known, the Ro.1 motor (MB-12) was not accepted for reproduction at plant No. 26. The design of the aircraft was also not implemented, but it is interesting for its development under the CF-12, in what its compatibility with other devices, discussed in our essay, seems to be. (The Air Force used armed and unarmed modifications of the Yak-7, La-5 and La-7) as training fighters during the Second World War.

Air Sports Department ****
In 1938, in the Central Aeroclub, an aircraft sports department was opened. He was engaged in the development of a set of rules and methodologies for the competition. Identified possible routes of short and long races, running through various settlements of the country. As the number of participants in the competition increased, estimates were made of the quantitative composition of the crews of the riders and specific candidates for pilots were selected who would like to participate in the competitions.

The winner of the competition among designers, as well as the best car were to be revealed after the completion of the entire program of the competition. It provided for the division of the aircraft into two categories - with engines in the 140 l. with. and 220. Each asset would be awarded points for a system that takes into account the difference in engine power. Osoaviakhim was preparing for an air holiday in August 1941. But since June he “switched to military rails”. At aero clubs and other divisions of the defense society, pilots, gliders and parachutists were preparing for the front at a heightened pace. Air races have not taken place so far. The contest has sunk into oblivion.

Notes:
* - article written in 1993 year,
** - a breakdown of the author's text was made by me,
*** - so in the text.
**** - in the text of the article, this piece comes before the description of Kocherigin's works.


Source: Wings of the Homeland 10-11 / 93.
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  1. SPAAARTAAA
    SPAAARTAAA 19 October 2013 10: 54
    +5
    A good article, detailed, for which someone put the cons I do not understand.
    1. Kostik
      Kostik 20 October 2013 15: 11
      +1
      Well, I didn’t set minuses, but I won’t begin to plus. All this I read back in the USSR and before the advent of the Internet and in more detail, maybe now this children's book is in the technical library, unfortunately I do not remember either the author or the name (and there were also more serious publications and works). Later I saw it on the Internet on the website airwar.ru, and I suspect that the information and illustrations there are taken from the same booklet. Well, the author of this article simply collected everything in one place within one article and more succinctly (meagerly)
      As a result, I did not learn anything new and interesting for myself. And I would rename the title of the article - "Unknown, not interested in aviation, Soviet planes"
      But printed and printed,
  2. major071
    major071 19 October 2013 13: 47
    +5
    A good article, detailed, for which someone put the cons I do not understand.

    Probably for the quality of the photos ?!
  3. Ddhal
    Ddhal 19 October 2013 13: 52
    +1
    Thank you so much, Ivamin, for your work!
    Very informative and interesting article.
    Cons, I think, put people who are just tired of reading. Time is now tight.
    And talent in Russia should be with its fists - this is an axiom. Therefore, Yakovlev made his way, and many very good designers have sunk into oblivion ...
  4. pensioner
    pensioner 19 October 2013 14: 56
    +1
    Soviet aircraft designers of the 30s did not suffer from a lack of ingenuity. This was partly due to the lag in the field of aviation materials and engine building. But the flight of thought is impressive! I was once struck by the project "S" Bolkhovitinov with a tandem power plant. If my memory serves me, then not with the most powerful engines, he developed a speed of up to 570 km / h. An attempt was made to create an aircraft with variable wing geometry. Bakshaev like. Not sure. But the plane was called "RK".
  5. Taoist
    Taoist 19 October 2013 19: 16
    +5
    The article is good. But if you honestly did not understand why these machines were called "unknown" - information on them was in Shavrov's classic two-volume book "The History of Aircraft Designs in the USSR". In any case, I read about them in the late 70s. By the way, "aircrafts" on the basis of "Codron" and not only which were called "heavenly fleas" then in the USSR were built much more than listed in this article.
    1. Kostik
      Kostik 20 October 2013 15: 17
      0
      It's like after the article about the Argo amateur airplane was published in "Modelist Constructor", clones and reworkings began to appear throughout the Union, both successful and not very successful. But not write about them all? Although, if someone suddenly gets together to write a monograph about "Argo", oh, and a thick book will turn out :)
  6. cosmos111
    cosmos111 19 October 2013 20: 50
    0
    The article is excellent, I especially liked the project, “Shark,”. When finalizing this design, an interesting machine turned out.
  7. Simple
    Simple 20 October 2013 09: 55
    +1
    While browsing the article from top to bottom, I thought:

    1. What are they (developments) unknown?
    2. Magazine "Modelist-Constructor" of the late seventies and early eighties?
    3. Or maybe "Technology-Youth" - Yes, it seems not.
    4. And how I forgot about "Wings of the Motherland"! fellow

    But anyway, it will be interesting to read ....
    1. Akuzenka
      Akuzenka 20 October 2013 14: 57
      +2
      They are unknown to current article authors.
  8. Yarik
    Yarik 20 October 2013 21: 46
    0
    The dog knows him. In my opinion, the problem was in the engines. Mikulin and his design bureau ....
  9. Nikol
    Nikol 22 October 2013 16: 16
    0
    It is a pity that many projects have remained projects ...