Military Review

The amount of ice in the Arctic decreases on the eyes

Over the past three decades, the volume of multi-year ice in the Arctic has decreased significantly. Perennial, or, as it is usually called, pack ice, is such ice that is able to persist after at least two summer periods of melting. The thickness of such ice is usually at least three meters. At the same time, every winter, sea ice gradually increases and fills with itself almost the entire basin of the Arctic Ocean.

Arctic ice reaches its maximum in March. At the same time every summer the fields of perennial ice are reduced in size, reaching a minimum by September. Ice, which is able to survive at least one Arctic summer, is usually thicker, and the likelihood that such ice can survive even several summer melting periods is higher. Scientists note that after the 1980-s, the number of multi-year ice in the Arctic has decreased significantly.

It is necessary to understand that the Arctic ice is very important for the formation of climate on our planet. The ice cap, which is formed in the Arctic, reflects the sun's rays and does not allow the Earth to overheat. Also, the Arctic ice is very important in the circulation of water in the world's oceans. Many experts today say that already in the 21st century most of the Arctic waters will be free of ice in the summer, which will open up new prospects for the transport of goods by sea in this region.

The way ice volumes in the Arctic changed from 1987 to 2014, is clearly seen in the animation, which was introduced by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). On the Internet-posted video, the ice was divided into 9 groups by age, each of these groups colored by its own color. So, the youngest, annual ice, which was formed only in the last winter, has a dark blue color. At the same time, the oldest ice, which is more than 9 years old, has a white color. Dark gray spots show coastal areas where spatial resolution is lower than on land or ice-free water.

The video clearly demonstrates that the sea ice in the Arctic Ocean is not in one place, it is in constant motion. So, east of Greenland is the Fram Strait, through which ice can leave the Arctic Ocean. At the same time, earlier ice losses through this strait were compensated by increasing the ice in the area of ​​the Beaufort gyre, which is in northeast Alaska. In this area, water currents move clockwise. In this area, multi-year ice could drift for several years, moving along with the currents.

But already at the turn of the century, the conditions of the Beaufort cycle for perennial Arctic ice had deteriorated significantly. The average temperature of the water has increased, the process of ice melting has accelerated, especially when passing through the southern part of this circulation. Since 2008, very old ice has shrunk to a small narrow strip lying along the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

In September, 2012, the melting speed of the Arctic ice broke all records. At the same time, in 2014, the melting rate slowed down. This fact allowed some volumes of annual ice to survive the summer and become multiyear. From March 2013 to March 2014, the volume of one-year ice decreased from 78% to 69%. This means that much of the Arctic ice in 2013 was able to survive the summer thaw. Over the same period, the volume of two-year ice grew from 8% to 14%, and four-year ice from 7,2% to 10,1%.

In general, by March 2014, the volume of multi-year ice was able to return to the average in 1981-2010, but despite this, the authors of the annual Arctic report believe that in the long-term, the trend is aimed at reducing its quantity. So if in 1980-ies the oldest ice, to which the ice was 4 and older, was 26% of the total volume of Arctic ice, by March 2014, its volume decreased by 2,5 times to 10%. If we talk about ice age from 7-8 years and older, then such ice is becoming more and more rare.

As noted above, 2012 has become a record year for the Arctic. This year, researchers have recorded a whole series of diverse climate records that are associated with global warming on the planet. Significant reductions in sea ice, snow cover and maximum vegetation spread in the tundra are among these records. This information was presented in a report that was compiled by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

All these climate records tell us that the Arctic is unlikely to be able to return to its former state. In June, the 2012 of the year in the northern hemisphere was recorded a record minimum of snow cover, and in May of the same year in Eurasia the absolute minimum of the snow area was set. In September 2012, the Arctic ice area fell to a record low for the entire duration of the satellite observations that began in the 1979 year. In addition, experts noted the melting of the Greenland Glacier in July 2012, almost all of its area. One day, the melting process captured 97% of its surface.

The authors of the annual report, which include 140 scientists representing the 15 countries of the world, note the changes that are occurring with vegetation. So in the tundra from 2003 to 2010, the vegetative period of vegetation increased significantly in time. There are also changes in the animal world. So in Northern Europe the Arctic fox turned out to be close to complete extinction, which had a natural rival who came from more southern regions - the red fox. Also, the conducted studies record a significant growth in the Arctic seas of phytoplankton, the biological productivity of which has grown almost tenfold. Oceanologists are practically sounding the alarm, registering a rapid rise in the temperature of the ocean’s water in those areas that have become ice-free, while meteorologists are talking about an increase in extreme weather events on the planet.

According to scientists from Norway, Great Britain and Spain, by the end of the XXI century the Arctic ice will be able to completely melt in the summer. The researchers conducted a comprehensive analysis of the climate of the Pliocene of the Neogene period, which was observed on the planet 5,3 a million years ago and came to an end 2,5 a million years ago. To do this, they needed to study the fossils of microorganisms and algae, which were located on the seabed near the island of Svalbard. With the help of chemical analysis, they were able to track all the climatic changes of that era.

In the course of their research, they found out that 4 a million years ago there was no snow in the Arctic and this situation could happen again. Ice cover at the north pole of the Earth was formed only 2,6 million years ago, which led to a change in ocean currents and climate on Earth. The climate on our planet has become colder and drier. At the same time, scientists proved that ice in the Arctic Ocean appeared earlier than on the continents of the Northern Hemisphere.

Before that, scientists from the United States found that in 2014, the ice area had decreased to 5,02 a million square kilometers. Every 10 years at the North Pole, the amount of ice decreases by about 13%.

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  1. Andrey Yuryevich
    Andrey Yuryevich 3 February 2015 06: 25 New
    on the topic: this is the last thing from which humanity will perish.
    1. INTER
      INTER 3 February 2015 06: 33 New
      Quote: Andrew Y.
      on the topic: this is the last thing from which humanity will perish.

      Rather, it is true than a lie, because in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug today and frosts are not the same as before. In general, they warmed up by 15-20 degrees of winter.
      1. Hleb
        Hleb 3 February 2015 07: 24 New
        15-20 a lot. In the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug December-January, the sting is 35-47 degrees.
        1. 70BSN
          70BSN 4 February 2015 14: 38 New
          Yes, in the 90s it was colder in the Urals, and for the last couple of years, spring, spring !!!!
      2. Chertkov Oleg
        Chertkov Oleg 3 February 2015 07: 41 New
        I do not mind if the Gulf Stream continues its development to the Bering Strait along our northern coast.
        At the same time, the main stream of the Gulf Stream can be traced even further north along the coast of Europe as the Norwegian Current, the Nordkapp Current and others. Traces of the Gulf Stream in the form of an intermediate current are also observed in the Arctic Ocean.
      3. testerman
        testerman 3 February 2015 09: 35 New
        I confirm. I’ve spoiled winters in recent years. Of course, there are frosty days, but not as many as before.
        1. testerman
          testerman 3 February 2015 11: 14 New
          Well, and which monkey is minus? not enough mind to ask a question? wink
          1. Homo
            Homo 3 February 2015 12: 13 New
            Quote: testerman
            Well, and which monkey is minus? not enough mind to ask a question?

            Dear man, look in the mirror! Doesn't it remind anyone? According to you, you just write about what.
            1. Homo
              Homo 3 February 2015 23: 37 New
              I can ask the same question! There is a minus, but comments?
              1. testerman
                testerman 5 February 2015 06: 23 New
                And this is a dear fellow trend however. PR, rating, overshadows the intelligence for some visitors as it is not regrettable.
            2. testerman
              testerman 5 February 2015 06: 32 New
              did not want to stoop to idle talk .... but I will answer. maybe this will help you in the future.
              looking in the mirror I see a man of 33 years old, responsible for each his word, unlike many. and if I called the person who is minding me a monkey, there is a reason. one and pretty good reason. click on the minus and do not explain why, the person does not have to use the brain, enough spinal cord for this operation. who in the animal kingdom exists at the expense of the spinal cord, not in the know? think .... so maybe the monkey was a compliment to some extent? in fact, everything is pretty worse ...
      4. g1v2
        g1v2 3 February 2015 17: 18 New
        Judging by the video, the Northern Sea Route is being cleared of ice. It is not clear whether this is what we influenced, that the ice began to melt more off the coast of the Russian Federation, or is it natural, but the Northern Sea Route has become much more profitable. And I have a suspicion that the GDP has heard something about it. wink
    2. dsf324rdg
      dsf324rdg 4 February 2015 06: 22 New
      I want to give one piece of advice! I quit smoking 100 times, probably to no avail, until I read about this method, after a week I already forgot what a cigarette is, everything is correctly painted here
  2. Hronyaka
    Hronyaka 3 February 2015 06: 57 New
    The world is changing in our circle, but we still believe that we ourselves are changing it.
  3. lwxx
    lwxx 3 February 2015 07: 24 New
    The area of ​​ice is decreasing - more free water, as a result, is waiting for guests. Russia needs to restore and equip new bases in the Arctic as soon as possible in order to protect its interests.
  4. Russian Uzbek
    Russian Uzbek 3 February 2015 08: 38 New
    pay attention - ice is leaving the coast of Russia! soon along the Northern Sea Route it will be possible to maintain navigation all year round without any problems
  5. Alcoholic
    Alcoholic 3 February 2015 08: 47 New
    And what?
    Then what? wassat
    (It’s time to stop quoting mattresses, if you insert a quote, it’s specifically the name of the scientist. Sober heads are also found in mattresses. Sometimes)
  6. RUSS
    RUSS 3 February 2015 09: 29 New
    The amount of ice in the Arctic decreases on the eyes

    Recently they showed pictures from space, and so the ice is slowly increasing, on the contrary, this is confirmed by MP Chilingarov, an “Arctic explorer”.
  7. thinker
    thinker 3 February 2015 09: 45 New
    This is called global warming.
    Damage to the US economy from natural disasters will amount to hundreds of billions of dollars, the report said, to create which united Republicans and Democrats. The greatest harm will be done to real estate and agriculture. For the Russian economy, warming may be useful in some ways.
  8. Gomunkul
    Gomunkul 3 February 2015 10: 10 New
    The amount of ice in the Arctic decreases on the eyes
    What did the author want to tell us when publishing this article? Well, the ice is melting and what's next? In Greenland, 1000 years ago, wheat was grown and no one was surprised at this. hi
    1. Denis
      Denis 3 February 2015 15: 30 New
      Quote: Gomunkul
      Well, the ice is melting and what's next?

      There will be icing. About him, or rather they (more than one was) still told at school
  9. Humpty
    Humpty 3 February 2015 10: 26 New
    The climate is slowly changing, as it always has been. That is more ice, then less. In the fall I saw the place, a little grassy slope with a rare shrubbery moved out and the ancient ice that was under the soil and stones, either from the last, or from the penultimate ice age, was exposed. At that time, ice descended 500-600 m lower in our country. I do not think that the ancient people enjoyed this and were very worried about the retreat of the glaciers.
    1. Denis
      Denis 3 February 2015 13: 58 New
      Quote: Humpty
      The climate is changing slowly, as it always has been
      Huge + for realism and the absence of tantrums!
      There were icing and then, respectively, warming, and even what! Nor did the Vikings bring the Norwegian boulders to the middle lane, they brought the glacier. Where is it now?
      There is a flurry of opinions, there is also about the cooling, that's just not 5-10 years, it's a whole ERA
      The intervals of cold climate, during which vast continental glacial climates form, during which vast continental ice covers and deposits lasting hundreds of millions of years, covers and deposits lasting hundreds of millions of years are formed, are referred to as glacial eram-glacial eras; in glacial eras stand out; glacial-glacial periods of tens of millions of years are distinguished in glacial eras, which, in turn, are tens of millions of years long, which, in turn, consist of glacial epoch-glaciers — glaciers (glacials) alternating with non-glacial alternating (glacial) interglacials). (interglacials)
  10. Free wind
    Free wind 3 February 2015 15: 13 New
    Winters are getting warmer. For the third year in a row, in the central regions of the Krasnoyarsk Territory there have not been -40. In principle, this is not bad, but the summer became very cold. And in the autumn the rains are not stopping, In general, good is not enough.
    1. Denis
      Denis 3 February 2015 15: 27 New
      Quote: Free Wind
      Generally good is not enough

      It can’t be good or bad, it’s like day and night. Warming and cooling have always been the same as they will be. In archeology, when drilling a pit on one of the walls, they clean up and there you can see the variations in climate by the color of the soil. And they were always how much the world exists.
  11. Free wind
    Free wind 3 February 2015 16: 43 New
    I know about all these temperature fluctuations. and it’s not bad, but when it touches us personally ... And when we are not cold in winter either. but even in the summer we’ll not go warm in sweatshirts ..... let the mammoths remember this, but I’m not a mammoth ... and I don’t want to die out.
    1. Denis
      Denis 3 February 2015 18: 17 New
      Quote: Free Wind
      but I’m not a mammoth ... and I don’t want to die out.

      We obviously will not have time to die out, but what about later ...
      There is no way out, except for obviously charlatan projects.
  12. gramatey
    gramatey 3 February 2015 20: 42 New
    Satellite observations of Arctic ice began in 1979. In other words, a number of observations are not even 40 years old. Is it necessary to make predictions of processes with a thousand-year amplitude, based on such almost “instantaneous” data? The forecast accuracy is 50%, or it will come true, or not. lol
    The same alarm was played with the so-called. the "critical" depletion of the ozone layer. The neutral Swedes began to instrumentally measure it during the war years, when other countries actively strangled each other. And against the backdrop of such a brief series of data, many had the mind to shout the guard, not knowing anything at all about the factors affecting the ozone layer, and putting the blame on refrigerators, hair spray, and cows spoiling the air. fool
  13. ando_bor
    ando_bor 3 February 2015 22: 31 New
    Climatic changes have always occurred, a person as a species and as a civilization, is a product of adaptation to these changes, all historical movers and climate change are connected, and if in antiquity this was practically the only reason, now other factors work, but also the influence of climate on geopolitics no one has canceled.
  14. 34 region
    34 region 4 February 2015 01: 44 New
    From this video, it feels like the pole is shifting to North America. Yes, it seems, and was even on the territory of Greenland. And North America was covered by the Lavrentid Glacier. And in Russia it was warm and it seems even mammoths grazed.
    1. ando_bor
      ando_bor 4 February 2015 07: 27 New
      When mammoths grazed there was no heat, it was drier, mammoths are not afraid of frost - they are afraid of snow and swamps.
  15. Arguntinec
    Arguntinec 4 February 2015 08: 03 New
    hi friends
    this is what L. Gumilyov wrote, In Search of a Fictional Kingdom.
    it seems like no one has denied it yet.

    "Water and air
    <...> Two air towers have the main impact on the climate of the Northern Hemisphere, in particular the Old World. One of them stands above the North Pole - this is the polar baric maximum. The second aerial tower, a tropical maximum, rises above the Sahara and Arabia. It is formed purely mechanically due to the rotation of the Earth, and its base is gradually eroded from below due to the heating of the desert surface. If the polar maximum as a whole remains stationary, then the tower of the tropic maximum constantly moves to the north, then to the south, and therefore the region of low

    pressure, representing a kind of hollow through which the moist air of the Atlantic Ocean in the form of cyclones flows to the continent of Eurasia. These cyclones are the cause of precipitation in this area.
    The direction of the cyclones depends on the degree of activity of the tropic maximum, which is directly proportional to the fluctuations in solar activity, because the sun's rays with all their strength abut precisely in the tropical zones of the globe. On the contrary, fluctuations in solar activity hardly affect the polar maximum, since the sun's rays only glide over the surface of the polar regions.
    During the years of the calm Sun, i.e., with little solar activity, the path of cyclones passes through the Mediterranean and Black Seas, the North Caucasus and Kazakhstan up to the mountain ranges of Altai and the Tien Shan. Here they linger, the moisture that they carry from the expanses of the Atlantic falls in rains. At this time, the steppe is moistened. Deserts are overgrown with grass. The steppe rivers flowing from the slopes of Altai, Tarbagatay, Tien Shan and the Pamirs become multi-water. Balkhash and the Aral Sea are filled with water and increase in size. On the contrary, the Caspian Sea, which receives 81% of the water from the Volga, the basin of which occupies the middle zone of European Russia, is drying up and shrinking. The amount of precipitation in the Volga basin, as well as in the entire Middle lane, is greatly reduced. Here rivers become shallow and disappear, lakes turn into swamps and peat bogs, there are low-snow harsh winters, replaced by dry sultry summers. Further to the north, in the polar zone, the White and Barents Seas are covered with ice, permafrost moves south, raising the level of lakes in the tundra.
    With an increase in solar activity, the tropic maximum begins to shift northward, shifting the path of Atlantic cyclones in this direction. Cyclones sweep over Central Europe and Siberia. The amount of precipitation in the steppe zone is greatly reduced. The steppe begins to dry out. Balkhash and the Aral Sea are shallow and shrinking. On the contrary, the Volga becomes wide and watery, the Caspian Sea is increasing in size, being filled with water. Winter in the forest strip becomes snowy, mild, with frequent thaws, and summer becomes cool, rainy. During periods of highest solar activity, cyclones move even further north. They pass over Scotland and Scandinavia to the White and Kara Seas. The steppe turns into deserts and semi-deserts, its border with the forest zone moves north. The Volga is growing shallow, the Caspian Sea is shrinking. The climate of the polar zone becomes warmer and wetter.
    These are the three main options for the path of the Atlantic cyclones, on which the history of the Great Steppe directly and directly depends. Changes in the direction of cyclones occur constantly, and we now have the opportunity to chronologically date the periods of moistening and drying out of the steppes of Eurasia.
  16. Arguntinec
    Arguntinec 4 February 2015 08: 04 New
    Let us leave aside ancient antiquity and see how the climate of the steppe zone changed during the period of interest to us. In the IV – III centuries. BC e., to which the oldest more or less detailed written reports of the peoples of Central Asia go back, there was a period of moistening of the steppe associated with the southern variant of the passage of cyclones. At this time, the level of the Caspian Sea was eight meters lower than the modern one, although Uzboy carried an excess of Amu Darya waters into it, which did not intervene in the Aral Sea. Then gradually the amount of precipitation in the steppe began to fall: cyclones began to move into the forest zone. On the I — III centuries. n e. the era of drying up of the steppe is falling. Balkhash and the Aral Sea were greatly reduced, and the level of the Caspian Sea rose by four meters.
    In the XNUMXth century the cyclones shifted south again - and the steppe bloomed again. This continued until the thirteenth century. with a short drying period in the IX century. Since the middle of the XIII century. the cyclone path has moved to the middle lane. By the beginning of the XNUMXth century The Caspian Sea rose eight meters above modern level. The Great Steppe entered a period of arid climate.
    Cyclones over the next centuries moved to the polar zone, then in the XVII-XIX centuries. "returned to the Middle Strip, and in the XX century, literally before our eyes, again went north."
    Those. if now cyclones and warm air of the Atlantic rush over the polar zone - then here is the result. But after 300 years, everything can change again.
    So the topic of warming has not yet been fully disclosed.
    1. ando_bor
      ando_bor 4 February 2015 08: 26 New
      The whole history is tied to these changes, this is Gumilyov’s main and true idea, although it is still necessary to understand the mechanism of these changes, Gumilyov had little scientific data.
  17. ED007
    ED007 4 February 2015 16: 08 New
    As a result of climate research, melting glaciers, scientists say that the ocean level will rise by 4,5 meters in the near future. “Chain reactions are detected throughout the system, where we are no longer able to stop them,” the NASA report says. Draw conclusions ...
  18. saygon66
    saygon66 4 February 2015 20: 37 New
    - For the first time, warming is not happy ... At + 7 meters to sea level, you have to live in a swamp ... recourse