Military Review

Modern adjustable bombs (CAB) of the USA and Russia

18
Adjustable aviation bombs (KAB), which are often referred to in English literature smart bomb (smart bombs) - this is one of the types of guided aviation means of destruction of ground targets. CAB - are aerial bombs equipped with a guidance and control system. It is worth noting that the most important characteristic of aviation ammunition is the ratio of the mass of explosive to the total mass of the bomb / missile. For aircraft missiles, this figure ranges from 0,2 to 0,5 (such a low ratio is explained by the placement of the engine, fuel tanks, correction systems in the rocket), for uncontrolled aerial bombs this figure approaches one, for CAB it is 0,7-0,9. With almost the same mass and launch range (in comparison with the rocket), the adjusted bombs can carry much more explosives.


High precision weapon USA - SDB class bombs

We begin our story about modern precision weapons with the American SDB (Small Diameter Bomb) bombs. The bomb is presented in two main varieties of GBU-39 and GBU-40. This KAB is capable of hitting reinforced concrete hangars and bunkers by punching their walls. The design of the bomb has folding wings in flight, which can significantly increase the range of destruction of targets. The bomb has been in service with the US Army since September 2006. The most modern American fighter 5-th generation F-22A Raptor is able to place on a special suspension and 8 bombs of a similar class.

The first was the SDB I (GBU-39) bombing the US Army. Its weight is rather small, only 130 kg., Diameter is about 190 mm., Length is about 1,8 m. Compared to ammunition from the Second World War, we can note a relatively small weight and diameter with a significantly increased bomb length. This bomb is able to accurately hit various targets - its circular probable deviation (diameter of a circle, in which half of the bomb is guaranteed) is 5-8 m. Such accuracy is achieved using an onboard control system with inertial channels and GPS. Inertial channels are able to ensure operation in conditions of intense electronic suppression by the enemy. All this is done in order to deliver 17 kg. high blasting explosives exactly to the target. Taxpayer such a "toy" costs 70 thousand dollars per copy (a pair of average annual salaries in the United States).
Modern adjustable bombs (CAB) of the USA and Russia
SDB GBU-39

Most likely, an ordinary person with a liberal arts education, at the sight of such a cost, would have rushed to stigmatize the Pentagon and all its contractors with iron. But everything is relative, because, as you know, a simple man in the street does not acquire bombs on wages. A delivery of ammunition to the goal of aviation. SDB class bombs can be used on the following aircraft: B-52 Stratofortress bombers, B-1 Lancer, B-2 Spirit, F-15E Strike Eagle, F-16 Fighting Falcon, F-22 Raptor, F-35 Lightning II, and also the A-10 Thunderbolt II attack aircraft. If we drop the cars of the first generation from here and take a look at the prices of the newest aircraft, everything will fall into place. So the cost of the B-2 Spirit bomber, made using stealth technology, is a little over 1 billion dollars apiece (excluding R & D). And the unobtrusive air superiority fighter F-22 Raptor, belonging to the 5 generation, is estimated at 137,5 million dollars for a serial copy of the 2008 of the year. The cost of the F-35 Lightning II fighter-bomber starts from 83 million for the cheapest modification. Compared to these astronomical prices, the cost of an SDB bomb looks just penny.

The SDB GBU-39 bomb is planning. She approaches the goal with folded wings. The bomb can be laid on a special pallet BRU-61 / A, which accommodates 4 such CAB. Bomb's place on the site of the bomb hole is occupied by exactly one such “pack of four”. After dumping the pallet, its pneumatics throws away the bombs, they spread the wings laid along the hull using a special mechanism, straighten the rudders that open in the stern (the control system is also located there) and begin to be outputted to a predetermined target. To the goal of such a bomb is planning. In this case, the distance of its dropping to the object of destruction can reach up to 110 km. This range is designed to minimize the risk of meeting the monstrously expensive aircraft (fighters, bombers) with the enemy's air defense system. The farther away the planes are from the air defense systems, the more efficiently the stealth technology implemented in their construction is implemented, and you can’t get under the fire of conventional air defense artillery, visually induced.

Fighter 5-th generation F-22 Raptor, having a supersonic cruising speed, able to drop these bombs and on it. In this case, the SDB can fly even further due to the increased lifting force of the wings and flying along a higher trajectory. Reaching the goal, the bomb can behave differently. Switching from the cockpit of the aircraft fuse can operate in several modes - the traditional contact, the explosion with a slowdown and an air explosion. The fact that a bomb has a slowdown explosion mode explains the fact that SDB has less explosives than older bombs and its modern counterparts. The fact is that approximately 70 kg. its mass falls on a high-strength body, which acts as a projectile and allows the bomb to go a whole meter deep into concrete reinforced with steel rods.
GBU-39 strikes attack aircraft in closed caponier

Adjustable aerial bomb SDB-I can only hit stationary targets. It has already been tested during military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The next generation of these weapons, the SDB-II or GBU-40, has in its design a target recognition system and a thermal imaging sensor. Their presence allows the KAB to hit Tanks and other ground equipment. The price of this variety is near the mark of 90 thousand dollars apiece.

Russian precision weapons - KAB-250

Not so long ago, Russia presented the most compact in its class KAB-250 aerial bomb, produced by State Scientific Production Enterprise “Region”. This adjustable bomb has all the characteristic features of traditional unguided bombs and, most likely, has a TV guidance system. The diameter of the bomb is 225 mm., Length 3,2 m., Weight 250 kg. Of these, 127 kg. accounted for by the weight of the explosive. This adjustable aerial bomb can be placed both on the external sling and in the internal compartments of fighter-bombers.

This bomb was presented at the MAKS-2011 air show in August. It is worth noting that its developer GNPP Region did not provide any detailed information about this sample, so that a simple man in the street can only guess about the effectiveness of this device. Despite this, it can be assumed that the KAB-250 has a combined satellite and laser semi-active guidance system. Also noteworthy is the characteristic elongated shape of the body of the new bomb, which is most likely optimized for the internal compartments of the 5-generation aircraft PAK FA.

The previously adjusted air bombs in Russia also strike surface and submarine targets. For example, the Kaban Zagon-1 is able to hit enemy submarines at depths of up to 150 meters and waves in the sea with 6 points. This bomb is used primarily in bays, fjords, other areas in which the use of other guided weapons is difficult. When used against underwater targets, a bomb is dropped on a parachute. At that moment, when the bomb touches the surface, it is separated from it, plunges and moves to the target due to gravity, the presence of a motion control system and an active hydroacoustic direction finding of underwater targets. According to the SNNP "Region", the Kab "Zagon-1" is unified for use on anti-submarine aircraft Il-38 and Tu-142МЕ, as well as for Ka-28 helicopters.
CAB-250

It is worth noting that domestic aerial bombs are very attractive by the criterion of "cost-effectiveness", easy to manufacture and unpretentious in operation. The CABs manufactured today in Russia do not require any special maintenance and control.

In conclusion, it can be noted that it is rather foolish and useless to directly compare modern Russian and American KAB directly. Too different is the device. The American SDB KAB is, in fact, a rocket-projectile without an engine, which is able to cover a considerable distance through planning. Its main purpose is to defeat bunkers, command posts, buildings, by breaking through walls and an internal explosion. In turn, Russian ammunition is traditionally cheaper and more to the usual air bombs. At the same time, they have a significantly greater warhead weight and a significantly smaller radius of use (US SDB to 110 km. From target, Russian KAB-500 to 9 km.).
Author:
18 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Akim
    Akim 12 October 2013 08: 49 New
    10
    The Soviet type of CABs, however, probably like the import one, depends on the speed and height of the carrier. So dropped from a height of 5 km and with a carrier speed of 1M, our bomb can fly up to 30 km, and at 2M all 70 km at the same altitude.
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 12 October 2013 16: 14 New
      0
      Well, for some reason it does not fly ...
    2. Avenger711
      Avenger711 12 October 2013 16: 58 New
      +1
      And can it be reset to 2M? There are quite a few subtleties. Well, the question of guidance.

      Planning a bunker-bomb is nonsense, its potential energy will be spent on horizontal movement and it will not be able to accelerate, it will fall 50-60 m / s, maybe a little more. In reality, a bunker, if it’s not Tallboy from WWII, it can even first stabilize with a parachute above the target and, after adjusting, accelerate due to the jet engine.
      1. Akim
        Akim 12 October 2013 20: 16 New
        +3
        Quote: Avenger711
        And can it be reset to 2M? There are quite a few subtleties. Well, the question of guidance.

        With the MiG-25RB they did so. That's just KABy really bad aim. Better planned unmanaged and plenty. They really fly for 60 km. So it was 20 years ago. Although the reset parameters practically did not change 200-300m / s i.e. close to 1M.
        1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Zerkalo
        Zerkalo 13 October 2013 17: 14 New
        +1
        And if you make an accelerator in the final section of the trajectory? I think there are such developments.
    3. Strong
      Strong 13 October 2013 15: 41 New
      +2
      Quote: Akim
      The Soviet type of CABs, however, probably like the import one, depends on the speed and height of the carrier. So dropped from a height of 5 km and with a carrier speed of 1M, our bomb can fly up to 30 km, and at 2M all 70 km at the same altitude.


      Physically able to fly, and capture the target? KAB-500Kr, for example, has a TVGSN, which is unlikely to capture a target within 30 km, not to mention all sorts of weather restrictions and darkness. American "Mavericks" for example and their domestic counterparts in terms of engine capabilities have a very good range potential, while the guidance features impose serious restrictions. And for example, the range of 20 km for the AGM-65D remains only a reference indicator.

      Poactive laser bombs, regardless of the country of manufacture, have all the charms of semi-active guidance. Including a greater susceptibility to response.

      They seemed to have abandoned the KAB-500S (it is reasonable to believe that the upgraded weapons systems of conventional Tu-22 and Su-24 carriers allow the use of free-falling bombs with the same accuracy).

      Now they are developing again. But it seems to me that the KAB-250 is the same ordinary disc (like JDAM), and not planning. That is the main difference. Why planning ammunition is not being developed is a question.
      1. Zerkalo
        Zerkalo 13 October 2013 17: 19 New
        +1
        To begin with, the oats history of KABs began at US from Vietnam. We got a military trophy bomb. Which did not explode. Our specialists dismantled it and rushed. If krvtko. Do not develop? Question. Maybe they do, but they don’t speak yet. This is with us. The main problem is no money and no specialists. Copying an American fool is hard - we do not have such small devices to shove inside. That is, if we try to make a small-sized gliding bomb with our electronics, we get a KAB 250 - at best. Unfortunately. YES and the series are too small for us. In Georgia, in 2008, the FAB also threw the 46th year of release. Tests for CABs do not really carry out. Again, unfortunately.
    4. Zerkalo
      Zerkalo 13 October 2013 17: 12 New
      +1
      What 250 with 5 km to 30 flies? No, most likely it flies stupidly on a ballistics, because it’s called correctable. Here’s Matrasnikovskaya SDB - yes, she plans exactly and can, in theory, fly away at all 110km. True dump height and flight speed are in question then.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Akim
        Akim 13 October 2013 18: 14 New
        +1
        Quote: Zerkalo
        No, most likely it flies stupidly on a ballistics, because it’s called correctable

        The projectile being corrected is so called that at the final section of the ballistic trajectory it can change its direction. It's not just about KAB-250. Although in option "C", when aiming by JiPiS / GLONAS, the release speed and distance to the target are less significant. These warheads use a thermal imaging guidance system.
  2. report4
    report4 12 October 2013 11: 35 New
    +1
    does the F-22 not have the ability to work on ground targets or has something changed?
    1. leon-iv
      leon-iv 12 October 2013 14: 02 New
      +2
      You hang up normal bombs on the external suspension and go ahead
      Or 112 kg castrates into the interior compartment
    2. Pimply
      Pimply 12 October 2013 14: 04 New
      +5
      Not so long ago, aircraft underwent modernization under the program Increment 3.1
  3. Tektor
    Tektor 12 October 2013 13: 04 New
    +2
    They did not write a very interesting parameter: how long does it take for the GBU to fly 110 km? It is clear that KABs are an extremely effective weapon if there is no long-range air defense system or rival in the air. Moreover, their effectiveness only increases with a decrease in caliber.
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 12 October 2013 16: 48 New
      +5
      Quote: Tektor
      how long does it take GBU to fly 110 km?

      And how important is this to you? The advantages of UAB are the difficulty of detecting it in the air, the lack of an engine makes it invisible in the IR range, and a small EPR also makes it difficult to detect a radar.
      1. Professor
        Professor 12 October 2013 16: 56 New
        +3
        Quote: Nayhas
        And how important is this to you? The advantages of UAB are the difficulty of detecting it in the air, the lack of an engine makes it invisible in the IR range, and a small EPR also makes it difficult to detect a radar.

        And the most important thing is the mass character of this weapon. I do not agree with the author that the average salary in the US is $ 35 tf. per year, but a $ 70 bomb has proven effective. In general, let him bring the cost of re-equipping a simple bomb into a smart one.
        1. bif
          bif 13 October 2013 00: 00 New
          +5
          Quote: Professor
          I do not agree with the author that the average salary in the US is $ 35 tf. per year, but a bomb in $ 70 thousand has proved its effectiveness

          1.Article copied from http://vpk.name/news/57912_sovremennyie_korrektiruemyie_aviabombyi_kab_ssha_i_ro
          ssii.html, and there she appeared in 2011 a year ... let's say it's a bit old.
          2. price of 70 and 90 etc. not true ... here's an example of a contract. In 2013, in the amount of 42mln. purchased 144 pcs gbu-39, i.e. each more 290 $. http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=GBU-39&stable=0&redirect=no#cite_note-
          3 so, the author with s.p. the average amer got excited, but at 1 a year zp Obama (she 300t. Dollars) just.
      2. Tektor
        Tektor 12 October 2013 22: 33 New
        +2
        The advantages of UAB are the difficulty of detecting it in the air,
        That is why it is interesting: the incoming information indicates that these weapons, especially those of small calibers, are considered by NATO as one of the main ones for suppressing enemy air defenses at the beginning of an aggression. It is important to know the time in order to represent the parameters of an anti-aircraft missile, which could "get" the adversary, taking into account his "handicap" due to the late detection of the attack and the distance at that time, ie. speed and range of missiles. According to the first estimates, one cannot do without AWACS and long-range near hypersonic RVVs.
      3. AVV
        AVV 13 October 2013 01: 07 New
        0
        If there is a Carapace, then the UABs are very good at straying, especially since its flight speed is not high compared to a missile. And if the S-300 enters the air defense complex along with the Carapace, then the plane does not shine, it won’t even have time to bomb , it won’t reach the bombing zone! About s-400, I don’t even say! Here is such an eternal struggle of air defense and aviation means!
        1. Tektor
          Tektor 13 October 2013 13: 00 New
          +3
          If there is a Shell, then the UAB s are very well off ...
          Correction: The shell well knocks down GBU caliber of 285 and more kg. But ... less, alas:
          "Strategic bomber aircraft also began to equip small-caliber UAOs. At present, the American B-2A strategic bomber, equipped with GBU-39 / B guided aerial bombs (UAB) of 250 lb (113 kg) caliber, is capable of delivering high-precision strikes simultaneously against 64 targets in any weather conditions, B-1B - 96 each, and tactical fighters F-22A and F-35 - eight and 16. It is expected that by 2030 most military aircraft of leading foreign countries will be able to strike stationary and mobile objects from the first attack, including without entering the zone of destruction of the enemy's active air defense systems, which will make it possible to inflict significant damage on the enemy with minimal risk to its forces.
          At present, the specialists of the Lockheed-Martin company have developed a small-sized guided missile "Scorpion", which is designed to destroy enemy manpower, light armored vehicles, trucks and cars, as well as artillery and mortar gun positions. High guidance accuracy (KVO = 1 m) and the presence of a small warhead (warhead) weighing 2,27 kg (an option with a warhead weight equal to 7,7 kg is possible) makes it possible to use this missile against targets where a low level of collateral damage is required.
          The "Scorpion" missile launcher can be used from various launching devices, for example, from the M-299 / M-310 suspended pylons used to launch the AGM-114 "Hellfire" missile launcher from helicopters and from the MQ-1 "Predator" UAV. When using the M-299 / M-310 system, it is possible to suspend three Scorpion missiles on one rail instead of one AGM-114 Hellfire.
          The launch weight of the "Scorpion" missile is 15,88 kg, length 0,546 m, diameter 0,1 m, firing range up to 18,5 km. The missile is equipped with a combined guidance system - a semi-active laser homing head (GOS), active (millimeter wavelength range) and thermal imaging (TPV) GOS.
          Since 2010, the US Armed Forces have been supplied with the Raytheon Griffin small-sized guided missile. It is designed to destroy stationary and mobile ground targets, including when providing close air support during the conduct of hostilities in populated areas. "Griffin-A and -B": First (launch weight 15,7 kg, warhead 6 kg, length 1,09 , 0,14 m, diameter 130 m) is optimized for dropping through the cargo ramp of the AC-130N and U "Spectrum" and "Spooky" aircraft, as well as equipped with a removable set of sighting equipment and weapons "Dragon Speer" multipurpose aircraft SSO Air Force MS- 13W Combat Spear. The second modification (launch weight 3,6 kg, warhead weight 0,99 kg, length 0,14 m, diameter XNUMX m) is made in a transport and launch container, which ensures its use from external hangers of combat helicopters, as well as launchers mounted on various vehicles or on remotely controlled weapon modules of armored vehicles. "
        2. Zerkalo
          Zerkalo 13 October 2013 17: 24 New
          0
          I doubt that the aircraft with UABs will open them with air defense. There are other things for this. For example, drones with anti-radar missiles.
      4. Zerkalo
        Zerkalo 13 October 2013 17: 21 New
        +1
        YES and I read in bourgeois western articles that one B2 spirit can throw them up to 25 at a time. Imagine how to bring it all down?
  4. Professor
    Professor 12 October 2013 16: 41 New
    +8
    In conclusion, it can be noted that directly comparing modern Russian and American CABs is rather stupid and useless.

    And why then try to compare and even so superficially? request
    1. Very old
      Very old 12 October 2013 17: 01 New
      0
      Well, what does YOU have in the manner of evading an answer? Oleg, when will you be frank? Information went through the network - all students at Israeli universities are paid for .... Do you know why?
      1. Professor
        Professor 12 October 2013 17: 13 New
        +4
        I didn’t notice a question. Where is the question? According to students, where can I get my share? wink
  5. Nayhas
    Nayhas 12 October 2013 16: 45 New
    +6
    Well, the article certainly added warm feelings to domestic attempts to create a UAB, but somehow it was not impressive. Compare SDB which is not only produced, but also exploited for several years, with the hypothetical KAB-250 which is only at the exhibition as a model and is absolutely impossible to show. If the KAB-250 passes the GSI and is accepted for service, then it’s worth talking about something, and so ...
    Even if it is accepted into service, then in this case the comparison will not be accurate, because their caliber is different, it is more appropriate to compare it with 500 pound GBU-12 PAVEWAY II or GBU-38 JDAM. The only thing that combines KAB-250 and SDB is the originality of the product. That is, these are not kits for free-falling bombs, a UAB created from scratch. The GOS is also incorrectly indicated in the article, it is not laser semi-active, but thermal imaging, this can be seen even from the photo, large-diameter optics clearly indicate this.
    1. zub46
      zub46 12 October 2013 17: 43 New
      +4
      Interestingly, in our Air Force there are at least a hundred of such CABs? And then a friend, the former assistant commander of a hefty bomber, all complained about the 1943 model bomb.
      1. Nayhas
        Nayhas 12 October 2013 21: 15 New
        +2
        Quote: zub46
        And then a friend, the former assistant commander of a hefty bomber, all complained about the 1943 model bomb.

        KAB-250 is not in service, in 2011. it was shown at the exhibition, during this time no news of adoption has been heard, which means that it is either not ready or the military refused it, there are several reasons for the TTZ mismatch or the price is prohibitive.
        And the issue of old bombs is solved by installing attachments on a regular air bomb, after which it flies to where it is needed. At least the Americans did.
  6. Technologist
    Technologist 12 October 2013 18: 35 New
    +2
    The planning bomb is good for hitting dams, dams, detached buildings, etc., but at the expense of bunkers it is somehow doubtful.
  7. bif
    bif 13 October 2013 01: 28 New
    +2
    In conclusion, it can be noted that directly comparing modern Russian and American CABs is rather stupid and useless. These devices are too different. The American SDB CAB is essentially an engine-free missile that can travel a considerable distance through planning. Its main purpose is the defeat of bunkers, command posts, buildings, by breaking through walls and an internal explosion. In turn, Russian ammunition is traditionally cheaper and more gravitated to conventional bombs. Moreover, they have a significantly larger weight of the warhead and a significantly smaller radius of use (American SDB to 110 km. off target, Russian KAB-500 to 9 km.)

    1. GBU-39 (at 2013 year for 292t. $ Pieces), adopted by the 2006 year, Designated to destroy fortified structures (punches up to 90cm reinforced concrete).

    2. GBU-40 (Boeing / Lockheed Martin) is a further development of GBU-39 and GBU-53 (Raytheon) are SDB II, are currently being tested. About GBU-53: "The cost of the GDB II development program based on GBU-53 / B is $ 450 million. Small-diameter bomb (length 176 cm, diameter - 15-18 cm, wingspan after wing drop - 168 cm, weight - 93 kg ) can be placed in the internal compartments of stealthy fifth-generation fighters, due to its small cross-section and the presence of planes that can be deployed in flight, it has a high aerodynamic quality.This allows it to hit targets at a distance of about 70 km (40 nautical miles) from the drop site, without entering the zone Enemy air defense ... The air bomb is either sent to a stationary object directly using an anti-jamming GPS sensor (attack mode based on the geocentric coordinates of the target, Coordinate Attack), or it is aimed at the target at the final (terminal) trajectory segment using a three-mode guidance system.
    In the latter case, the bomb can be aimed at the target either according to an uncooled infrared passive sensor or the active microwave range radar (Normal Attack and Immediate Attack modes), or using a semi-automatic laser guidance system - in this case, the target should be illuminated by the gunner (Laser Illuminated mode Attack).
    The infrared sensor allows not only to determine the location of the target, but also to classify it according to three independent parameters.
    The missile is equipped with a secure duplex data exchange channel, which allows the operator to correct it during the flight to the target and control the degree of damage "http://www.neogeography.ru/ru/2010-05-03-10-15-45/120--sdb -ii-gbu-53b-raytheon.h
    tml

    3.GBU-57 or Massive Ordnance Penetrator (MOP) - Guided Aerial Bomb, developed in the USA by Boeing. According to the developer, he will be able to break through 60 m of reinforced concrete. In November 2011, the delivery of the first batch of bombs from a general order to 20 units was announced.
    Guidance System: GPS-enabled Laser
    Bomb weight, kg: 13600 kg. Length: 6,2 m. Diameter, m: 0,8 m. Aircraft carrier: B-2A Spirit.

    4. KAB-500 is not clear why it was dragged and compared to it, KAB-500 is a Soviet 500 kg calibrated aerial bomb, adopted for service in the 1976 year. Range to 9km, Designed to hit ground targets such as railway bridges, reinforced concrete shelters, runways. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%90%D0%91-500
    1. bif
      bif 13 October 2013 01: 32 New
      +1
      5. Speaking about KAB-250, there is little information, but we know for sure: that KAB-250 will have a combined guidance system: inertial satellite + GOS. Thus, inertial-satellite navigation equipment is used as a homing system for an aerial bomb, and homing from a thermal imaging homing head with a correlation information processing algorithm is used in the final section of the trajectory. KAB-250PL (Deep with sonar seeker) and KAB-250L (semi-active laser seeker) carry a high-explosive fragmentation charge. No other data.
  8. Strong
    Strong 13 October 2013 15: 48 New
    0
    In general, the article is interesting. The headline hints at a comparison, and at the end of the remark "... that it is quite stupid and useless to compare modern Russian and American KAB directly." (from)
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. SS68SS
    SS68SS 28 October 2013 17: 45 New
    0
    How much a person is perverted to kill his own kind .... Probably soon something will happen ...