Military Review

Interstellar: on the way to the stars

55



Where, behind the stern, the solar wind subsides and eternity rises next to us ... What awaits those who were able to break through the heliopause and touch the light of distant stars? Ghostly shine of Kuiper belt particles. Decades of flight without the possibility of replacing failing units. Attempts to establish communications with the Earth from astronomical units at a distance of 200.

Will it be possible to take such distant frontiers with modern technologies? Fly to where the radio signals come from a delay per day? Even light passes before a huge distance, but the human mind goes forward.

Jump through daylight

30 billion kilometers. 70 years of flight when using existing accelerating blocks with LRE. Modern interplanetary stations are not designed for such expeditions. After three or four decades, the radioisotope battery dies. The supply of hydrazine in AMC orientation engines ends. Communication is disconnected, and the probe, asleep forever, is dissolved in an infinite space.

To date, mankind has managed to build six "starships", exceeding the third cosmic velocity and leaving the solar system forever.

Here are the names of the characters.

Automatic interplanetary stations of the “Pioneer” series under the number 10 and 11. Launched in 1972-73. “Pioneers” reached the area of ​​outer planets, first transmitting to Earth photographs and scientific data from the environs of Jupiter and Saturn. Having made a maneuver in the gravitational field of the giant planets, they forever left the region of the ecliptic and entered into an unequal battle with space and time.

Communication with “Pioneer-11” was interrupted in 1995, when he was already far beyond the orbit of Pluto. By now, the probe has left the Sun on 90 a.e. and continues on its way towards the constellation of Shield.

Interstellar: on the way to the stars


His twin lasted exactly thirty years in outer space: the latest scientific data from the “Pioneer 10” were transmitted to Earth in the 2002 year. According to calculations, in 2012, he should have been in 100 a.e. from the sun. Asleep forever probe with a gold plate on the board flies in the direction of Alpha Taurus. Estimated time of arrival - 2 000 000 year AD



The following heroes are participants of the stunning mission “Voyager”, the largest expedition of all time interplanetary flights. Two probes hit the road in the distant 1977 year, hoping to visit the environs of all outer planets. The main mission of the Voyagers ended in complete triumph: the probes studied Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune from the flight trajectory, their rings, and also 48 satellites of the giant planets. At the time of passing over the upper cloud layer of Neptune, after 12 years of flight and 4 billion km of the path traveled, the deviation of the “Voyager-2” from the calculated trajectory was incredible 200 meters!



Today, after 37 years after their launch, they continue their journey in the interstellar ocean, moving away from Earth at a distance of 107 and 130 a.e. Radio signal delay from “Voyager 1” - 17 hours 36 minutes. The transmitter power is only 26 W, but its signals still reach the Earth.

The memory capacity of the onboard computer “Voyagers” is 100 times smaller than that of a modern mp3 player. The unique retro equipment continues its work, through the whirlwinds of electromagnetic storms and dozens of years of work in open space. Several liters of precious hydrazine remained in the tanks, and the power of the radioisotope generator still reaches 270 W. Already beyond the orbit of Neptune, NASA programmers managed to “reflash” the Voyager on-board computer: now the probe data is encoded with the highly secure dual Reed-Solomon code (it is curious that during the launch of Voyagers, this code has not yet been used in practice). By the beginning of the new century, the probes had switched to the backup engine set of the orientation system (the main set had already made 353 thousand corrections by that time), but the sun sensor is finding it harder to find its dim light against the background of thousands of bright stars every day. There is a risk of loss of orientation and loss of communication with the Earth.



In the summer of 2012, the equipment of “Voyager-1” registered a sharp drop in the intensity of charged particles of the solar wind - the probe crossed the boundary of the solar system, having gotten out of the heliosphere. Now the probe signals are distorted by a new, never-before-recorded sound - the plasma of the interstellar medium.

For the ninth year, the New Horizons automatic station, launched in January of 2006, has been plowing space. The mission’s mission is Pluto, about the appearance of which we know almost nothing. Estimated time of arrival to the target - 14 July 2015 of the year. Nine and a half years of flight - and only three days for close acquaintance with the farthest planet.

“New Horizons” left the near-Earth orbit with the highest speed among all spacecraft - 16,26 km / s relative to the Earth or 45 km / s relative to the Sun, which automatically made the “New Horizons” a starship.



It is expected that after the passage of Pluto, the probe will continue its work in open space until the middle of the next decade, having by this time retired from the Sun on an 50-55 a. The shorter mission duration compared to “Voyagers” is due to the short duration of the radioisotope “battery” operation - by the 2015 summer, the energy release of the RTGs will be only 174 W.



Just behind the “New Horizons” another remarkable object flies - the solid propellant booster unit ATK STAR-48B. The third stage of the Atlas-5 launch vehicle, which brought the New Horizons probe to the departure trajectory to Pluto, also gained heliocentric speed and will now certainly leave the boundaries of the Solar System. Together with her for the same reason two balancing loads will fly to the stars. The second stage (the accelerating block “Centauri”) remained in a heliocentric orbit with the orbital period 2,83.

According to calculations, in October 2015 g. STAR-48B will be held at a distance of 200 million km from Pluto, and then forever dissolved in the depths of space.

The ships will fall asleep, and time will lose meaning for them. After hundreds of thousands, maybe millions of years, all these man-made objects will get to the stars. But scientists are interested in the possibility of creating EXISTING spacecraft capable of continuing to work in interstellar space for an extended period of time, moving away from the Sun at a distance of hundreds of astronomical units.

TAU project

TAU (Thousand astronomical units). The concept of 1987 of the year, which involved sending an automatic station to the 1 / 60 distance of a light year from the Sun. Estimated travel time is 50 years. The purpose of the expedition: the construction of a grand range finder with the basis of 1000 AU, the measurement with high accuracy of the distances to the stars, including those outside our galaxy. Secondary tasks: the study of the heliopause region, the solution of the problem of ultra-long-distance cosmic communication, verification of the postulates of the theory of relativity.

The power supply of the probe is a small-sized nuclear reactor with a thermal power of 1 MW. Ion engine with 10 years of operation. The authors of the TAU project proceeded solely from the technologies existing at that time.

Currently, the most developed and feasible project of the interstellar expedition is the Innovative Interstellar Explorer. The probe is compact in size, carrying onboard 35 kg of scientific equipment and equipped with three RTGs and a space communications system capable of providing stable communication with the Earth from 200 AU.



Acceleration using conventional rocket boosters on chemical fuels, gravitational maneuver in the vicinity of Jupiter and ion engines, in which the working fluid is xenon. All three of these technologies exist and are well developed in practice.


Marching ion engine probe Deep Space-1


Two things are needed to operate an ion engine: a working fluid (gas) and a few kilowatts of electricity. Due to the negligible consumption of the working fluid, the ion engine is able to work continuously for ten years. Alas, his traction is also negligible - Newton's tenths. This is completely inadequate for launching from the surface of the Earth, but in weightlessness, due to continuous many years of work and high specific impulses, such an engine is capable of accelerating the probe to high speeds.

In the mission of Innovative Interstellar Explorer, due to three methods of acceleration, scientists hope to accelerate the probe to a speed of 35-40 km / s (over 4 AU per year). This is extremely high by the standards of modern cosmonautics (a record for Voyager-1, 17 km / s), but it is quite feasible in practice using modern electric propulsion and high-capacity radioisotope energy generators.

Innovative Interstellar Explorer is being researched by NASA experts since 2003. Initially it was assumed that the probe would be launched in 2014 and it would reach the target (it will be removed at a distance of 200 AU from the Sun) in the 2044 year.

Alas, the nearest launch window has been missed. The interstellar probe program is not a NASA priority program (in contrast to more realistic rovers, interplanetary stations and the Webb telescope under construction).

Favorable conditions for launching the interstellar probe are repeated every 12 years (due to the need to perform a maneuver in the gravitational field of Jupiter). Next time the “window” will open in 2026, but it’s far from the fact that this chance will also be used for its intended purpose. Perhaps something will be decided by the 2038 year, but probably the concept of Innovative Interstellar Explorer by then is endlessly obsolete.

Already, engineers are working on electrothermal plasma accelerators (VASIMR), magneto-plasma-dynamic engines and a Hall engine. These variations of the electric rocket engine also have a high specific impulse, comparable to beats. imp. ion engines, but are capable of developing an order of magnitude greater thrust - i.e. accelerate the ship to the speeds in a shorter time.

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  1. Bayonet
    Bayonet 29 January 2015 06: 56 New
    25
    NASA's achievements in the field of deep space exploration look really impressive against the backdrop of discussions about "trampolines" ...
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 29 January 2015 12: 48 New
      +9
      In the field of deep space exploration, we now have a full trampoline.
    2. Lt. Air Force stock
      Lt. Air Force stock 3 February 2015 23: 11 New
      +2
      The budget of Roscosmos for 2014 is 165,8 billion rubles, at today's exchange rate dollars (67,77) is $ 2,45 billion. NASA's budget for 2014 was $ 17,7 billion. They have a budget of 7,2 times more than that of Roscosmos, given that they practically do not start anything (the launch is outsourced), apparently most of the money goes just to study deep space.
  2. Santa Fe
    29 January 2015 07: 06 New
    10
    Sorry you can not put a soundtrack to articles
    To this would fit -

  3. Mussasi
    Mussasi 29 January 2015 07: 09 New
    11
    Moving in outer space on the principle of jet propulsion is futile; a completely different approach is needed, because even light moves very slowly across the universe. But of course you should not sit back, and use the available technologies to the maximum, because only the path will overpower.
  4. The comment was deleted.
  5. 501Legion
    501Legion 29 January 2015 07: 30 New
    25
    this is a very good article. more to such a stellar.
    read with great pleasure
  6. saag
    saag 29 January 2015 07: 39 New
    +4
    Quote: 501Legion
    more to such a stellar.
    read with great pleasure

    "The Martian" Andy Weir :-)
    1. silver_roman
      silver_roman 30 January 2015 12: 38 New
      +3
      Yesterday, in your opinion, I downloaded this book. Already read 100 pages. impossible to come off. quite scientifically and interestingly written + wonderful humor.
      Of course, there is not enough strength and knowledge to try to analyze all the manipulations of the main character in the process of his survival, but still the idea is great.
      Thank you for the tip good
  7. inkass_98
    inkass_98 29 January 2015 07: 47 New
    +7
    Thanks to Oleg for the article. Still, he doesn’t get away from his favorite topic - albeit space ones, but ships hi .
    On the topic: current jet engines are completely unsuitable for overcoming interstellar spaces, even if they are liquid propellant rocket engines, even if they are ionic - there is little thrust, and there is little fuel. The prospect available to us is photonic, but even here there are a lot of problems, starting from the reflector, ending with the fuel itself for such an engine. I would like to hope that not only NASA deals with these issues, but something is being done in our country. We never launched our distant probes, then nothing of ours flew further than Mars, unfortunately.
    1. Santa Fe
      29 January 2015 08: 07 New
      11
      Quote: inkass_98
      current jet engines are completely unsuitable for overcoming interstellar spaces, even if they are liquid propellant rocket engines, even if they are ionic, thrust is low, fuel supply is low.

      Any current engine is not suitable for interstellar flights
      Quote: inkass_98
      The prospect available to us - photonic

      As far as I know, this is the most fantastic kind of engine. Only "wormhole" is more fantastic



      The only, at least theories, justified type of engine that can drag us to the stars will explode (Orion) or a pulsating nuclear / thermonuclear engine (Daedalus / Longshot projects). The truth is, how to do all this in practice is completely unthinkable.

      It will turn out to explode in monstrous proportions - how can this be put into orbit? Daedalus needs a huge supply of helium-3 (100 000 tons), the authors of the project propose to extract from the atmosphere of Jupiter. yeah good luck

      More or less realistic is the "Long Shot" (Longshot), although there are many things that are unclear (the concept of an interstellar ship was created in 1988 by cadets of the US Navy Academy)



      + unsolved problem of protecting the ship at 0,1с speed against collision with gas particles and micrometeorites

      There is also such an interesting story, consonant with the "business paradox". according to the SRT, the distance decreases with increasing speed. This means that the spaceship will easily and quickly fly to the Andromeda nebula, but for an earthly observer ... a million years will pass ... Damn!
      1. saturn.mmm
        saturn.mmm 29 January 2015 13: 59 New
        0
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        As far as I know, this is the most fantastic type of engine.

        This is the only engine that has a chance to create, with the help of which it will be possible to develop a speed of over 0,1 s. Even the speed of light is not enough for exploring deep space, it is for exploring the nearest one in our galaxy. One perspective "Wormholes".
        And is it worth what we find there, maybe Rafe?
      2. Chiropractor
        Chiropractor 30 January 2015 17: 50 New
        0
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        according to STO, the distance decreases with increasing speed.


        everything is relative laughing
        with an increase in the speed of the body to close to light, the subjective time slows down (and the distance remains unchanged) - because the time of getting a photon from a target into the eye of an observer flying on this body decreases (the speeds of the photon and body add up).
        in this case, before the start, the same photon will fly the same amount of time.
        so, the body will reach the goal in a year, and at the start 10 years will pass.

        so in the twins paradox, the chip is not in the distance, but in time ...
    2. ver_
      ver_ 6 February 2015 19: 03 New
      +1
      ... bullshit ... for me there was a shock when before my eyes when cutting with a cutting tool (it was too lazy to turn the cutter on the checkpoint) from the edge of the workpiece under a reinforced bolt for the lower swinging suspension arms of the GAZ-24 2 fell together (like two chain link) rings with a diameter of 22 millimeters, a width of 2 millimeters and a thickness of 1 millimeter and there is no connector. Then I asked the old turners - they say that this happens ...
      I kept these rings for a long time, then I got lost ... And the answer is no .. The riddle, how can this even be? ..
  8. SveTok
    SveTok 29 January 2015 07: 56 New
    13
    Mars would be an oasis if its development took as much money as it went to war.
  9. igorka357
    igorka357 29 January 2015 08: 29 New
    +6
    Finally, the class ... I just love such things .... to the author ++++++++
  10. Arktidianets
    Arktidianets 29 January 2015 08: 51 New
    +2
    With the current development of space technology, only AMSs allow the exploration of outer space, I hope that someday the human foot will still set foot on the surface of distant planets.
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 29 January 2015 09: 39 New
      -6
      Quote: Arctidian
      I hope that someday the human foot will still set foot on the surface of distant planets.

      What for? Amuse pride? AMCs do much better.
      1. saturn.mmm
        saturn.mmm 29 January 2015 13: 44 New
        0
        Quote: Nayhas
        But why?

        To find something evil and greedy there and then show the path to the earth.
        Who is there at the top of the food chain?
        1. Massik
          Massik 30 January 2015 09: 43 New
          0
          At the same time, get hold of an external enemy and forget about disagreements for a while)))
      2. Lt. Air Force stock
        Lt. Air Force stock 31 January 2015 16: 24 New
        0
        It’s good there, because the USA with its imperatives is absent, besides the Earth is not eternal, overpopulation, etc. etc.
  11. Andrew 78
    Andrew 78 29 January 2015 09: 15 New
    +6
    Bravo to the author! I read everything twice, as in youth
  12. Nitarius
    Nitarius 29 January 2015 09: 46 New
    +2
    It’s strange with us somehow in THIS WORLD! we are Lied about space, and development.
    So in the photo to your attention, Mr. from Novosibirsk, V. Grebennikov, a site about his book http://bronzovka.ru/glava05_1.html

    man made the Anti-Gravity Platform .. so in the 80s!
    and our and foreign are silent!

    How and why did I come to this find?
    In the summer of 1988, looking at the microscope of the chitinous coverings of insects, their feathery antennae, the finest structure of butterfly wing flakes, lacewing lacework and other Patents of Nature, delicate with rainbow overflow, I became interested in the unusually rhythmic microstructure of one of the rather large insect details. It was extremely ordered, as if stamped on some complex machine gun according to special drawings and calculations. In my opinion, this incomparable cellularity was clearly not required either for the strength of this part or for its decoration.
    Nothing of this, even vaguely reminiscent of this unusual, surprising micro-gut, I have not observed in other insects, nor in the rest of nature, nor in technology or art; because it is volumetric multidimensional, I still have not succeeded in repeating it in a flat drawing or photo. Why does an insect need this? Moreover, this structure - the bottom of the elytra - is almost always hidden from his other eyes, except in flight, when no one sees it.

    These strange, unusually subtle and complex insect devices and devices are not only designed to touch, smell, sight, sound, but also receive or form electronic waves, and some of them counteract gravity. Taken through an electron microscope.
    I suspected: is it a wave beacon that has “my” effect of multi-cavity structures? There were a lot of insects of this species in that truly happy summer, and I caught them in the evenings in the light; neither "before" nor "after" I have observed not only their mass character, but also single individuals.
    I laid this small concave chitin plate on the microscope table in order to once again examine its strange-stellate cells at high magnification. I admired the next masterpiece of Nature's jeweler, and almost without any purpose I laid on it with tweezers another exactly the same plate with these extraordinary cells on one of its sides.
    But there it was: the part escaped from the tweezers, hung a couple of seconds in the air above the one on the microscope stage, turned a little clockwise, moved out - through the air! - to the right, turned counterclockwise, swayed, and only then quickly and sharply fell on the table.


    Perhaps this is how the takeoff of my gravitoplan was seen from the ground,
    What I experienced at that moment - the reader can only imagine ...
    Recovering, I tied several panels with wire; it was not without difficulty, and it was only when I took them vertically. The result was such a multi-layer “chitinoblock”. Put it on the table. Even such a relatively heavy object as a large pushpin could not fall on it: something seemed to beat it up and then to the side. I attached the button on top to the "block" - and so inconceivable, incredible things started (in particular, for some moments the button completely disappeared from view!), That I realized that this is not a beacon, but a completely different one.
    And again, my breath took hold, and again, from excitement, all the objects around me swam like fog; but I, though with difficulty, nevertheless pulled myself together, and after two hours I was able to continue working ...

    ... and its hovering over the Zatulinka plants - like this. However, "eyewitnesses" reported something completely different ...
    And from this case, in fact, it all began.
    Much, of course, still needs to be rethought, verified, experienced. Of course, I will tell the reader about the “subtleties” of the work of my device, and about the principles of its movement, distances, altitudes, speeds, equipment and everything else - but, it will be in my next book.
    1. _Krechet_
      _Krechet_ 29 January 2015 11: 42 New
      +4
      Thanks for the post - I read the chapter and will definitely read the whole book.
      Nature has long ago solved all the questions that we have not even asked.
    2. Bayonet
      Bayonet 29 January 2015 12: 05 New
      +5
      Quote: Nitarius
      man made the Anti-Gravity Platform .. so in the 80s!

      I also love science fiction!
      1. Nitarius
        Nitarius 29 January 2015 19: 57 New
        -1
        Well, here's a little more ... since I have been interested in this topic for a long time. I can write a lot about Alternative Things! but how many people .. disappeared. so it’s not clear at all.
        and now in the case:

        Here is what I was able to read and rewrite. "In the fall of this year (I think 2002) I was traveling by train to Moscow and behind my back I heard a conversation between two young people. Grebennikov's surname sounded more than once in their conversation. This attracted my attention, and after half a minute, I brazenly intervened in their stormy conversation The feeling I had was as if I had crawled out of the darkness.

        People have been flying for a long time, but I walk on foot. Two guys were discussing how to improve their unit. They go to test the unit in Ruza there, according to the guys, the terrain is the most suitable minimum of field deviations (?). I told them about my observations. For them it was not at all surprising.

        One guy’s name is Aleksey, his friend Andrei is 25 years old. As a child, Aleksey was sent to the village of his grandfather to the Don every summer. There, at the age of five, he first saw such an aggregate. Guys on such units flew fishing. They were made by one local Kulibin from what he could find on the collective farm.

        Kulibin was a veteran of the Second World War and remembers this design from the war. Grandfather Alexei, then still told a little, that he was given the task of destroying the German warehouse in late 1944. The company completed the mission, but grandfather was still able to sketch the design of the enemy unit. The unit flew at a low altitude above the water, this is of course a big drawback.

        And so two friends decided to recreate the enemy's construction. Andrei fell into the hands of a book by Grebennikov, but Alex nevertheless decided to do everything according to the sketches of his grandfather.


        After much persuasion, the guys gave me to look out of the corner of my eye on the structure, which freely fit between the two seats in the train. In a case, it is very similar to a drum kit only flat.

        When I looked at the unit, it seemed very familiar to me.

        A platform with a foot mount, on one cape a toggle switch on the other, a makeshift pedal from which a cable goes inside the platform.

        On the bottom side is a rim with ignition coils and magneto. Inside the rim there are two discs, one external movable, the other internal not movable.

        Four magnets and eight coils are fixed on the movable disk, four horizontally, four vertically.

        The internal disk, if at all, can be called a disk of two types of mesh. Grids are also placed in two planes. One mesh is very thin of stainless steel, the other is copper with fairly large cells about a millimeter.

        To the outer part of the disk, the grids are fixed rigidly through an insulator, and inside the disk are fixed to a movable insulator. The insulator stands on a spring and can be moved 20-25 degrees along the axis using a cable attached to the pedal. Candle wires go from ignition coils to the insulator and each is connected to its grid.

        A tumbler breaks a magneto chain. A movable disk, this is essentially a bicycle wheel whose axis is fixed in the center of the platform.

        They run this thing like that. Holding the unit vertically with one hand, spin the wheel with the other. Turn it over into a horizontal plane, turn on the toggle switch for how many seconds, turn it off and start pressing the pedal. The start is made above the water. "And this is all with regards to this.

        Not a drawing, not a sketch. Only this record, then the recipe for pickling mushrooms.
    3. Glaaki
      Glaaki 29 January 2015 13: 25 New
      +4
      Mmm ... As if Ren-TV was watching.
      1. Nitarius
        Nitarius 29 January 2015 20: 01 New
        -1
        but the reality!

        Another flyer:

        "A strange man really flies over the Ruzsky reservoir. He rides from the town of Ruza to the village of Glazovo. He doesn’t go directly to the reservoir at the base. There is a truck camera and a pump, a motorcycle battery in the backpack. He pumps air into the camera, attaches some coils, nets , battery. He does everything above the hole. At first they thought it was such a poaching tackle. Yes, they only saw him. He rises about five meters and flies towards the dam.

        "March 2, 2007
        I lost four days off, wandering around in search of a miracle of the unit, burned a ton on a wheelbarrow of fuel. What can you tell about this man. Name is Alexander. Age 55 years. Lives in the city of Ruza. Electrical Engineer. On weekends, in the morning you can meet at bus stop number 25. (Ruza - Ostashevo) Glazovsky bend and travel 3,5 km to the bases of Glazovo, asking about his homemade products. A person lives poorly, plainly everything is exactly what you don’t know. He knows nothing about Grebennikov and AVION. Carries a backpack with him. In the backpack there are stainless steel mesh coils, a gluttonous generator, a control panel and a battery, a small car pump, a camera from the ZIL 130 wheel. Two boards are attached to the backpack, more precisely two stripes of laminate flooring. Comes on ice, pumps the camera with air, puts coils and nets on the marks. He puts two boards on the camera, sits on top, turns on the generator and rises slowly by 3-4 meters. Then it switches on another mode and flies at the same height towards the Luzhka Recreation Center over the frozen channel of the Ruzsky reservoir, making a 12 km path in the air, and there is not enough battery charge for more. Not a motor and no blades. Flies only in winter, starts only with ice. You can meet him on the P108 highway near the rest house on the same side or at the stop of Belyanaya Gora railway station and bring 11-12 km to Ruza. In short, I did not like boring all this and sad, I need to pick mushrooms in the summer, and in winter I do not need it for nothing. The main thing I did not understand what for him to fly in the winter unnecessarily. "

        p / s: THIS MAN HAS BEEN FOUND. AND FOUND OUR FRIENDS FROM BOGRA. He was taken to Holland as a family. That's how Minds go abroad!
    4. spiolist pas harp
      spiolist pas harp 29 January 2015 18: 38 New
      +1
      Quote: Nitarius
      It’s strange with us somehow in THIS WORLD!
      Do not pay attention to the Neanderthal zipper. laughing Anyway, your attempts will remain in vain. Yes, and zaminuset.
      Recently read about a successful test. modernized (already the second current version) of the quantum engine. On YouTube there are videos about both the first and second.
      I'm afraid to mention - they will burn it at the stake for witchcraft. recourse
      1. Bayonet
        Bayonet 29 January 2015 19: 07 New
        0
        Quote: Speciolist on harp
        Recently I read about the successful test of a modernized (already the second working version) quantum engine. On YouTube there are videos about both the first and second.
        I'm afraid to mention - they will burn it at the stake for witchcraft.

        Yes, YouTube is a very authoritative source of information. fellow The Commission to Combat Pseudoscience and the Falsification of Scientific Research is a scientific coordination organization under the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It was founded in 1998 on the initiative of the academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Vitaly Ginzburg. Very useful stuff!
      2. Nitarius
        Nitarius 29 January 2015 20: 05 New
        0
        here is a real flying platform.
        no it's not photoshop! and people came to the guys. they took everything away ... and told them to forget about them!
        1. vladkavkaz
          vladkavkaz 29 January 2015 20: 18 New
          0
          Nitarius
          Who are they who came, the notorious people in black "or what ???
          By the way ... to this day, the most clear to the horror childhood memories, like on a mountain, with friends, in a clearing, they saw some kind of creature, either a black jumpsuit or a spacesuit, instead of a face some kind of white sparkling sphere and inexplicable horror, fled so that Vovka’s boots flew off his feet .. at the usual pace, three kilometers to run to the town, and then .. I never ran like that again ...
          1. Nitarius
            Nitarius 30 January 2015 12: 40 New
            0
            no ! not in black .... ordinary people! nothing special
    5. Max otto
      Max otto 30 January 2015 13: 11 New
      0
      Quote: Nitarius
      It’s strange with us somehow in THIS WORLD! we are Lied about space, and development.
      So in the photo to your attention, Mr. from Novosibirsk, V. Grebennikov, a site about his book http://bronzovka.ru/glava05_1.html

      man made the Anti-Gravity Platform .. so in the 80s!
      and our and foreign are silent!

      How and why did I come to this find? ..

      And why didn’t you add the main thing ???
      And you need to add the following: The article was published in the "Technology of Youth" magazine in the late 80s in the April issue. I think everything is clear now?
  13. Zerstorer
    Zerstorer 29 January 2015 11: 33 New
    +3
    Great article. I have not read about space for a long time. Oleg +!
    1. saturn.mmm
      saturn.mmm 29 January 2015 20: 02 New
      0
      Quote: Zerstorer
      Great article. I have not read about space for a long time. Oleg +!

      I agree. I will make my small contribution to the development of interest of the young generation in Outer Space.
      This is how our Sun will eventually look. (Click)
      1. Glaaki
        Glaaki 30 January 2015 17: 17 New
        +2
        Will our sun eventually turn into a snail nebula? Wow. You just broke my picture of the world.
  14. Vadim237
    Vadim237 29 January 2015 12: 41 New
    +2
    In 2017, they promise to make an atomic rocket engine.
  15. Kahlan amnell
    Kahlan amnell 29 January 2015 13: 10 New
    +5
    If there were no wars. If there were no political and economic confrontations. If humanity lived in peace and harmony, cooperated ... Bitter "if only" ...
    As long as humanity remains at a low stage of moral development, stars will be inaccessible to us.
    1. engineer74
      engineer74 29 January 2015 14: 13 New
      +3
      Or maybe this is laid down by Nature - while we are at war and doing other garbage on the "stars" we are not needed? what
      1. saturn.mmm
        saturn.mmm 29 January 2015 15: 40 New
        +1
        Quote: engineer74
        Or maybe it’s laid down by Nature - while we are at war and are engaged in other garbage

        This we train before space exploration.
        1. engineer74
          engineer74 29 January 2015 15: 56 New
          +2
          Do you propose to explore Space as Europeans America? belay
          I’m afraid that after such trainings, steam and electricity will have to be rediscovered! request
          1. saturn.mmm
            saturn.mmm 29 January 2015 19: 19 New
            0
            Quote: engineer74
            I’m afraid that after such trainings, steam and electricity will have to be rediscovered!

            Without training, you don’t have to open anything at all, friends are waiting for us with open arms.
            1. ICT
              ICT 29 January 2015 20: 34 New
              +2
              Quote: saturn.mmm
              friends are waiting for us with open arms.


              come on, there are enough bros (there is an opinion) wink
            2. sharp-lad
              sharp-lad 30 January 2015 00: 07 New
              0
              That's it! Life always goes close to death and vryatli somewhere in the depths of space gentle puppies are waiting for us, more likely wolves hardened in battles for life!
            3. sharp-lad
              sharp-lad 30 January 2015 00: 07 New
              0
              That's it! Life always goes close to death and vryatli somewhere in the depths of space gentle puppies are waiting for us, more likely wolves hardened in battles for life!
  16. silver_roman
    silver_roman 29 January 2015 16: 07 New
    +3
    imagine if all the basic human problems were solved and people directed all their resources to the study of matter and antimatter, the universe, stars, etc. etc.
    Instead of headlines about the victims in the Donbass, sanctions and LGBT people, they would read the news of science, its constant breakthroughs .... humanity needs to evolve still further. just not to destroy ourselves!
  17. Diviz
    Diviz 29 January 2015 18: 12 New
    0
    I recently read about the theory of UKS elastic quantum medium, then by 2050 we will all plow the cosmos and maybe galaxies. only the state should support such projects.
  18. 16112014nk
    16112014nk 29 January 2015 18: 29 New
    +1
    Whatever you say, the United States is still the leader in space. With such guidance and attitude towards the cosmic theme, they themselves will soon have to adapt to trampolines.
    1. ICT
      ICT 29 January 2015 20: 38 New
      +1
      MOSCOW, 29 January. / TASS /. Employees of the Russian Mission Control Center (MCC) received notifications of withdrawal for the state, their further fate will be revealed after mid-February. This was reported by TASS in the press service of the center.

      "The employees of the center have been issued notifications about their removal from the state. The further fate of each will be determined after mid-February," the MCC said.

      © ITAR-TASS Archive / Marina Lystseva

      At the MCC will cut every fourth employee


      A source in the aerospace industry also told TASS that all employees will not receive bonuses until April.
  19. saag
    saag 29 January 2015 19: 12 New
    +1
    Quote: DiViZ
    we will all plow the cosmos and maybe galaxies.

    Unless they prove that everything is around us and we ourselves are a hologram :-)
  20. Denis Skiff M2.0
    Denis Skiff M2.0 29 January 2015 20: 28 New
    +1
    Quote: Mussashi
    Moving in outer space on the principle of jet propulsion is futile; a completely different approach is needed, because even light moves very slowly across the universe. But of course you should not sit back, and use the available technologies to the maximum, because only the path will overpower.

    unitary quantum theory. eh, if possible. then a person could move faster than the speed of light many times. and the perpetual motion machine would be. and the signal would pass from one galaxy to another in seconds. and time travel would be possible (although unlikely). There are no aliens! We are alone in the universe! There are planets similar to ours, there are fish, small animals, grass and some water. Not more!
  21. Talgat
    Talgat 29 January 2015 20: 47 New
    0
    The article is excellent, thanks to Oleg! I read similar articles in the Soviet era in Science and Life. By the way, there was also about the Pioneer in my opinion (I do not remember which number) and about a plate with symbols for "brothers in mind" if they find a probe (with drawings of a person, diagrams of oxygen atoms of carbon, etc.)
    1. ICT
      ICT 29 January 2015 21: 23 New
      +1
      Quote: Talgat
      in Soviet times in science and life


      By the way, today it is the only magazine that has not changed its style for the sake of modernity.

      still read periodically, though in electronic form
  22. Yuri from Volgograd
    Yuri from Volgograd 29 January 2015 21: 01 New
    +1
    If humanity reaches the aliens, then the war will begin there.
  23. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 29 January 2015 21: 32 New
    +2
    Gentlemen, please do not touch the laws of nature. The law of conservation of energy cannot be violated, no matter how much you want. Therefore, for now, let's put aside anti-gravity platforms on a car battery and other wunderwaals. The path to space will be difficult and dangerous. And costly. And doubts gnaw, whether humanity will be able to "shift" the steering wheel to development instead of unrestrained "consumption".
  24. Ze Kot
    Ze Kot 29 January 2015 23: 28 New
    +2
    If we talk specifically about the engine, then it will be possible to move only on the one that will take "fuel" from the surrounding space.

    In general, the theory of "worm holes" or other theories of interstellar movement seem real to me. If the aliens who do visit Earth moved at the highest possible speed (the speed of light), then they would take an insanely long time to travel. There are obviously some other principles, such as time-space compression.
  25. Diviz
    Diviz 30 January 2015 10: 07 New
    0
    and you never thought about where the electrons go after a lightning strike on the earth or just get lost when passing through wires. it is possible that the decay products of these particles create an energy field, but to use it you must have the same energy level. that is, to disperse particles to a speed close to the speed of light. and then who knows what space we’ll fall into or the field.
    1. AID.S
      AID.S 30 January 2015 10: 43 New
      +2
      They bounce on impact or break. A pair of buckets can be picked up right after a lightning strike.
  26. fa2998
    fa2998 30 January 2015 22: 01 New
    +2
    Quote: Kahlan Amnell
    If there were no wars. If there were no political and economic confrontations. If humanity lived in peace and harmony, cooperated ... Bitter "if only" ...
    As long as humanity remains at a low stage of moral development, stars will be inaccessible to us.

    Unfortunately, humanity is the hostage of the solar system. Even in the future, scientists will make a colossal spacecraft with a speed of thousands of kilometers. \ N, but this is an insignificant fraction of the speed of light. And it will travel to the nearest star for thousands of years. A person is not eternal, so with inhabited appati of complexity. And outside the SS, the interstellar plasma is void. The only thing to study is our solar community, planets, satellites, etc. And interstellar travel is a science fiction. smile hi
  27. swertalf
    swertalf 6 May 2015 22: 08 New
    0
    Quote: Mussashi
    Moving in outer space on the principle of jet propulsion is futile; a completely different approach is needed, because even light moves very slowly across the universe. But of course you should not sit back, and use the available technologies to the maximum, because only the path will overpower.

    If mankind, instead of ridiculous kid-friendly fights for scraps of land and sea or delusional ideas of inadequate leaders, would send all resources and forces to comprehending the secrets of the universe and space exploration, we would have already reached the stars. And Tsiolkovsky’s dream of a stellar man became a reality.