Military Review

Memory in the desert

33
On the centenary of the Turkish Armenian Genocide


The January terrorist attacks in Paris diverted media attention from the slaughter in Syria and Iraq, where radical Sunni groups fueled by money from Saudi Arabia and Qatar continue to expand the territory they control . In occupied settlements, Christians are destroyed without exception - all without exception. They are knocked out at the root of the Yazidis, Mandeans, and other “heretics”, among whom Shia and moderate Sunnis fall among the Salafi fanatics. Western politicians diligently “ignore” the fact that the genocide of minorities is taking place in the very same districts where it has already passed a century ago. Unless then mostly Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks were killed, and this was primarily the Turks, who nowadays play a supporting role.

Any parallels of what is happening in the former Arab provinces of the Ottoman Porte with the genocide of Armenians a hundred years ago in Ankara are perceived with demonstrative indignation. Obviously, no lessons from stories no one made, the more sense to remember the tragedy of a century ago.

The peculiarity of the Armenian genocide at the junction of the past and the last century was mass character and absolute impunity - firstly. What he passed in front of the "enlightened" community, which stubbornly did not notice the destruction of the civilian population by the Turks, is the second. The bigotry of bigotry, as a result of which the very fact of the Armenian Genocide is still recognized only by individual countries and international organizations, - thirdly. Finally, it was the first massacre on a national basis, committed in a country that claimed to belong to modern civilization. What exactly characterizes this civilization and determines its price.

Whose side is the “global community”

The Armenian Genocide is reminiscent of a Holocaust organized several decades later by the Nazis. The same discrepancies in the number of victims (and in the number of those who lived in this territory). The same level of atrocities and the same fragments of mercy with amendments to local specifics: thousand-kilometer marches through the deserts to the last survivor and the salvation of a certain number of children in Turkish families (with the obligatory conversion of these children to Islam). The indifference of the world establishment and the negligible number of those who tried to preserve evidence of crime.

On the other hand, the Holocaust was recognized by the world. At least most of it. What price, how much time later - another question. The Armenian Genocide ... here, by and large, nothing comforting happens. The advances that can be observed, especially in recent decades, are insignificant and few can satisfy. Moreover, the relatives of the victims who make up the majority of Armenians in the modern world. The secret is simple: this is the difference between post-war Germany and Turkey.

In Germany, the victorious powers were denazification. The extermination of the Jews was one of the markers that marked the Nazi ideology, and at the official level it was impossible to approve it or remember it differently than with condemnation. In Turkey, all without exception the political elite consisted of and consists of those whose biography included participation in the genocide of Armenians or their direct heirs. The transformation of Turkey Atatürk to Turkey Erdogan did not change the situation - the Islamists no less violently deny the crimes of their predecessors than the Kemalists.

Again, Armenia was part of the Soviet Union before 1991, while Turkey was and remains a member of NATO and an associate member of the EU. The question is: on which side was the “world community” supposed to be? Which, due to such decisions, the author perceives exclusively as a mafia without shame and conscience. Because political pragmatism does not imply one or the other.

For the information of readers: the genocide is usually referred to as the extermination of Armenians, which began in 1915 year (and according to a number of sources, lasted until 1923) in the territories controlled by the authorities of the Ottoman Empire. It was carried out in several stages: the disarmament of Armenian soldiers, electoral deportation from border areas, the adoption of a law on expulsion, and finally, mass deportation and murder. A number of historians include the massacres of Armenians in 1890, the massacre in the city of Smyrna, and the actions of the Turkish troops in Transcaucasia in 1918.

The main organizers of the genocide are the leaders of the Young Turks Talaat, Jemal and Enver, as well as the head of the “Special Organization” Behaeddin Shakir. In the Declaration of 24 of May 1915, the UK, France and Russia for the first time in history recognized the mass killings of Armenians as a crime against humanity.

Massacre by law

The number of Armenians killed during the collapse of the Ottoman Ports and the emergence of modern Turkey in its place is as controversial as the initial number of people living in this territory. The authorities of the country prevent any attempts to objectively consider this using archives, much of which has been destroyed.

It is known that in the middle of the XIX century in the Ottoman Empire non-Muslims accounted for about 56 percent of the population. 1844’s first Turkish census showed about two million Armenians in Asian Turkey. At 1867, at the World Exhibition in Paris, the leadership of the empire announced two million Armenians in Asia Minor and 400 thousands in European Turkey. According to the Armenian Patriarchate in 1878, there were three million Armenians in the Ottoman Empire: 400 thousands in European Turkey, 600 thousands in western Asia Minor, 670 thousands in the Sivas, Trapezund, Kayseri and Diarbakir districts, 1 330 000 in the Armenian Highlands.

The mass extermination of Armenians in 1894 – 1896, which killed up to 100 thousands of people, consisted of three main episodes: the Sasun massacre, the killings throughout the empire in the autumn and winter of 1895, and the massacre in Istanbul and in the Van district. Before 300, thousands were converted to Islam. According to German missionary I. Lepsius, about 600 thousands of people were ravaged, 2493 cities and villages were looted, 649 churches and monasteries were desecrated, 328 churches were turned into mosques.

In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate of Turkey estimated the number of Armenians in the country in 1 845 450 people. The Armenian population decreased by more than a million due to the massacre in 1894 – 1896, the flight of Armenians from Turkey and the forced conversion to Islam.

By the end of the year, from 1923 to 1,5, millions of Armenians were destroyed by 2 (Turkish researchers talk about 200 thousands, claiming that their death was the result of hostilities). According to the well-known scientist R. Rummel, the 1915 – 1923 genocide took the lives of 2102 thousands of Armenians (258 thousands - outside the Ottoman Empire: in Iran and Russian Armenia).

The Turkish hostility to Armenians in the last decades of the Ottoman Empire was aggravated by the problem of Muhajirs: Muslim refugees, whose influx into the ports of the Caucasus after the Caucasus and Russian-Turkish (1877 – 1878) wars, as well as from the Balkan states, complicated the country's social problems. The overthrow of Sultan Abdul-Hamid II in 1907 provoked the massacre of Armenians in Adana, where more than 2000 people were killed. The pogroms, supported by the army, took place throughout Cilicia.

After the 1908 revolution of the year, which in the Soviet school history books was called bourgeois, the Young Turks began a campaign of forcibly otruchivaniya population, banning non-Turkish organizations. 400 thousands of Muhajirs were stationed in Anatolia. In February, Russia 1914 had achieved from Turkey the creation of two zones from six Armenian regions and the city of Trabzon, which were to be managed by representatives of the European powers agreed with Porto, but this plan was never implemented.

Memory in the desert2 August 1914 Turkey signed a treaty with Germany, implying a change in the eastern borders of the Ottoman Empire to create a corridor leading to the Muslim peoples of Russia, which meant the eradication of Armenians in these territories. The appeal, voiced by the Turkish government after 30’s October 1914 was entered into the war, claimed that there was a “natural” union of all members of the Turkish race.

In November, 1914, Turkey declared Jihad, which sharply increased the intensity of religious fanaticism, but until the end of March, the 1915 of the Armenian massacre was, as stated by the authorities, precautionary, which distinguishes it from later deportations and murders. In all, between November 1914 and April 1915, 27 of thousands of Armenians and many Assyrians were killed. However, the real genocide was ahead.

The first phase of the deportation of the Armenian population of the country began with the expulsion of the Armenians Zeytun and Dertyel in early April of 1915. 24 April of the same year, the Armenian elite of Istanbul (most of the 6000 people in question were killed), as well as Armenians Alexandretti and Adana, were arrested and deported. This date is celebrated by Armenians of the whole world as a day of remembrance and grief.

9 May was decided to expel the Armenians of eastern Anatolia. After the uprising in Van, the only region of the empire in which Armenians constituted the majority of the population, during the suppression of which 75 thousands of people died, the fourth phase of the deportation began, suggesting the expulsion of Armenians from border areas and Cilicia.

30 May 1915, the Majlis approved the Deportation Act. 21 June 1915, during the final deportation act, its main instigator Talaat ordered to send "all Armenians without exception" from ten provinces of the eastern region of the Ottoman Empire. Exceptions were made for those who were “recognized as useful to the state.” By the way, part of the Armenians of Istanbul and Edirne were not sent to reduce the number of foreign witnesses.

Some influential Turkish officials opposed the deportation of Armenians. The head of Aleppo, Mehmed Jelal-Bey, declaring that Armenians are protected and the right to live is natural for any person, has banned repression. The governors of Smyrna Rahmi-bey and Adrianople Haji Adil-bey were in solidarity with him. As a result, Jelal Bey in June 1915 was removed from Aleppo management. Similarly, the head of the concentration camp in the Der-Zor desert - Ali Sued Bey, who was trying to alleviate the fate of the Armenians, was removed from his post, and Zeki Bey, who was distinguished by his particular cruelty, was replaced.

The decision to deport Armenians from the western provinces (Ankara, Eskisehir and others), Kirkuk, Mosul, the Euphrates valley and other regions was taken on July 5 1915. 13 July Talaat Pasha said that the deportation is carried out for the "final solution of the Armenian question," a wording later copied verbatim by the Germans against the Jews.

However, the similarities between the Armenian genocide and the Holocaust are not only in the formulations, but also in the methods. Thus, the medical experiments that Nazi doctors conducted on Jews and Gypsies had parallels in the practice of Turkish military doctors. Biological justification was used as one of the justifications for the destruction of the Armenians. The main promoter of this policy was Dr. Mehmet Reshid, governor of Diarbekir.

By order of the doctor of the Third Army Tevfik Salim, in order to develop a vaccine against typhus in the central hospital of Erdzincan, experiments were conducted on Armenian soldiers and cadets, most of whom died. They were conducted by Hamdi Suat, a medical school professor, to whom, as the founder of Turkish bacteriology, a museum house in Istanbul is dedicated. The experiments were approved by the Chief Sanitary Inspector of the Ottoman Armed Forces, Suleiman Numan.

The head of the sanitary and hygienic services and the health department of the city of Trabzon, Ali Saib, experimented by injecting lethal doses of morphine or toxic substances to children and women, including pregnant women. He also used mobile steam baths, where children were killed with superheated steam.

The Special Organization, Teshkilat-i Makhsusa, which was located in Erzerum and had up to 34 thousands of members, among whom there were many chettes criminals released from prisons, played a significant role in the extermination of Armenians. In Erzerum itself, its members left alive around 100 Armenians who worked at important military sites. Most of the 65 thousands of Armenians of this city were killed, some deported to Mosul and Aleppo (some were able to survive in these cities).

A martyrology genocide is standard. Dates, names, methods of murder and the number of the dead are different. Always bullying, torture, robbery, rape, including minors. Methods of destruction - shooting, murder with the use of cold weaponsdrowning in the sea or rivers. Death from disease, hunger or thirst, cold or heat is not less common.

Details are also standard. Khynys - 19 thousands of dead. Bitlis - 15 thousand. There, the Armenians were killed by "butcher battalions" led by Dzhevdet. Harput - 13 killed thousands of Armenian soldiers, as well as students and teachers of the American Euphrates College. Erzincan, Bayburt, Ordu, Ankara, Merzifon - hundreds and thousands of settlements.

Urfa, Mush and Sasun stand out against the general background - there the Armenians tried to fight back from the Turks. The Armenians who lived in the area of ​​Mount Musa-Dag, near Antioch, repulsed the attacks of Ottoman troops for seven weeks. In the end, about four thousand people were saved and were taken on a French warship to Port Said.

Deported death awaited in 100 percent of cases. To the final destination in the desert reached no more than one-fifth of those who were sent there. Their subsequent destruction engaged the local population: the Circassians, Chechens, Kurds, Arabs. They killed 150 thousands of Armenians in the camps around the Der-Zor desert.

The territory of Russian Armenia, occupied by the Turks after the collapse of the Russian Empire, was completely looted by them. In the winter of 1918 – 1919, hunger, frost and typhus destroyed almost 200 thousands of people there - 20 percent of its population. The process of expelling and destroying Turkish Armenians ended with a series of military campaigns in 1920 against refugees returning to Cilicia and during the massacre in Smyrna, where the army commanded by Mustafa Kemal cut out the Armenian quarter, under pressure from the Western powers, allowing the survivors to be evacuated.

According to official statistics, 1927 77 Armenians lived in Turkey in 400 year. According to the Treaty of Lausanne, Turkey pledged to provide guarantees of security, free development and certain privileges to Armenians, among other national minorities. However, the provisions of this treaty were not enforced. On the contrary, 21 June 1934 was passed a law on surnames, demanding that Greeks, Jews and Armenians abandon traditional surnames and adopt Turkish ones. During World War II, an electoral property tax was imposed in Turkey, which ruined Greek, Armenian and Jewish merchants.

A glance through the ages

The extermination of the Armenians was accompanied by a campaign to destroy their cultural heritage. Armenian monuments and churches exploded, cemeteries were opened under fields, Armenian neighborhoods of cities were destroyed or occupied by the Turkish and Kurdish population and renamed. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople included 2549 parishes, including more than 200 monasteries and at least 1600 churches. In 1974, scientists identified 913 buildings of Armenian churches and monasteries in Turkey. More than half of these monuments have not survived. Of the remaining 252 were destroyed and only 197 are in relatively normal condition.

As for the international reaction to the Armenian genocide, it has been and remains more than modest. In the UK, after the official investigation, a book of documents entitled “Attitudes towards Armenians in the Ottoman Empire” was published. In Europe and the USA, there was a fundraising for refugees according to a well-established principle: you can’t save - get a letter to clear your conscience.

As a result, at 1919, at the 9th congress of the Dashnaktsutyun party in Boston, it was decided to destroy the leaders of the Young Turks who participated in the killing of Armenians. As part of the operation, called Nemesis, in March 1921 was killed in Berlin, the Minister of the Interior of the Empire and one of the members of the Ottoman triumvirate Talaat Pasha.

In modern Turkey, scholars, intellectuals, and the press are discussing the Armenian issue, despite opposition from nationalists and the government. The editor of the Armenian newspaper Hrant Dink, the writers Orhan Pamuk and Elif Shafak, the publisher Ragip Zarakolu were accused of insulting "Turkishness." In the end, Dink and Zarakola were convicted, and in 2007, Hrant Dink was killed.

Such international organizations as the Zoroyan Institute and the Armenian National Institute are fighting for international recognition of the Armenian genocide. In 1984, the Standing Tribunal of Peoples recognized the actions of the Ottoman Empire as genocide. The same conclusion was reached in 1997 by the International Association of Genocide Researchers. In 2000, a statement by 126 Holocaust researchers confirmed the indisputability of the Armenian genocide in the First World War.

The Armenian Genocide was recognized and condemned by the Council of Europe, the European Parliament and the UN Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. Of the states, Uruguay was the first in 1965. France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, Russia, Poland, Lebanon, Lithuania, Greece, Slovakia, Cyprus, Argentina, Venezuela, Chile, Canada, Vatican, Bolivia, Switzerland (lower house of parliament), 43 of the US state and Columbia followed. .

The first monument dedicated to the massacres of Armenians was erected in the 50s on the territory of the Armenian Catholicos in Lebanon Antelias. In 1965, a monument to the victims of the genocide was erected on the territory of the Catholicosate in Echmiadzin. In 1967, the construction of a memorial complex was completed on the Tsitsernakaberd (Swallow fortress) hill in Yerevan. In 1990, the chapel was built in the Syrian desert Der Zor. Whether in the midst of the civil war, which the Islamist fanatics are waging against the Syrian government, survived, this is the only one that was set not just as a sign of genocide, but a monument on the site of the death of Armenians, today nobody knows ...
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33 comments
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  1. Aleksiy
    Aleksiy 24 January 2015 08: 03
    +11
    Like this. Wherever you look around, there are only partners, and they are all the same: that the Austrian women, that the Poles, that the Turks - one x. Everyone has a snout in their blood. Heavenly kingdom to the tortured Armenians, and to the turkish flayers, as it should be, a place where they are surrounded by devils in the form of devils.
  2. blind
    blind 24 January 2015 12: 30
    +3
    here is the true face of enlightened geyropa
  3. buri
    buri 24 January 2015 13: 12
    -5
    Now it’s kind of like chewing gum is friendship between Russia and Turkey, so the article is not in the mainstream.
    the position of the author is also incomprehensible. it’s not an Armenian, with Jews (and Satan’s kind of like a Jew and Israeli patriot), the Turks still have friendships (although the latter conceal this with pompous speeches and flotillas and others). Ishilov’s oil is cheaply bought by Israel from Turkey at a low price. there it seems like the son of the current Turkish Putin is selling it.
    many want to see Ukraine in the Eurasian Union instead of Ukraine.
  4. Aleksander
    Aleksander 24 January 2015 13: 49
    +10
    1919g - The massacre in Smyrna (Izmir today) and the fire went on throughout the city and were accompanied by brutal tortures: for example, the girls were cut off after repeated rape [14]. Fleeing the fire, most Christian residents crowded on the waterfront. Turkish soldiers cordoned off the embankment, leaving refugees without food or water. Many died of hunger and thirst, others committed suicide by throwing themselves into the sea. To drown out the cries of perishing Christians, the Turkish military band constantly played. All this happened in front of the Allied naval fleet, which stood in the harbor without interferingDespite the fact that there were many ships of different allied powers in the harbor, most of the ships, citing neutrality, did not take away the Greeks and Armenians, who were forced to flee from the fire and Turkish troops
    [These are they Europeans. And today, SUCH,
    1. buri
      buri 24 January 2015 14: 12
      +1
      how terrible everything is, but one must be objective, and not put pressure on emotions. civil is civil, probably the Bulgarians slaughtered the Turks, the Greeks, as well as the long-suffering Armenians in those days. in Thessaloniki, many Turks used to live. where are all these turks? part destroyed, part moved to the same myrrh and of course the Greeks from Myrrh drove off to Thessaloniki.
      you probably don’t remember how the Bulgarians slaughtered the Turks in Edirne during the Russian-Turkish war.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Aleksander
        Aleksander 24 January 2015 14: 20
        +4
        Quote: buri
        civil is civil


        The German Nazis with the Jews, too, was a civilian?

        A major pogrom was in Istanbul almost nowadays, in 1955. And the churches and monasteries of Northern Cyprus are destroyed today.
        1. buri
          buri 24 January 2015 14: 59
          +1
          where does the Germans and Jews. the issue of the Armenian Genocide by the Turks.
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. Aleksander
            Aleksander 24 January 2015 15: 06
            +1
            Quote: buri
            where does the Germans and Jews. the issue of the Armenian Genocide by the Turks.


            Despite the fact that there and there was genocide, not civil war.
            1. buri
              buri 24 January 2015 15: 15
              -1
              catch the story. was the first world war. then civil in the former Ottoman Empire.
              for some reason, the suffering Armenians forget to mention how the Armenian militia during the hostilities between the Turks and the Russians hit the rear in the rear. what else was to be expected from the Turks. need to say. Russia has long maintained separatist sentiments among Armenians in the Ottoman state.
      3. Stavros
        Stavros 24 January 2015 15: 18
        +5
        Well, of course, peaceful Turks sat, the terrible Greeks, Armenians and Bulgarians came from somewhere, and began to cut the unfortunate Turks.
        Of course, I understand your Turkic solidarity, but there are times when it is best to keep silent, and not carry nonsense.
        1. buri
          buri 24 January 2015 15: 29
          0
          specifics for more in the discussion please. I can say the same with respect to peaceful Armenians and Greeks.
          about nonsense in more detail please.
      4. vikingost
        vikingost 25 January 2015 05: 58
        -1
        oni russkie, nepoymut, vi im ewe genocida krimskix tatar i cherkesov raskazivayte
        1. buri
          buri 25 January 2015 07: 42
          +1
          those who staged these genocides are the revered national heroes of Russia. but bender is bad
  5. anaida
    anaida 24 January 2015 14: 15
    +3
    Quote: buri
    Now it’s kind of like chewing gum is friendship between Russia and Turkey, so the article is not in the mainstream.
    the position of the author is also incomprehensible. it’s not an Armenian, with Jews (and Satan’s kind of like a Jew and Israeli patriot), the Turks still have friendships (although the latter conceal this with pompous speeches and flotillas and others). Ishilov’s oil is cheaply bought by Israel from Turkey at a low price. there it seems like the son of the current Turkish Putin is selling it.
    many want to see Ukraine in the Eurasian Union instead of Ukraine.

    What is the friendship between Russia and Turkey? Firstly, there is no friendship, there is mutually beneficial cooperation, and secondly, we are talking about the recognition of Turkey’s historical mistakes. Because you do not have time to blink an eye, how the situation with Bandera will repeat, please - a hero of an entire nation ....
    1. buri
      buri 24 January 2015 15: 15
      -1
      friendship concept abstract. especially in relations between states. Naturally, I put it accordingly. if it doesn’t reach you, it’s your problem.

      we will not deny that Banderra tried ideologically for his nation. they want to let him consider him a hero. it is their sovereign business. not to tell you. You Suvorov is also a hero. But how did he arrange the genocide of the legs? Yermolov is also a hero for you. Ukrainians do not blame it, then why do you blame them ???
      more objective please.
      regarding the recognition of errors. in international relations they have far-reaching consequences. all smart people know this. Thus, the Armenians try to chop off a part of the territory of Turkey (especially Mount Ararat). the question is how do they achieve their goal. by exposing oneself as a victim. after all, the Jews succeeded, why not try
  6. Xent
    Xent 24 January 2015 14: 24
    +4
    Thanks to the author, he presented everything very competently. Hundreds of volumes can be written about the Armenian genocide, but still I can’t say everything, I can only answer the author’s question!
    In 1990, a chapel was built in the Syrian desert of Der Zor. Has the Islamist fanatics survived in the midst of the civil war waged against the Syrian government, this is the only one set not just as evidence of genocide, but precisely at the site of the death of the Armenians, no one knows ...

    that’s what the Islamists did !!!
    1. vikingost
      vikingost 25 January 2015 06: 00
      -3
      v drugom meste rasskazivayte svoix skazok pro lojnogo genosida
  7. Stavros
    Stavros 24 January 2015 15: 10
    +4
    It’s strange, not a single ancient Azerbaijani cavatar is on the branch. Where are you valiant Turkish lawyers? Is everything really on the front line?
    1. buri
      buri 24 January 2015 15: 17
      -1
      but so many Armenians
      1. Stavros
        Stavros 24 January 2015 21: 32
        +5
        Are there many Armenians? You are probably a new person on this site, and you don’t know that the whole color of the Cavatar-Azerbaijani General Staff gathered here, besides some marshals, liberators of Artsakh, future martyrs, so to speak.
        1. buri
          buri 25 January 2015 07: 45
          -1
          something they blundered during the time of Karabakh. Of course, the Russian Federation helped the Armenians, but this help was not decisive. the army of Azerbaijan is more reminiscent of the Arab army, weapons are recruited for big money without a specific military doctrine. it seems to be bought more in the interests of filling the pocket of certain officials, rather than increasing the real combat power of the army
  8. jamalena
    jamalena 24 January 2015 15: 16
    +4
    Turkey must answer for its crimes. Official Turkey still has not even recognized (and is not going to admit) the fact of the Armenian Genocide, which does not do him any honor. With their recognition, the Turks are afraid of losing the vast territories that previously belonged to the great Armenia. But sooner or later, the Armenians are simply obliged to return their historical territories.
    1. buri
      buri 24 January 2015 15: 20
      -1
      very soon you will have a good chance. just need to share with the Kurds somehow. they have their own views on your historic places of residence
    2. vikingost
      vikingost 25 January 2015 06: 02
      -1
      velikiy armeniya? lol ewe odin velikiy chigan nashlos nam
      1. buri
        buri 25 January 2015 07: 47
        0
        you know, quite real, given the recent events in the Middle East. you just have to agree with the Kurds, the great Kurdistan is already looming on the horizon
    3. Arminian power
      Arminian power 27 January 2015 12: 21
      +1
      Quote: jamalena
      Turkey must answer for its crimes.

      hi
  9. Misha
    Misha 24 January 2015 21: 30
    +1
    Quote: buri
    how terrible everything is, but one must be objective, and not put pressure on emotions. civil is civil, probably the Bulgarians slaughtered the Turks, the Greeks, as well as the long-suffering Armenians in those days. in Thessaloniki, many Turks used to live. where are all these turks? part destroyed, part moved to the same myrrh and of course the Greeks from Myrrh drove off to Thessaloniki.
    you probably don’t remember how the Bulgarians slaughtered the Turks in Edirne during the Russian-Turkish war.

    the fact that the Bulgarians, Greeks, Armenians slaughtered the Turks in the civil war is rather a chaotic phenomenon, so to speak, the will of the Christian local population, which for centuries has been under the Islamic yoke.
    But the extermination of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire was systematic state a process that lasted for years, sometimes intermittently.
    1. buri
      buri 25 January 2015 07: 57
      -1
      the yoke was terrible. that under this yoke the Christian population has flourished for centuries. appeal less to emotions and more specifics please. well you justified the christians. they can do it. especially to the Greek forces in 1920-23. Regular troops of independent Greece.

      and the fact that the Armenian militia in wartime hit the rear of the Turkish units is normal. nothing needs to be done for this
  10. Misha
    Misha 24 January 2015 21: 31
    +2
    Quote: buri
    catch the story. was the first world war. then civil in the former Ottoman Empire.
    for some reason, the suffering Armenians forget to mention how the Armenian militia during the hostilities between the Turks and the Russians hit the rear in the rear. what else was to be expected from the Turks. need to say. Russia has long maintained separatist sentiments among Armenians in the Ottoman state.


    On the eastern front, Enver’s troops were brutally defeated at Sarykamysh in January 1915 from the Russian army. As a result, the Ottoman army was driven back from Tabriz and Khoy. The victory of the Russian army was greatly helped by the actions of Armenian volunteers from among the Armenians living in the Russian Empire, which led to Ittihat propaganda about the betrayal of Armenians in general.

    Enver publicly thanked the Turkish Armenians for their loyalty during the Sarykamysh operation, sending a letter to the Archbishop of Konya. On the way from Erzurum to Constantinople, he also expressed gratitude to the Turkish Armenians for "full devotion to the Ottoman government." In Constantinople, however, Enver told the publisher of the Tanin newspaper and the vice president of the Ottoman parliament that the defeat was the result of Armenian treason and that it was time to deport the Armenians from the eastern regions. Asaturian connects this change in Enver’s position with an attempt to save his prestige and make excuses for defeat. In February, extraordinary measures were taken against the Ottoman Armenians. About 100 Armenian soldiers of the Ottoman army were disarmed, weapons permitted by them from 000 were confiscated from the civilian Armenian population. Disarmament, according to eyewitnesses, was followed by the brutal killing of Armenian soldiers, their throats were cut or they were buried alive.
    The US ambassador to Turkey, Henry Morgenthau, described this disarmament as a prelude to the extermination of Armenians. In some cities, the authorities threatened mass repressions, and also kept hundreds of people hostage in prisons until the Armenians gathered a certain amount of weapons. The disarmament campaign of the Armenians was accompanied by brutal torture. The collected weapons were often photographed and sent to Istanbul as evidence of “betrayal”, which became a pretext for the general persecution of Armenians
    1. buri
      buri 25 January 2015 08: 12
      0
      Volunteers were only from the territory of the Russian Empire. Yes, we all believed. they knew the territory of Turkey so well; they worked so effectively behind enemy lines. see not without the help of the local population.

      regarding the Armenian soldiers in the Ottoman army. it is really unfair. also unjustly did a scoop against the Volga Germans and the United States against the Japanese.

      Do not want to apologize to the Volga Germans ???
  11. shershen
    shershen 24 January 2015 23: 16
    0
    Well, if they (the Turks) were so afraid of them (the Armenians) to shreds, then it would be enough just to ban the possession of weapons by Armenians, as well as restrict their rights. Why all this wildness with heaps of corpses?
    1. vikingost
      vikingost 25 January 2015 06: 03
      0
      armyani otokavali tureckie sela i unictojili mirnix jenshin detey i starikov ,,, vo vsem vinovati armyanskie nacionalisti fashisti
      1. buri
        buri 25 January 2015 08: 13
        +1
        rather dashnaks
    2. buri
      buri 25 January 2015 08: 13
      +1
      Yes, the Armenians oppressed by the Turkish yoke could have weapons. could serve in the army, a lot of things they could. interesting yoke
  12. anaida
    anaida 25 January 2015 01: 06
    0
    Quote: buri
    friendship concept abstract. especially in relations between states. Naturally, I put it accordingly. if it doesn’t reach you, it’s your problem.

    we will not deny that Banderra tried ideologically for his nation. they want to let him consider him a hero. it is their sovereign business. not to tell you. You Suvorov is also a hero. But how did he arrange the genocide of the legs? Yermolov is also a hero for you. Ukrainians do not blame it, then why do you blame them ???
    more objective please.
    regarding the recognition of errors. in international relations they have far-reaching consequences. all smart people know this. Thus, the Armenians try to chop off a part of the territory of Turkey (especially Mount Ararat). the question is how do they achieve their goal. by exposing oneself as a victim. after all, the Jews succeeded, why not try

    Ahhh, so what’s the matter? the casket just opened))) Well, the Ottoman Empire chopped off the territory without hesitation. In this life you have to pay for everything. And okay, the victims would have been during the battles, since there wasn’t ..... mean, low, stealthily .. In an honest battle, was it weak?
    1. buri
      buri 25 January 2015 08: 15
      +1
      Well, actually, in a fair fight, the Armenians attacked the rear of the Turks. and also formed a great Armenia, clearing the territory of the future formation from the Turks
  13. vikingost
    vikingost 25 January 2015 05: 47
    -3
    nikogo genosida nebilo ... eto mif prosta
    1. SlavaP
      SlavaP 25 January 2015 22: 15
      +1
      I answer you, I do not know who you are there. My grandfather's parents and his elder sister died in the Armenian Genocide, grandfather and other sisters miraculously survived, because they fell into the territory of the Russian Empire, where they were adopted and raised. And I advise you to shut up, I hope that the site moderators will help.
      1. vikingost
        vikingost 26 January 2015 23: 08
        0
        esli tam postradali neskolko sotni armyan, eto neoznacaet cto bil genosid, armyani toje nemalo ubili vostocnom turcii, a vi znaete kak armyani lyudey sobrali v mecet i zajqli?
  14. Wii
    Wii 25 January 2015 12: 54
    +1
    And the Christians slaughter another friend ... but the Muslims surpassed everyone)))
  15. Aleksandr72
    Aleksandr72 25 January 2015 15: 15
    -1
    The genocide of the Armenian people by the Turks has long historical roots and, in my opinion, it is due to the fact that the pipes needed the territory on which the Armenians live and therefore they were physically destroyed. For information, the national symbol of Armenia, which was depicted on its national emblem, is Mount Ararat, located on Turkish soil, which used to be the territory of ancient Armenia, which existed even in the times of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. I believe that now many will start throwing rotten tomatoes at me, but the extermination of Jews at all times cannot be equated with the genocide of the Armenian people - the fact is that Jews were destroyed because very, very many people hated this people and it should be noted , which is not always unreasonable, it is enough to recall that moneylenders and bankers in the Middle Ages (and before and after), even in Islamic countries, were Jews (usually christened), and that Jewish tenants did in the territory of the same Ukraine. So they got the pogroms as a result, during which, as a rule, completely innocent people mostly suffered - the same artisans, of whom there were a lot among the Jewish people. I must say that Russian and Orthodox Jews in general very well took revenge after the October Revolution of 1917, which was largely prepared by the hands of representations of a God-chosen nation. As for the Holocaust, Hitler is just a clinical case of frenzied anti-Semitism. For God's sake, do not consider me an anti-Semite, I respect Jews as individuals with whom I personally know, and as a people who for many years have defended their right to exist, including with weapons in their hands. But I have a very negative attitude towards the Zionists, for me it is a synonym for Nazism and fascism. And for me, the genocide against the Slavic people, unleashed by Hitler and the company during the Great Patriotic War, in its tragedy and grave consequences, is much worse than the Holocaust. I have the honor.
    1. buri
      buri 25 January 2015 18: 25
      +1
      Well, if you dig deeper, then Hitler was financed by Jewish bankers. Of course, that he organized a big mess, and they earned it.

      as Henry Ford said: isolate the 50 richest Jews in the world there will be no wars
  16. Misha
    Misha 25 January 2015 16: 00
    0
    Quote: buri
    the yoke was terrible. that under this yoke the Christian population has flourished for centuries. appeal less to emotions and more specifics please. well you justified the christians. they can do it. especially to the Greek forces in 1920-23. Regular troops of independent Greece.

    and the fact that the Armenian militia in wartime hit the rear of the Turkish units is normal. nothing needs to be done for this

    where do the emotions come from? where did you see them
    always someone cut someone, killed, destroyed. But the Turks carried out precisely the state policy of extermination of Armenians on their territory, of their own citizens; with related experiments and concentration camps.
    1. buri
      buri 25 January 2015 18: 31
      0
      sort of like above, you wrote that there were 100 Armenian soldiers in the Ottoman army, Armenians also had weapons and civilians. somehow contradictory.

      but the position of the Armenians during the First World War (of course not all) was treacherous. here, and Russia fussed, opening the 5th column in the enemy camp. promising the Armenians independence and great Armenia.
      By the way, after the Dashnaks were defeated by the Reds, the first ran into an alliance with the Turks. probably this genocide was not so terrible. or is the power of the reds worse than death?
  17. Misha
    Misha 25 January 2015 20: 27
    -1
    Quote: buri
    sort of like above, you wrote that there were 100 Armenian soldiers in the Ottoman army, Armenians also had weapons and civilians. somehow contradictory.

    but the position of the Armenians during the First World War (of course not all) was treacherous. here, and Russia fussed, opening the 5th column in the enemy camp. promising the Armenians independence and great Armenia.
    By the way, after the Dashnaks were defeated by the Reds, the first ran into an alliance with the Turks. probably this genocide was not so terrible. or is the power of the reds worse than death?

    Armenia was a Christian country, and the Ottoman Empire was Muslim. Moreover, in recent years, in connection with the shocks, the OI has developed a new ideology aimed at nationalizing the country and ousting. Naturally, the Armenians didn’t like it, and how can it be like it if this very jury was carried out in a short time and you yourself know what methods. Moreover, until 1908, Armenians and other non-Muslim peoples of the empire
    were actually second-class people (and even after 1908), but this is still not pleasant. Moreover, the Ittihadists and Young Turks themselves actively used the Armenian nationalist during their revolutions and coups, promising them autonomy and much more, and subsequently these promises were not fulfilled.

    Again, the problem with the Muhajirs who had to be put somewhere and who were extremely embittered
    to the Slavs and Christians, so that they were expelled from their not historical, but still their homeland.

    I don’t think that it is possible to judge the Armenians very strictly for pursuing their national interests inside a country hostile to them.

    The defeat of Turkey in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878 actually led to an almost complete collapse of Turkish rule in the Balkans. The Berlin Congress of 1878 recognized the independence of most of the Balkan peoples. In 1881, France invaded Tunisia, in 1882, Great Britain occupied Egypt (declared a British protectorate in 1914). In 1881, foreign creditors forced the Sultan to agree to establish the Office of the Ottoman State Debt, which took over Turkey’s most significant income and control over its finances. Foreign influence also penetrated the army, gendarmerie, navy, customs and other departments of Turkey.

    In an effort to keep subordinate peoples in obedience, Abdul Hamid II brutally persecuted the slightest manifestations of free thought, incited ethnic and religious hatred, provoked clashes between Muslims and Christians. In the 1890s, by decree of Abdul-Hamid II, cruel Armenian pogroms were organized in Samsun and other districts of Asia Minor, as well as in Istanbul, during which several hundred thousand Armenians died.
  18. Misha
    Misha 25 January 2015 20: 28
    0
    And one more thing:

    The extremely acute character in the Ottoman Empire took on a national question. All the hopes of non-Turkish peoples for revolution finally collapsed. The Young Turks, who began the political path with calls for "unity" and "brotherhood" of all the peoples of the Ottoman Empire, once in power, continued their policy of brutally suppressing the national liberation movement. In ideology, the old doctrine of Ottomanism was replaced by no less rigid concepts of pan-Turkism and pan-Islamism. Pan-Turkism as a concept of unity of all Turkic-speaking peoples under the supreme leadership of the Ottoman Turks was used by the Ittihadists to instill radical nationalism and justify the need for external expansion, the revival of the former greatness of the Ottoman Empire. The concept of pan-Islamism was needed by the Young Turks to strengthen the influence of the Ottoman Empire in countries with a Muslim population and to combat the Arab national liberation movement. The Young Turks launched a campaign to forcibly oust the population and began to ban organizations associated with non-Turkish ethnic goals.

    The Armenian issue was not resolved either, as the world community and the Armenian public expected. Young Turks not only prevented the implementation of long overdue and expected reforms aimed at resolving administrative, socio-economic and cultural issues in Western Armenia, but they continued the policy of genocide. The policy of fomenting hatred between Armenians and Kurds continued. In April, 1909, the Cilician massacre took place, the massacre of the Armenians of the wilayas Adana and Allepo. It all began with spontaneous clashes between Armenians and Muslims, and then turned into an organized slaughter, with the participation of local authorities and the army. About 30 thousand people became victims of the massacre, including not only Armenians, but also Greeks, Syrians and Chaldeans. In general, during these years, the Young Turks set the stage for a complete solution of the “Armenian issue”.

    In addition, the national question in the empire aggravated the final loss of European territory in the process of the Balkan wars 1912-1913. Hundreds of thousands of Balkan Muslims (muhajirs - "immigrants") left for Turkey in connection with the loss of territories in Eastern and Southern Europe by the Ottoman Empire. They settled in Anatolia and Western Asia, which led to a significant predominance of Muslims in the Ottoman Empire, although in the middle of the XIX century non-Muslims, according to some estimates, were about 56% of its population. This mass resettlement of Muslims prompted the way out to the Ittihadists: replacing Christians with Muslims. In the conditions of war, this resulted in a terrible slaughter, which claimed millions of lives.
    1. buri
      buri 26 January 2015 07: 01
      -1
      I'm tired.
      in general, let's do this. do you think the Armenians served in the army? and more. were represented in the highest circles of business and administration? were. that part of the Armenians hit the rear was? It was. then the question of the gentlemen is settled.
      1. Misha
        Misha 26 January 2015 17: 46
        0
        Yes, it has long been exhausted)
        did the Turks exterminate the Armenians? exterminated. was there genocide? was. And you write me everything that they themselves are to blame)

        I think this is somehow incommensurable. to pursue their national interests, and for this get total destruction
  19. Misha
    Misha 25 January 2015 20: 33
    0
    but the position of the Armenians during the First World War (of course not all) was treacherous. here, and Russia fussed, opening the 5th column in the enemy camp. promising the Armenians independence and great Armenia.
    By the way, after the Dashnaks were defeated by the Reds, the first ran into an alliance with the Turks. probably this genocide was not so terrible. or is the power of the reds worse than death?

    As for the Dashniks and the Reds, this is another question, I don’t know here.
  20. Xent
    Xent 25 January 2015 22: 06
    +1
    Some comments are simply absurd and could not resist. I don’t know how anyone will take it, but the Turks began the mass extermination of Armenians precisely after 1877, when the Armenian issue was raised in San Stefano. According to the 16th point, Turkey should carry out reforms and the autonomy of Armenians and the guarantor of reforms should be the state of Russia. Russian troops should have been beaten to stay in Eastern Armenia until the end of the reforms. However, in 1978, a new congress was held in Berlin, where the 16th paragraph was redefined as the 61st. There, European countries should also become the guarantor instead of Russia. And after that, the European countries demanded the withdrawal of Russian troops from Eastern Armenia. It was after this that the Turkish authorities began to think that the time will soon come when the Armenians will demand independence. They could think of nothing else but the destruction of the Armenians. Talleat, after the deportation and extermination of the Armenians, said that "There is no Armenian question, since there are no more Armenians."
    Well, of course, you need to understand the most important thing in this. All Armenian plans for the liberation of Armenia were exclusively associated with Russia. Armenians were destroyed because they wanted a bit as part of Russia. So, my dear Russian brothers and sisters, because of love and loyalty to you, no other people have been punished like the Armenians.
    1. buri
      buri 26 January 2015 07: 04
      0
      Yes, not for Russia, you suffered. but for yourself. they wanted to get a great Armenia with the help of a single-faith Russia. Russia also used you for its own purposes. it is always so in international relations.
      as one Englishman said: there are no constant friends and enemies. permanent interests.

      as seen in the relationship between Turkey and Azerbaijan.
  21. The comment was deleted.
  22. Xent
    Xent 27 January 2015 16: 21
    +1
    in this, of course, you are wrong ... maybe for you everything is as you think, but the Armenians over the past 200 years somehow turn a blind eye to what Russia is doing against our interests. When do you have to choose with whom? - Russia is 1000 times better than "democratic" America or decrepit Europe !!!
  23. Xent
    Xent 25 March 2015 21: 30
    0
    I know that many will not read, but still ...

    http://www.ilsole24ore.com/art/mondo/2015-03-11/tesori-distrutti-islamisti-chies
    a-memoriale-genocidio-armeno-siria-2014-200057.shtml? uuid = ABCxWn7C