War without boots

War without boots

What are windings and why did the Russian army change its shoes on the roads of the Great War?

"The boot of the Russian soldier" - for centuries of domestic stories This expression has become almost an idiom. At different times, these boots trampled the streets of Paris, Berlin, Beijing and many other capitals. But for the First World War, the words about the “soldier's boot” became an obvious exaggeration - in 1915-1917. most of the soldiers of the Russian Imperial Army did not wear boots anymore.

Even those who are far from military history, according to old photographs and newsreel frames - and not only the First World War, but also the Great Patriotic War - are remembered for the 21st century outlandish “bandages” of soldiers on their feet. More advanced ones remember that such “bandages” are called windings. But few people know how and why this strange and long-disappeared subject of army shoes appeared. And almost no one knows how they were worn and why they were needed.

1908 model boot of the year

In World War I, the Russian Empire army marched in the so-called “boots for the lower ranks of the 1908 model of the year”. Its standard was approved by the General Staff Circular No. 103 of 6 May 1909. In fact, this document approved the type and cut of the soldier's boot, which existed throughout the XX century and today, the second century is still in the “armament” of the Russian army.

Only if in the Great Patriotic War, the Afghan or Chechen wars, this boot was made mainly of artificial leather, “kersey”, then at the time of its birth it was made entirely of soft leather or Russian leather. On the eve of the First World War, chemical science and industry have not yet created synthetic materials, of which a significant portion of current clothing and footwear is made.

The term “yalovy”, which came from distant antiquity, in Slavic languages ​​meant not giving or not yet giving offspring of animals. "Yalovaya skin" for soldiers' boots was made from the skins of one-year-old gobies or non-breeding cows. This skin was optimal for durable and comfortable shoes. Older or young animals were not suitable - the delicate skin of calves was still not strong enough, and the thick skins of old cows and bulls, on the contrary, are too tough.

Well processed - seal lard (blubber) and birch tar - a kind of “raw skin” was called “yuft”. It is curious that this medieval Russian word has passed into all major European languages. French youfte, english yuft, dutch. jucht, German juchten originate from the Russian term "yuft", borrowed from the Eastern Slavic tribes, in turn, from the ancient Bulgars. In Europe, “yuft” was often called simply “Russian leather” - since the times of the Novgorod Republic, it was Russian lands that were the main exporters of tanned leather.

By the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian Empire, despite all the successes of industrial development, remained primarily an agricultural country. According to 1913 statistics of the year, 52 million cattle were grazed in the vastness of the empire and about 9 million calves were born annually. This made it possible to fully supply all the soldiers and officers of the Russian army with leather boots, which on the eve of the Great War in peacetime numbered 1 million 423 thousand people.

The leather boot of a Russian soldier, model 1908, had an ankle height of 10 inches (about 45 centimeters), counting from the top edge of the heel. For the Guards regiments, the tops were longer on 1 tips (4,45 cm).

The upper was sewn with one seam at the back. It was a new design for that time - the old soldier's boot was sewn more on the model of the boots of the Russian Middle Ages and was noticeably different from the modern one. For example, the tops of such a boot were thinner, sewn together with two seams on the sides, and gathered around the leg of the leg into an accordion. Such boots, reminiscent of the shoes of the archers of the pre-Peter era, were popular with wealthy peasants and artisans in Russia at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries.

The soldier's boot of the new model, while respecting all the technologies, was a little more durable than the previous one. It is no coincidence that this design, replacing only the materials with more modern ones, has been preserved practically to the present day.

The General Staff Circular No. 103 from 6 May 1909 strictly regulated the manufacture and all materials of the soldier's boot, up to the weight of leather insoles - “at 13% humidity” depending on the size they had to weigh from 5 to 11 spools (from 21,33 to 46,93 gr .). The leather sole of a soldier's boot was fastened with two rows of wooden studs - their length, location and method of fastening were also regulated in paragraphs Circular No. XXUMX.

Russian army soldiers in leather boots (left) and canvas boots (right). Summer 1917 of the year. Photo: 1914.borda.ru

The heel was straight, height 2 cm, it was fastened with iron studs - from 50 to 65 pieces - depending on the size. In total, 10 sizes of soldiers' boots were installed along the length of the foot and three sizes (A, B, C) in width. It is curious that the smallest size of the 1908 model soldier's boot of the year corresponded to the modern size of the 42 - the boots were worn not on a thin sock, but on a footcloth that almost disappeared from our everyday life.

In peacetime, for the year, a pair of boots and three pairs of footcloths were given out to the ordinary. Since the shoe wears primarily the soles and soles, they were supposed to have two sets for a year, and the tops were changed only once a year.

In the warm season, the soldiers' footcloths were “canvas” - from linen or hemp canvas, and from September to February the soldier was given out “cloth” - from wool or wool blend.

Half a million shoe polish

Wholesale for the purchase of leather raw materials and sewing one pair of soldier's boots on the eve of 1914, the royal treasury spent 1 ruble 15 kopecks. According to the statute, the boots had to be black, in addition, natural shoe leather with intensive use required regular lubrication. Therefore, the treasury allocated 10 kopecks for blacking and initial lubrication of the boots. Total at wholesale price soldier boots cost the Russian Empire in the amount of 1 ruble 25 kopecks a pair - about 2 times cheaper than the cost of a pair of simple leather boots in retail on the market.

The officer's boots were almost 10 times more expensive than the soldiers, differing in both style and material. They were sewed individually, usually from more expensive and high-quality goat "chromic" (that is, in a special way dressed) skin. Such “chrome boots”, in fact, were the development of the “morocco boots”, famous in the Russian Middle Ages. On the eve of 1914, simple officer "chrome" boots cost 10 rubles for a couple, formal dresses - about 20 rubles.

Leather boots were then treated with wax or shoe polish - a mixture of soot, wax, vegetable and animal oils and fats. For example, every soldier and noncommissioned officer in a year was entitled 20 kopecks "for lubrication and blackening of boots." Therefore, the Russian Empire spent almost 500 thousand rubles annually only on lubricating the boots of the “lower ranks” of the army.

It is curious that, according to the General Staff Circular No. 51 from 1905, Vax was recommended for lubrication of army boots. It was produced in Russia at the factories of the German company Friedrich Baer - it is a chemical and pharmaceutical company and is now well known by the Bayer AG logo. Recall that before 1914, almost all chemical plants and factories in the Russian Empire belonged to German capital.

All in all, on the eve of the war, the royal treasury spent about 3 million rubles annually on soldiers' boots. For comparison, the budget of the entire Ministry of Foreign Affairs was only 4 times larger.

“They will discuss the situation in the country and demand a constitution”

Up to the middle of the 20th century, any war was a matter of the armies, moving mainly on their own two feet. The art of marching was the most important component of victory. And, of course, the main burden fell on the feet of the soldiers.

Even now, war shoes are one of the most consumable items along with weapons, ammunition and human lives. Even when a soldier does not participate in battles, in various jobs and simply in the field, he primarily “spends” shoes.

Chairman of the IV State Duma M.V. Rodzianko. Photo: RIA News

The issue of supplying shoes was particularly acute in the epoch of the appearance of massive draft armies. Already in the Russo-Japanese war 1904-05, when Russia, for the first time in its history, concentrated on one of the distant fronts of half a million soldiers, the army quartermaster suspected that if the war was delayed, the army was threatened with a shortage of boots. Therefore, on the eve of 1914, the men in the 1,5 warehouses gathered a million pairs of new boots. Together with 3 million pairs of boots stored and used directly in the army units, this gave an impressive figure that calmed the command. At that time, no one in the world thought that a future war would drag on for years and overthrow all calculations for the consumption of ammunition, weapons, human lives and boots, in particular.

By the end of August, 1914 million 3 thousand "lower ranks" were called up by 115 million in Russia from the reserve, and 2 million people were mobilized by the end of the year. Those who went to the front were supposed to have two pairs of boots - one directly on the legs and the second spare. As a result, by the end of 1914, stocks of boots had dried up not only in warehouses, but also in the domestic market of the country. According to the forecasts of the command, in the new conditions on the 1915 year, taking into account losses and expenses, at least 10 million pairs of boots were required, which were nowhere to take.

Before the war, footwear industry in Russia was exclusively engaged in the handicraft industry, thousands of small handicraft factories and individual shoemakers scattered throughout the country. In peacetime, they coped with army orders, but there was no system for mobilizing shoemakers to carry out huge new army orders in wartime conditions, even in designs.

Major General Alexander Lukomsky, head of the mobilization department of the General Staff of the Russian Army, later recalled these problems: “The impossibility of satisfying the needs of the army with domestic industry was somehow unexpected for everyone, not excluding the quartermaster's office. It turned out to be a lack of leather, a lack of tannins for their manufacture, a lack of workshops, and a shortage of working hands of shoemakers. But it all came from the lack of proper organization. There were not enough leathers on the market, and hundreds of thousands of leathers that were removed from livestock eaten for the army were rotting at the front ... Plants for the preparation of tannins, if they had thought about it in time, would have been easy to arrange; in any case, it was not difficult to get ready tannins from abroad in time. There were also enough working hands, but again, we didn’t think about the proper organization and development of workshops and artisanal cooperatives. ”

They tried to attract the “zemstvo” to the problem, that is, the local government, which worked throughout the country and theoretically could have organized co-workers' co-operation on the scale of all of Russia. But here, as one of his contemporaries wrote, “no matter how strange it may seem at first glance, even politics was mixed with the issue of supplying the army with boots.”

Chairman of the State Duma, Mikhail Rodzianko, in his memoirs described his visit to the headquarters of the Russian army at the end of 1914 at the invitation of the Supreme Commander, who then was the uncle of the last tsar, Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich: “The Grand Duke said that he was forced to stop military operations by the absence of shells and the lack of boots in the army. "

The commander-in-chief asked the chairman of the State Duma to work with the local government to organize the production of boots and other footwear for the army. Understanding the scale of the problem, Rodzianko reasonably proposed to gather in Petrograd an all-Russian convention of zemstvos to discuss it. But then Maklakov, the Minister of the Interior, spoke out against him, saying: “According to intelligence, under the guise of a congress for the needs of the army, they will discuss the political situation in the country and demand a constitution.”

As a result, the Council of Ministers decided not to convene any congresses of local authorities, and to entrust the work with the zemstvos for the production of boots to entrust the chief quartermaster of the Russian army, Dmitry Shuvaev, although he, as an experienced business executive, immediately declared that the military authorities had never “done business with zemstvos "And therefore will not be able to quickly organize the overall work.

As a result, work on the production of shoes for a long time was haphazardly, an unregulated market for massive purchases of leather and boots responded with a deficit and rising prices. For the first year of the war, the prices for boots increased 4 times - if in summer 1914, simple officer boots in the capital could be sewn for 10 rubles, then a year later their price had already exceeded 40, although inflation was still minimal.

"Almost the entire population went to the soldiers' boots"

The problems were aggravated by complete mismanagement, since for a long time the skins of cattle slaughtered for the army were not used. The refrigeration and canning industries were only in their infancy, and tens of thousands of animals were driven by huge herds right to the front. Their skins would give enough raw materials for the production of shoes, but usually they were just thrown away.

Do not take care of the boots and the soldiers themselves. Two pairs of boots were given to each mobilized, and often soldiers sold or changed them on the way to the front. Later, General Brusilov wrote in his memoirs: “Almost the entire population wore soldier's boots, and most of the people who arrived at the front sold their boots along the way to the philistines, often for nothing and received new ones at the front. Some craftsmen managed to do this monetary operation two or three times. ”

Lapti. Photo: V. Lepekhin / RIA News

The general has thickened colors a little, but rough calculations show that, indeed, about 10% of state-owned army boots during the war years were not at the front, but on the domestic market. The army command tried to fight it. Thus, 14 February 1916 of the year on the VIII th Army of the Southwestern Front issued an order: "The lower ranks, squandering things on the way, as well as those who arrived at the stage in tattered boots, arrest and prosecute, subject to pre-punishment with rods." Penalty soldiers usually received 50 strikes. But all these completely medieval measures did not solve the problem.

The first attempts to organize a massive tailoring of boots in the rear turned around no less. In some counties, local police officers, having received the order of the governors to bring shoemakers from areas not engaged in army work, to the Zemsky and military workshops, resolved the issue simply - ordered to collect all shoemakers in the villages and, as arrested, deliver them to the county towns . In a number of places, this turned into riots and fights of the population with the police.

In some military districts a requisition of boots and shoe material was carried out. Also, all shoemakers were forced to make at least two pairs of boots a week for the army for a fee. But in the end, according to the Ministry of War, for 1915 a year, troops received only 64,7% of the required number of boots. A third of the army turned out to be loose.

Army in sandals

Lieutenant-General Nikolai Golovin described the situation with shoes when he was Chief of Staff VII of the Army on the South-Western Front in the fall of 1915, in Galicia: “After disembarking from the railway, parts of this army had to go through 4 – 5 transitions to occupy front of the place. This marching movement coincided with the autumn thaw, and the infantry lost their boots. Here our sufferings began. Despite the most desperate requests for the expulsion of boots, we received them in such insignificant portions that the army’s infantry went barefoot. Such a catastrophic situation lasted almost two months. ”

We note the indication in these words not only about the shortage, but also about the poor quality of army boots. Already in emigration in Paris, General Golovin recalled: "There was no need to worry about such an acute crisis as in the supply of shoes, in other types of supplies."

In 1916, the commander of the Kazan Military District, General Sandetsky, reported to Petrograd that 32 240 soldiers of the district's reserve battalions to be sent to the front do not have shoes, and since they are not available in warehouses, they must replenish the district in shoes they bought in villages. bast shoes.

The letters of the soldiers of the First World War tell about the glaring problems with shoes on the front. In one of these letters, preserved in the archives of the city of Vyatka, you can read: “They don't shoe us in boots, but give out shoes, and issue infantry sandals”; “We walk halfway in sandals, the German and the Austrian laugh at us — they take captive someone in sandals, they will remove their sandals and hang them out on the trench and shout — do not shoot their sandals”; "Soldiers sit without boots, legs wrapped with bags"; “They brought two bast wagons, until such a shame — an army in bast shoes — up to what they had fought ...”

Trying to somehow deal with the "shoe" crisis, the 13 command of the imperial army had already allowed 1915 on January 2 to sew boots for soldiers with X-shirts shortened on 9 (almost XNUMX cm), and then followed an order to issue soldiers with leather boots instead of the statues, boots with windings and "canvas boots", that is, boots with tarpaulin tops.

Before the war, the rank and file of the Russian army was supposed to always wear boots, but now they were allowed to give out any other available shoes for work "outside the ranks". In many parts, finally, they began to use the skins of the cattle-stuffed day of making leather bast shoes.

With such shoes, our soldiers first met during the Russian-Turkish war 1877-78. In Bulgaria. The Bulgarians called leather “sandals”, and that is how they were named, for example, in the order for the 48-th Infantry Division from December 28 of the 1914 of the year. At the beginning of the war, this division from the Volga region was transferred to Galicia, and after a few months, when faced with a shortage of boots, she was forced to make opanks for the soldiers.

In other parts, the similar footwear was called in the Caucasian manner “Kalamans” or in Siberian - “cats” (emphasis on “o”), as women’s half boots were called outside the Urals. In 1915, such homemade leather sandals were already spread all over the front.

Also, the soldiers wove for themselves the usual bast from luka, and in the rear parts they made and wore boots on a wooden sole. Soon the army even began a centralized purchase of bast shoes. For example, in 1916 from the city of Bugulma of the Simbirsk province, the zemstvo put 24 thousand pairs of bast shoes into the army for 13 740 rubles. - each pair of sandals cost the army treasury 57 kopecks.

Realizing that they could not cope with the shortage of army shoes on their own, the tsarist government already in 1915 year turned to the Allies for boots in boots. In the autumn of that year, the Russian military mission of Admiral Alexander Rusin sailed from Arkhangelsk to London with the aim of placing Russian military orders in France and England. One of the first, besides requests for rifles, was a request to sell 3 million pairs of boots and 3600 pounds of plantar skin.

Boots and shoes in 1915, regardless of costs, tried to urgently buy around the world. For soldiers' needs, they tried to adapt even a batch of rubber boots purchased in the US, but for hygienic properties they were still refused.

“In 1915, it was already necessary to make very large orders for shoes, mainly in England and in America,” later recalled General Lukomsky, head of the mobilization department of the Russian General Staff. - These orders cost the treasury very expensive; there were cases of extremely unfair performance, and they took a very significant percentage of the tonnage of ships, so precious for the transportation of military supplies. "

German Knobelbecher and English Puttee

Difficulties with shoes, though not on such a scale, were experienced by almost all the allies and opponents of Russia in the Great War.

Of all the countries that entered the massacre in 1914, only the armies of Russia and Germany were fully shod in leather boots. The soldiers of the “Second Reich” started the war in the boots of the 1866 model of the year, introduced by the army of Prussia. Like the Russians, the Germans then preferred to wear a soldier’s boots not with socks, but with footcloths - Fußlappen in German. But, unlike the Russians, the German soldier’s boot had 5 tops, shorter, which were sewn together with two seams on the sides. If all Russian boots were necessarily black, then in the German army some units wore brown boots.

Soldier boots with windings. Photo: 1914.borda.ru

The sole was reinforced with 35-45 iron nails with wide caps and metal shoes on the heel - thus, metal covered almost the entire surface of the sole, which gave it durability and a distinctive clang when columns of German soldiers walked along the pavement. The mass of metal on the sole retained it during marches, but in winter this iron froze and could chill the legs.

The skin was also somewhat tougher than that of Russian boots, it was no coincidence that German soldiers jokingly nicknamed their official shoe Knobelbecher - “a glass for dice”. The soldier's humor meant that the foot was loose in a strong boot, like bones in a glass.

As a result, a lower and tough German soldier's boot was a little stronger than the Russian: if in peacetime in Russia a pair of boots relied on a soldier for a year, then in economical Germany - for a year and a half. In the cold, the savvy mass of metal boots was more inconvenient than the Russian, but when it was created, the General Staff of the Kingdom of Prussia planned to fight only against France or Austria, where there are no 20-degree frosts.

The French infantry began the war not only in blue coats and red trousers noticeable from afar, but also in very curious shoes. The Third Republic infantryman wore leather shoes of the “1912 model of the year” - in the form of exactly modern fashionable men's shoes, only the entire sole was riveted with 88 iron nails with a wide hat.

From the ankle to the middle of the calf, the leg of the French soldier was protected by patch leather “leggings of the 1913 design of the year”, fixed with a leather cord. The outbreak of war quickly showed the shortcomings of such shoes - the army shoe of the “1912 model of the year” had an unsuccessful cut in the lacing area that easily let in water, and the “leggings” not only spent their expensive skin during war, but they were uncomfortable to wear and rub their calves while walking .

It is curious that Austria-Hungary began the war simply in boots, abandoning boots, short leather Halbsteifel, in which the soldiers of the “two-sided monarchy” fought for the entire XIX century. The trousers of the Austrian soldiers were tapered to the bottom and buttons were fastened at the boot. But this decision was not convenient either - the foot in a low boot was easily wetted, and not protected trousers in the field quickly torn to shreds.

As a result, by the year 1916 most of the soldiers of all the countries involved in the war wore optimal military footwear for those conditions - leather shoes with cloth windings. It was in such shoes that the army of the British Empire entered the war in August 1914.

The rich "factory of the world", as England was then called, could afford to dress the whole army with boots, but its soldiers also had to fight in Sudan, South Africa and India. And in the heat in leather boots you don’t seem like it, and practical British people adapted for their needs an element of the highlander shoes in the Himalayas - they tightly wrapped a long narrow piece of fabric from ankle to knee.

In Sanskrit, it was called "patta", that is, tape. Shortly after the suppression of the CPE uprising, these "tapes" were adopted in the uniform of the soldiers of the "British Indian Army". By the beginning of the 20th century, the entire army of the British Empire wore windings in field conditions, and the word “puttee” was translated into English from Hindi, by which these “tapes” were designated.

Secrets of winding and leather lace

It is curious that at the beginning of the 20th century, the windings were also a common element of clothing of European athletes in the winter time - runners, skiers, and skaters. Often used them and hunters. Elastic synthetics did not exist then, and the dense fabric “bandage” around the leg not only fixed and protected it, but also had a number of advantages over the skin.

Winding is easier than any leather gaiters and tops, the leg under it “breathes” better, therefore, it is less tired, and, most importantly in war, it reliably protects the foot from dust, dirt or snow. Crawling on their bellies, the soldiers in their boots will, in one way or another, scoop them with their tops, but the windings will not. At the same time, a leg wrapped in several layers of fabric is also well protected from moisture - walking through dew, wet soil or snow does not lead to getting wet through.

In mudslides, in the field or in trenches filled with water, the boots got stuck in the mud and crawled, but the boot with a well-tied winding held tight. In the heat, the legs in the windings do not disappear, unlike the legs in the boot, and in cold weather an additional layer of fabric warms well.

But the main thing for a big war turned out to be a different property of the windings - their amazing cheapness and simplicity. That is why, by 1916, the soldiers of all the belligerent countries fought, mainly in the windings.

Advertising British windings company Fox. 1915 year. Photo: tommyspackfillers.com

The production of this simple object then reached fantastic volumes. For example, only one British company Fox Brothers & Co Ltd during the First World War produced 12 million pairs of windings, in the unfolded state it is a tape 66 thousand km long - enough to wrap the entire coast of Great Britain twice.

Despite all the simplicity, the windings had their own characteristics and required skills to wear them. There were several varieties of windings. The most common were the windings, fixed with ties, but there were also varieties, fastened with small hooks and buckles.

In the Russian army, the simplest windings on strings with a length of 2,5 m and a width of 10 were usually used. In the “removed” position they were rolled up into a roll, with the laces turned out to be inside, being a kind of “axis”. Taking such a roll, the soldier began to wind the winding on the leg from the bottom up. The first turns should be the most tight, carefully closing the upper part of the boot in front and behind. Then the tape was bandaged on the leg, the last turns did not reach the knee a little. The end of the winding was usually a triangle, at the top of which two laces were stitched. These laces were wrapped around the last turn and tied, the resulting bow was hidden behind the upper edge of the winding.

As a result, the wearing of the windings required a certain skill, as well as the comfortable wearing of the footcloths. In the German army, the cloth winding of a long 180 cm and 12 cm wide crocheted hooked onto the edge of the boot and wound tightly from bottom to top, fixing itself under the knee with ties or a special buckle. The English had the most difficult method of tying the winding - first from the middle of the shin, then down, then up again.

By the way, the way of tying army boots during the First World War was markedly different from the modern one. Firstly, the leather cord was most often used at that time — there was still no synthetic material, and the cloth wore out quickly. Secondly, he was usually not tied to knots or bows. The so-called “lacing with one end” was used - a knot was tied at the end of the lace, the lace was threaded into the bottom opening of the lacing so that the knot was inside the skin of the shoe, and the other end of the lace was sequentially passed through all the holes.

In this way, the soldier, wearing a shoe, in one motion tightened the entire lacing, wrapped the end of the lace around the top of the shoe and simply tucked it over the edge or lacing. Due to the stiffness and friction of the leather lace, such a “design” was securely fixed, allowing you to dress and tie the shoe in just a second.

"Cloth protective bandages on the legs"

In Russia, the windings in service appeared in the spring of 1915. At first, they were called "cloth protective bandages on the shins," and the command planned to use them only in summer, returning from autumn to spring thaw to their old boots. But the lack of boots and the increase in skin prices forced the use of windings at any time of the year.

Boots to the windings used a variety of, from a good leather, a sample of which was approved by the command of 23 February 1916, to various handicrafts workshops. For example, 2 March 1916, the order of the command of the South-Western Front №330 began manufacturing a soldier canvas canvas shoe with a wooden sole and a wooden heel.

It is indicative that the Russian Empire was forced to purchase not only complex weapons like machine guns and aircraft engines in the West, but also such primitive things as windings - by the beginning of 1917, in England, along with brown shoes, they bought such a large batch of woolen mustard-colored windings that they were widely used in the infantry all the years of civil war.

It was shoes with windings and gigantic purchases of shoes abroad that allowed the Russian army to 1917 a little to alleviate the “shoemaker” crisis. Only in a year and a half of the war, from January 1916 of the year to 1 of July 1917, the army took 6 million 310 thousand pairs of boots, of which 5 million 800 thousand were ordered abroad. For 1916, the army and rear warehouses arrived before 29 million pairs of shoes (of which only about 5 million pairs of boots), and for all the years of the Great War in Russia, among other things, 65 million pairs of leather and canvas canvas boots and shoes were sent to the front.

At the same time, throughout the entire war, the Russian Empire called for "under the gun" over 15 million people. According to statistics, during the year of fighting 2,5 pairs of shoes were spent on one military, and only in 1917 a year the army wore out almost 30 million pairs of shoes - until the very end of the war the shoe crisis was not finally overcome.
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  1. +12
    26 January 2015 06: 10
    It can’t be!))) But what about ... Russia is the fifth world economy ?! And the commies who ruined everything are to blame for everything?)))
    1. Pervusha Isaev
      26 January 2015 09: 25
      an interesting article, it turns out that in those days when rubber was already in use for car tires and even artificial rubber was already invented, for soles, like old times, used rough skin? Although the process of vulcanization of natural rubber has already been opened long ago.
      But Russia of those years really was a miserable sight - it’s necessary to sheathe the whole country and the whole army were called handicraftsmen, and what was machine was not Russian. And the example of an attempt to resolve the boot issue and the refusal of the Minister of the Ministry of Internal Affairs to gather representatives of zemstvos on the grounds that they will rebel, suggests that the Russian Empire is decrepit and needed reformatting-reworking of the institutions of power.
      1. Pervusha Isaev
        26 January 2015 09: 50
        artificial rubber was invented in the USSR in 1931. I apologize ...
      2. +7
        26 January 2015 11: 14
        Yes, the article is interesting, but what surprises the soles of the boots are low, given that then there were mainly "trench" wars, how could they not have had a cold on their feet ?! now all the soles of military boots are at least 2 centimeters high.

        One day, a car broke down in winter, stood on ice for a couple of hours, it seemed that in winter boots with wool inside, and my legs froze, I barely warmed up at home with pain, the sole was a centimeter. Then he took it as if it weren’t autumn, without fur inside, the photo below, so in it, the foot sweats as much, no matter how long I walk in the mountains.
        1. +2
          26 January 2015 19: 50
          I recommend trying membrane shoes with a thermal toe, feel the difference!
          1. +7
            26 January 2015 20: 01
            In winter, I just love ordinary boots on my bare foot. It is something! I recommend. laughing Thanks for the article. hi
      3. +5
        26 January 2015 13: 34
        Yuft boots with leather soles and leather heels I received in 1981, while studying at the Kiev IED.
        Well, officer lame men were both graduated and sewn to order with leather soles until the end of their presence in the clothing allowance of the Armed Forces.
      4. +6
        26 January 2015 14: 41
        Quote: Pervusha Isaev
        when the rubber was already in use for car tires and even artificial rubber was already invented, for soles, like antiquity, used rough skin?

        The yuft boots (leather) on leather soles were given out by the clothing supplies of the Soviet Army until about 1985. I can say nothing bad about them. Good hygienic shoes. They could be knocked out. For this, special outsoles, also leather, were issued. But somewhere from the end of the seventies yuft boots on micropores had already appeared.
      5. 0
        18 November 2016 05: 33
        Artificial rubber was invented in the USSR in the 30s, so do not lie here.
    2. +3
      26 January 2015 09: 29
      so in World War I, what I didn’t grab was all lacking - and ammunition and shells and rifles and boots, etc.
      1. jjj
        26 January 2015 13: 30
        In the USSR, not synthetic rubber was invented, but styrene-butadiene rubber. The invention of tarpaulin boots became an outstanding invention, which allowed the whole army to change into boots again. Boots are more convenient than boots with windings and even berets. Just berets are considered more modern. But practical experience showed that the sneakers were much more practical. Only in conditions of short raids with a permanent location on the base.
        During crawling on bellies, the tops of the boots do not scoop up anything, since the tops are very tight, and the smoothness of the tarpaulin or leather does not allow it to cling to thorns, stones or barbed wire. In one photo, a man in boots with windings is captured, boots are naval "ceremonial" boots made of thin chrome leather on a leather sole. In the field and hiking - shoes with an extremely short lifespan. Therefore, the navy still had work boots - "bastards" made of strong thick leather with leather soles, with rivets and a leather cord. These can easily withstand two years of intense wear.
        According to the article - useful and informative material for many. Of the wishes - nothing was said about the boots - removable split bootlegs with buttons or buttons, but they were part of the uniforms of many armies.
        1. +3
          26 January 2015 18: 41
          There were so-called gaiters, moreover, they were used actively in the US Army during World War II.
        2. +4
          26 January 2015 22: 53
          Quote: jjj
          The invention of tarpaulin boots became an outstanding invention, which allowed the whole army to change into boots again.

          You are right, dear colleague jjj, but oh, how not so soon appeared tarpaulin boots.
          Mikhail Pomortsev is considered the inventor of the tarpaulin, who in 1904 received a waterproof tarpaulin, successfully tested as cover material for artillery guns and fodder bags. After the outbreak of World War I, Pomortsev M. proposed sewing shoes for soldiers from tarpaulin. The military department supported the idea of ​​the inventor, but after his death they forgot about the tarpaulin.
          Engineers Alexander Khomutov and Ivan Plotnikov rejoined the tarp again in 1935. However, the synthetic rubber of the first Soviet tarp broke and cracked. Shoes were found to be unsatisfactory and not accepted for production.
          They remembered it already in the Great Patriotic War, when shoes were sorely lacking for soldiers. In August 1941, the chief engineer of the Kozhimit plant, Ivan Plotnikov, was simply obliged to urgently finalize the tarpaulin in the shortest possible time. But only after a whole year of work, with the assistance of many Soviet scientists and researchers, tailoring tarpaulin boots was finally established. They were taken on clothing allowance in the army. In 1944, tarpaulin boots almost replaced the windings at the front. They were distinguished by moisture resistance, lightness, durability and convenience. In addition, in combination with footcloths, they perfectly kept heat. Plotnikov Ivan with a group of comrades for the creation of technology for the production of tarpaulin boots received the Stalin Prize 2 degrees in 1942.
          Thus, army tarpaulin boots were born, but their sole and toe are still made of their rough skin, called yuft.

          A bronze monument to tarpaulin boots weighing 40 kg was installed in the Perm village of Zvezdny.
    3. 0
      12 November 2017 16: 37
      Quote: Nagaibak
      It can’t be!))) But what about ... Russia is the fifth world economy ?! And the commies who ruined everything are to blame for everything?)))

      Comrade Leninist, take an interest in what the soldiers were wearing during the Great Patriotic War. But the state was workers and peasants. To see your brother, like the tsar did not like workers and peasants. By the way, the thing bag we got from the tsarist regime (it was called a sidor under the tsar) and it is a shame that the Communists could not give the soldiers a convenient bag for 75 years of their existence, and this was the largest economy in the world .. Although they gave the paratroopers RD.
  2. +3
    26 January 2015 06: 21
    Yes, without good shoes in a war it’s bad. We in kirzach ran to training. And when the berets gave out what kind of twisters they felt. And do you guys remember how it was?
    1. +10
      26 January 2015 11: 35
      ankle boots in the heat are worse than boots, in a boot the leg somehow breathes and even rewound the footcloth with a dry end, and dries on the shin)). the best shoes that we managed to wear - the shoes that the pilots were supposed to wear - this is the song, how you walk barefoot
      1. +5
        26 January 2015 16: 24
        Quote: Almatinets
        berets in hot weather are worse than boots, in the boot the leg breathes somehow and the footcloth rewinds with a dry end, and dries on the lower leg)).

        I completely agree. just read the article, went to the smoking room. I conducted a blitz-poll for the sake of interest, asking whether you know how to wind footcloths. and so, not one of the guys who even served in the army on an urgent basis, under the age of 30, knows how to wind. trend however!
        1. 0
          27 January 2015 20: 18
          Most importantly, the well-deserved footcloth from flax is presented to us as an anachronism! but in fact a universal type of clothing that prevents fungal infection. No need to darn, wear-resistant and easy to use. To deprive the army of footcloths is a real diversion!
  3. +6
    26 January 2015 06: 53
    And we have kerzachi with cut-off tops (burnouts), and on socks. Navy, footcloths on the ship were not "correct" to wear
    1. +4
      26 January 2015 08: 50
      In the 9th Fleet Crew I was immediately given "shipbuilders". When you wake up, you can put on your shoes in a couple of seconds, but it's not very good to run while exercising ... The sole is hard and lined with nails. And he didn't have to wear boots with footcloths.
      1. +1
        26 January 2015 09: 33
        I saw "shipwrights" in their second year of service. For the entire crew, only one had, and he did not receive them from the hands of the capter. Once through the Zeman from the neighboring ships, he circled.
    2. +1
      26 January 2015 09: 30
      Northern Fleet or what?
      instead of burnout, they gave me a prototype of the tibia, forced them unlaced, so that I could insert and pull out my leg
      1. jjj
        26 January 2015 13: 35
        He also saw in the port of the White Sea base and on Sevmash in the nineties, people walked in horny robes and boots. But on the border ships, as I recall, the main shoes were slippers, so as not to scratch the deck or smear black
  4. +11
    26 January 2015 07: 03
    Thanks for the interesting article!
    Any war generally brings up issues and problems that are little thought (or not thought at all) in peacetime. General Lebed said correctly: "30% should fight, and 70% should provide them." No war can be won without a well-organized logistics service and supplies.
  5. +7
    26 January 2015 07: 40
    A very interesting article, and then the windings, windings, but that it did not know ...))))
    1. +5
      26 January 2015 09: 31
      excellent, also learned a lot
  6. +6
    26 January 2015 07: 53
    In the Red Army, the windings were called "Suffering" - while you wind up, you will all suffer smile On reconstruction I came across them - this is PPC lol
    1. +9
      26 January 2015 09: 32
      but easier and cheaper

      for some reason, the "damned Stalinist regime" did not face such a problem - he did not send anyone in bast shoes to fight, although they mobilized much more
      1. +1
        26 January 2015 09: 55
        So in winter they used boots.
        about cheaper, yes, but about easier, I wouldn’t say lol Some skill is needed. winked
      2. +2
        26 January 2015 11: 42
        Quote: Poppy
        but easier and cheaper

        for some reason, the "damned Stalinist regime" did not face such a problem - he did not send anyone in bast shoes to fight, although they mobilized much more

        Read carefully. In PVM, only natural leather was used for production, artificial leather has not yet been produced (at least on an industrial scale). By the beginning of WWII, the production of "tarpaulin" and synthetic rubber as raw materials and sewing equipment was already quite large-scale. And there is no need to blame "about damned tsarism" for everything - the same situation was in the whole world. A quarter of a century is a long time for the chemical industry, and conclusions were drawn from the results of WWI.
    2. avt
      26 January 2015 10: 03
      Quote: Landwarrior
      In the Red Army, the windings were called "Suffering" - while you wind up, you will all suffer

      request It’s a matter of dexterity, without knowing how to heap, too, a bunch of people beat their feet. It’s a pity the author didn’t insert at least one photograph with leggings, and this is a very worthy article! good +
      1. +3
        26 January 2015 10: 55
        Well, in the US Army, leggings were in World War II.
        1. +9
          26 January 2015 11: 15
          Quote: Landwarrior
          Well, in the US Army, leggings were in World War II.

          So many who did without boots ...
          German mountain ranger

          Japanese in 1945

          Our ancestors, that in 1944 somewhere in the Baltic

          that in 1945 in harbin
          1. +1
            26 January 2015 11: 44
            So in the Red Army there were windings. And then there was a question about leggings. Leg warmers are a little different. By the way, here's another - the British, World War I, leg warmers lol
            1. +1
              26 January 2015 12: 37
              Quote: Landwarrior
              And here about the leggings the question was

              So leggings are the same attempt to do without boots ...
              1. +2
                26 January 2015 12: 51
                Just comrade avt lamented that there were no pictures with leggings, and I tried to "close the gap" than I found lol
                And about the fact that "do without boots" - I do not argue hi
          2. avt
            26 January 2015 14: 29
            Quote: svp67
            So many who did without boots ...
            German mountain ranger

            These like gaiters had. Pretty comfortable shoes by the way they had.
  7. +3
    26 January 2015 08: 19
    But what about the golden 13th year? Not only tanks were not made, aircraft engines, machine guns were not invented, and they could not make boots, marketers,.
    1. +3
      26 January 2015 10: 53
      Quote: zoknyay82
      the boot marketers were unsuccessful, marketers,.

      What a nightmare, literally there was nothing .... Without touching on all other aspects of the supply of troops, I would like to note only one point. My father, called up after the start of the Second World War, spent the whole 41 and 42 years wearing boots with windings (boots, by the way, were English) - and here marketers were to blame - because they weren’t in the USSR) .A deeper look at the essence of the problem of desire you don’t seem to be there (this is difficult) - what caused the lack of armament and equipment both in the WWII and during the Second World War with a radical difference in historical conditions. The main thing is a whipping comment and emotions instead of objectivity ...
    2. +2
      26 January 2015 11: 25
      Quote: zoknyay82
      and the marketers didn’t make a boot either.

      Marketers - yes, but manufacturers - yes. It has already been mentioned more than once that in that war ALL of Russia wore soldiers' boots when the soldier at the front was unraveling ...
  8. +8
    26 January 2015 08: 51
    Many tsarist generals accused Russian soldiers of drinking boots. Half of the country walks in soldier's boots, but what else to go? The shoemaker sewed boots for both the army. and for sale to the public. one patterns, others were not. Only for the population more often metal nails were used. They cost a little more expensive than with wooden studs. but they were certainly stronger. Wooden stilettos or pegs, and ruined boots. in damp, they very quickly drove away, pegs used birch.
  9. +7
    26 January 2015 08: 57
    Boots protect the foot much better from natural influences than boots, preserving the health of soldiers and maintaining combat readiness.
  10. +4
    26 January 2015 09: 22
    I once read Brusilov. There he met a statement that the lack of boots was greatly exaggerated. So for example: delivered to the army 6 million pairs.
  11. +6
    26 January 2015 09: 29
    «505506 RU Today, 06:53 New
    And we have kerzachi with cut-off tops (burnouts), and on socks. Navy, footcloths on the ship were not "correct" to wear "
    I myself attributed “burnouts” or “perching” for three years and am embarrassed to ask how do you imagine a toe of boots with elastic inserts on the sides with a footcloth? By the way, stokers or, according to the scientific "boiler house operator", were given suede burnouts, which ship craftsmen converted into model shoes on DMB. Windings, as you correctly noted, are poverty-free and good in hot, dry climates, it is Russian boots with narrow shafts that are preferred in snow and mud. There is a statistics of rheumatism diseases when wearing shoes because of moisture transmission (Army Anatomy website). In the Northern Fleet, instead of boots, they were given boots with short shafts. For our climate, the boots themselves.
    1. 0
      27 January 2015 04: 31
      Burnouts, as amended by Pacific Fleet 1990, are kerzachi with a trimmed bootleg. And "boots with elastic inserts" bore the proud name of "shipwrights". Here, under them, footcloths only a meager will suggest wearing.
  12. +4
    26 January 2015 09: 29
    Thanks for the article +. In the photo, the fighter from the left has a cool belt with the symbols of the Russian Empire.
  13. +3
    26 January 2015 10: 04
    Quote: Siberia 9444
    Thanks for the article +. In the photo, the fighter from the left has a cool belt with the symbols of the Russian Empire.

    This is the standard RIA artillery yoke for the lower ranks.
    1. +1
      26 January 2015 13: 26
      I have one, only an infantry. Found last year in the garden.
  14. -2
    26 January 2015 10: 39
    Ahahaha "better under the king than with scoops"
  15. +2
    26 January 2015 11: 10
    In Beskrovny's "Army and Navy of Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century," the problem of a shortage of boots was explained, among other things, by a lack of high-quality Russian raw materials - the Empire was forced to import leather:
    due to the low culture of animal husbandry and low technology for leather processing, Russia did not cover its needs with domestic resources and was forced to import leather from abroad. For example, in 1902, 1818 thousand pounds were imported, in 1904 - 1728 thousand, in 1906 - 1885 thousand, in 1908 - 3057 thousand, in 1910 - 3413 thousand, in 1912 - 2765 thousand pounds
    1. Kassandra
      27 January 2015 14: 04
      it’s just that in Russia cattle were slaughtered for meat less often, more cereals and dairy products were used. The leather on the shoes of the British naturally was no longer their own but American or Argentinean.
  16. inspection
    26 January 2015 11: 39
    The problem has not been resolved so far.
    There is not only presence.
    The problem is learning.
    We must learn to use equipment and gear.
    It is difficult and costly to foresee everything.
    Therefore, it is correct to train the "infantry" to use shoes and not only. The country is big. There is dampness and heat and frost here.
    It is necessary to learn how to dry and hydrosolate properly.
    To teach the struggle for survivability in Russian space.
  17. +2
    26 January 2015 11: 40
    In WWII, some soldiers also had a lot to look like in the windings. Due to the lack of boots, which was formed by the 42nd year.
  18. +4
    26 January 2015 13: 57
    In boots on a footcloth, as in slippers, you feel, even if the footcloth is a "helicopter". And how to run in boots and even toe? I remember the first time I went to the ridge in chrome toe boots, and I rubbed my legs like that during the day. And cowhide boots - the very thing, kirzachi dangle like snot, but they are lighter.
  19. +2
    26 January 2015 13: 58
    The author succeeded in a very interesting article with great factual material. Thank!
  20. +12
    26 January 2015 14: 16
    For 2 years, he demolished 4 pairs of pickaxes (the allowance rate for motorized rifle units), exclusively with footcloths, not a single callus or attrition! Three mandatory tasks for every day (of course, if possible): to clean weapons, wash feet and wash footcloths. Moreover, the latter were dried even without heating devices, in which case, before going to bed, wrapping them wet under the hips under the linen, they would dry by morning. And, so that after drying they were soft, they wound MSL blades on the handle, and beat it off with the other handle. A proverb says:
    1. Rjn
      26 January 2015 21: 22
      Everything is right - I washed my tailcloths in the evening, and in the morning I wrapped them in a fresh head. I myself in Sevastopol spent two years in boots drowning, including in the know.
    2. Kassandra
      27 January 2015 14: 08
      they would have dried normally ...
  21. +3
    26 January 2015 14: 16
    Good article, useful! And the reviews are informative, thanks all!
  22. +4
    26 January 2015 14: 40
    Russia's problem is the complete absence of shoe factories. Can the problem of the army in supplying boots be solved by the army of shoemakers, how many shoemakers are needed? If a shoemaker produces no more than 100 pairs per year, in reality 60-70. Shoe factories were in full swing abroad. And homemade shoes made from a single piece of rawhide were called "pistons", I don't remember at all how they were made. I only remember to measure the skin on my hand. from elbow to fingertips. I read that Americans used Indian moccasins in some cases.
  23. +4
    26 January 2015 15: 02
    Good health to all.
    Allow me, dear La-5, to disagree with you. I don’t know what your experience of walking in boots and in good boots (berets) is, but my personal experience is that, and now I mean not expensive leather officer boots made to order and officers who, in such boots, will cover 24 km in 3 hours from the dining room to the car and to the hotel, and the boots of combat officers and soldiers, in which the foot spreads out, pain in the region of the tarsus, metatarsus and phalanx of the foot (pain and non-combat losses), even with a good footcloth and excellent ability to rub this footcloth. Believe me, I know how to walk and in boots and footcloths I can wash and in walking boots with socks. In addition to the crawl of the foot (not a medical expression), the ankle joint does not hold well in the boots, the result, again, are dislocations and unnecessary fighting - the dislocation of the leg is very painful. Modern army boots are not bad, much better (hunters and tourists will confirm, unless, of course, they buy a Chinese Mr.) than excellent traditional boots.
    1. +2
      26 January 2015 23: 44
      He served in boots, summer boots (KzakVO). I don’t know of a single case when someone injured his legs except at the beginning they rubbed corns. Cross-country and march-throws were regular and this is in the mountains. In the boots from the socks, only the elastic bands remained. In the boots, like ballet shoes!
  24. itr
    26 January 2015 17: 32
    Not when I won’t forget the smell of partyokas)))) but for boots it’s better not to
  25. +2
    26 January 2015 17: 36
    "They fought for their homeland." The legendary film, where Sergei Bondarchuk asks for an orderly in the medical battalion ... you don’t rub your boots ... a shabby camel ... I suppose you have one earthen toad ...
    1. +3
      26 January 2015 17: 57
      Found a video here.
  26. +6
    26 January 2015 17: 41
    He served 2 a year 8 months in tarpaulin and there were no such passions. The boots were given out for 8 months. The new ones were coated with a thick layer of so-called elders' ointment (it included fish oil) a whole tank stood in the barracks and walked all day. The skin was soaked through and by and by blue and smelled of fish. But then they didn’t get wet and were soft. Somehow we got a piece of rubber from an airplane tire and made heels on the heels, so the heel didn’t wear out.
    In the third year, they issued the parade-block as officers' chrome, and the upper was made of artificial leather. Here they rubbed their feet in dismissal.
    1. Rjn
      26 January 2015 21: 32
      Regular fish oil is very good for waterproofing. And my heels were foolish for the whole heel made of metal, since there weren’t any great loads, but over the year the heel was like new.
  27. Der grosse
    26 January 2015 18: 14
    But still, socks against footcloths are no good at all
  28. +2
    26 January 2015 19: 14
    Quote: Der Grosse
    But still, socks against footcloths are no good at all

    That's for sure, socks are wiped immediately in boots and in footcloths the leg is denser.
  29. +3
    26 January 2015 19: 21
    Thanks for the article, I have been interested in this question for a long time, especially the length of the windings. Small clarification. An ear-loop was sewn at the back of the boot, through which the winding was passed, the top of the boot was tightly wrapped and further under the knee.
  30. +6
    26 January 2015 19: 41
    I had to blaspheme the kerza, and the summer, and the lame and the berets. In extreme situations, nothing is better than boots and footcloths! Wet socks only throw away, and the footcloth rewound and you're dry! After an hour, you can repeat the opposite. And the Smell, so, the germ of chemical wars and a means of combating snoring in the barracks!
  31. +2
    26 January 2015 19: 44
    At one time, I don’t remember exactly in which year, somewhere in the mid-eighties, our battalion (conscripts) was put in tarpaulin boots with shortened shafts (10 cm shorter than standard centimeters). Apparently, there was an experiment. Then I never met such boots anywhere, probably did not live up to expectations. A rather strange look was among the soldiers, trousers in boots (half-breeches) and short boots.
  32. Rjn
    26 January 2015 21: 58
    What a reverent attitude to the boots and footcloths of those who served in them. Yes, I myself was so used to kirsach that I didn’t feel them on my leg.
  33. Asan Ata
    26 January 2015 22: 50
    Kearza is something. After it, on a civilian legs fly above the head. But remember the tunic, there were changes. Here is the fabric!
  34. +2
    27 January 2015 00: 39
    Grandfather said that he wore windings and shoes. He was called up in 44, was in training in Sergiopol in Kazakhstan, and then the 2nd Belorussian Front. I remember saying that on the palm below the knee, windings were tied.
  35. +3
    27 January 2015 00: 59
    Good article, I learned a lot of new things, especially about boots with windings, it would be interesting to try to wear such ones ..
    He wore long boots and grandfather chrome. It was important to dry the chromes correctly, otherwise they tan tightly.
    The crimson trees seemed to me very comfortable, the leg in them keeps excellent due to footcloths, it is important to choose the correct completeness when you choose the boots. Surprisingly, people wiped them through in the most unexpected places and heels were washed at strange angles.

    I also wore bastards, I didn’t like them, as well as marine parade boots .. Like brick on a leg.

    Cool sea slippers, especially those with a leather sole, were also rubber. Very comfortable, legs do not sweat ..
    Slippers submariner. 41 hole

    Like these ones.
  36. +1
    27 January 2015 17: 21
    Grandfather first put on his boots at the front only in the year 44, before that there were boots with windings.
    But the most interesting is that in fact, from 42 to August 45 passed in bast shoes.
    At 42, he was sent to serve in the Far East after the hospital, the unit was defending in a marshy area, constant damp ... shoes, boots and boots did not have time to dry out, there were big problems with leg diseases. And the bast shoes, as my grandfather used to say ... stepped into a puddle, went out on a level, the water from the bast shoes left, rewound the footcloth and winding ... that's dry.
  37. 0
    27 January 2015 22: 11
    In training for 6 months, he stopped 3 pairs of heels
  38. 0
    27 January 2015 22: 57
    - The "coolest" boots were in the Marine Corps ... with a low bootleg, made of thick, soft leather! But water-repellent grease is beyond words ... a gray mass, which was simply impossible to polish ... There were craftsmen who smeared boots with grease, which made them quickly come kirdyk - they crawled.
  39. +1
    27 January 2015 23: 09
    - The paradox!

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