Military Review

Grokhovsky's “tailless man” - Mr. Cukaracha, Mr. 39

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Work on the creation of so-called "beskhvostok" held at the institution, which is called "Special Force, construct and Production Office", or in abbreviated form - Oskonbyuro. It appeared in 1930 in the capital of Russia. Already in 1934, he was reformed into an experimental institute at the People's Commissariat of Industry. He had a branch in St. Petersburg, at that time - in Leningrad. From the time it was founded, and according to 1937, it was headed by P.I. Grokhovsky, who was also the chief designer of the Institute. Similar projects were developed earlier in this institute headed by Grokhovsky, but at that time potential “artless” still had a lot of significant flaws, therefore it was impossible then to seriously think about creating large-sized structures that would be suitable for widespread use in practice. A particular problem was that they did not know how to ensure their sustainability. Although the “tailless”, created by Cheranovsky and Lippish, rather successfully walked along the waves of the fifth ocean, they were only small experimental machines. Grokhovsky was also well aware that you should start by creating small-sized experimental aircraft. Only a phased approach in this matter could provide the designers of the institute with the experience they needed. However, Grokhovsky considered such a way unacceptable, since it contradicted his principles. Among all those designs that were developed at Oskonbyuro, there was not a single one that would be created only for the purposes of the experiment. All the developments of the institute, starting with a hydrofoil boat, and ending with an arctic station unsinkable (abbreviated ANS), were of a utilitarian nature of their purpose, which allowed them to begin their practical use immediately after the completion of the test work.

Then aviation The press around the world showed a keen interest in the idea of ​​developing special-purpose fighters that would be able to destroy enemy aircraft by ramming. Similar cars attracted the attention of Grokhovsky. He analyzed all the possible options for such an aircraft and invented his own version, which had no analogues. The idea was based on the tailless scheme. The front edge of the wing of the aircraft should have a so-called knife - that is, a thin strip of metal, namely of high-strength steel. In the bow area of ​​the aircraft, a boom had to be installed, which would protrude forward over a long distance - that is, the barrel of an air gun. The rod and wing consoles were interconnected using a thin steel cable. Grokhovsky suggested that during a battle a similar fighter plane would be tied with a cable, or, if the cable burst, it would be able to cut the tail of an enemy aircraft with a knife. The sharp end of the air gun was to rip open the shells of balloons, as well as airships. Based on this development, Grokhovsky was going to create the first tailless aircraft of the Special Design and Production Bureau.

The goal was determined, however, the institute team did not have sufficient knowledge and experience from this. Since Grokhovsky was a man of determination and rather courageous, he decided to drop his ambitions for his work. If the institute itself is not able to create this fighter, then others can, someone has the necessary experience for this. Since the task is very difficult, the amount of work is not designed for one person - it means that you should invite a whole team of specialists. Based on these principles, Grokhovsky invited three experienced aircraft designers in their field: V. Bolkhovitinova, S. Kozlov and A. Kaminov. In this proposal, the specialists were attracted by both favorable conditions for such cooperation and the creative aspect of the work - after all, the creation of a fighter plane with a complex aerodynamic scheme, called the G-39, was supposed.

Not having a particular desire to pay large sums of money to the professionals of the domestic aircraft industry, Gorokhovsky tried to squeeze out of them all the possible creative potential. Several developments that were born in his design bureau were tested at once. Thus, the initial task was complicated - now it was necessary to introduce a new device in the new G-39, providing vertical takeoff of the aircraft. This idea was told by the chief and chief designer of the Oskonbyuro in his invention, entitled “Installing a propeller group in the middle part of the fuselage”. As a result, the trio of aircraft were to create a fighter plane-ram, with vertical take-off and landing, having an aerodynamic configuration "tailless". Although the fully worded terms of reference sounded very difficult, it still had a real base - a variety of ideas and calculations, the patents of the institute. In addition, faith in the intuition of the head of the bureau was a good reinforcement for this. Sometimes Gorokhovsky himself could not explain his assumptions, however, they were always confirmed, often even contradicting the well-established norms of aviation science. Because what some special little doubt that their work will be successful in three of aircraft has not been, and very soon the image of the new G-39 already drawn on Whatman paper.

At a general glance, the aircraft X-39 was similar to the "tailless", developed by Cheranovsky. He had a short fuselage - he was cigar-shaped, the cockpit was closed and drop-shaped. The wing had a sweep of thirty-eight degrees on its front edge, and its plumage was vertical and had the appearance of two washers. The wing ends were lowered, which allowed the creation of an air cushion under the apparatus, which facilitated the take-off of the aircraft, as well as reduced the landing speed. In the central region of the wing was located the pushing propeller, which was placed in a semicircular neckline. The aircraft engine was attached to the tail area of ​​the fuselage using a special device that ensures its rotation from horizontal to vertical position. So the propeller became pulling instead of pushing, creating a lift force ensuring vertical takeoff of the aircraft. The G-39 had a chassis with four wheels. Near the fuselage, in the root zone of the wing, there were two racks - they were long, had little dutikas, and were closed by narrowed fairings. The fuselage in this part had lowered ends, which were called "cable-whiskers". The pilot's cabin had ellipsoid elements of its glazing. It all gives the aircraft similar to the insects. In this regard, even when he was only drawing in general terms, he was already called “kukaracha”, that is, a cockroach — at that time there was such a very popular song.

“Cucaracha was developed and built under rather difficult conditions. Designers designed it in their spare time, which remained from their main service, it was mostly at night. This aircraft was unscheduled, and the money for it is also not allocated. The construction of the car took place in the workshops of TsAGI. The new engine for the aircraft could not be found, because it was necessary to restore the already low-powered M-11 that had already been decommissioned. For the construction of the aircraft were used those materials that were saved during other work. All the time there was a shortage of professional hands. Technological equipment of the production base was weak. This led to the fact that it was necessary to “customize” this project to the possibilities that were available in the workshops. For example, the closed cabin had to be changed to an open, semicircular cut-out for the screw had to be straightened. As a result, the delta wing became swept, and the rear part of the wing became a horizontal stabilizer with a huge area and span. In this regard, it was not possible to establish the elements for the possibility of a ram strike. In the workshops of TsAGI it was impossible to make a knife and a rod — a pneumatic gun. Also, it was probably not possible to install a device for the vertical take-off of the car. At least this is not mentioned by anybody who has seen how the tests of the G-39 were conducted.

V. Chkalov often visited the workshops where Mr. 39 gathered. He was going to carry out tests of the aircraft, and therefore believed that it was necessary to look at him while he was being built. The advice of an experienced pilot helped in assembling the pilot's cabin, the necessary instruments were conveniently placed in it, as well as the controls of the aircraft.

At the end of the spring, in the 1935, the Cucaracha was launched to the airfield to conduct its tests. Chkalov, entering the cockpit, remarked: “Look, and the truth is like a cockroach. Well, I'll try. ” But he didn’t manage to take off in this car into the air. G-39 ran on the airfield, picked up speed, but was not going to take off. Chkalov was stubborn, so he drove her until the fuel ran out. All his experience, abilities, skills, as well as a great desire to make the plane break away from the surface did not help. “And the truth is a cockroach! And cockroaches do not know how to fly. Something you missed, ladies and gentlemen. Or they were too smart, ”the pilot said so then.

Failure was due to several factors. First, the aircraft was clearly too small for its engine power. The situation was aggravated by the fuselage, which shaded the propeller, the wing, and the landing gear, as this reduced the thrust. In addition, the terrible build quality of the aircraft had an effect: there were wrinkles on the skin, the wing had a rough surface, there were paint streaks on the plane. Given all these moments, it is not surprising that the Cucaracha was unable to take off into the air. For the chief and chief designer of the bureau, Grokhovsky, this failure was a real trauma, he experienced it very hard. For him it was very important that the plane was able to make at least an approach. In this case, the G-39 could be included in the work plan of the design and production bureau and remade in a new, well-equipped, and well-equipped workshop of the 47 aircraft factory in Leningrad.

But Gorokhovky still managed to include the new version of “Kukarachi” in the work plan of the bureau. But the chief was forced to abandon the devices of the ram, from the adaptation of the vertical take-off. Work on such a fantastic plane would not have approved. The contract with the three aircraft designers did not renew. Gorokhovsky conferred with his deputy Urlapov and decided that if the project was already in place, the aircraft could be assembled by itself under normal factory conditions.

After three months in the press began to appear on the creation of a new fighter aircraft. They said that the plane will have an engine of a hundred horsepower, will be able to pick up four passengers and pick up speed to two hundred and twenty kilometers an hour. But it was already another plane.
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  1. Bosk
    Bosk 12 October 2013 08: 23
    +2
    Grokhovsky, one of those inventors who was born earlier than his time, would have appeared to him about fifty years later ...
  2. Normal
    Normal 12 October 2013 17: 22
    +2
    Grokhovsky is an unrestrained projectionist and self-promoter. The description of "kukarachi" reminds of the famous "And what kind of carpet did she want to buy ... But where to get the money?"
    His still-born dynamo-reactive guns (there is still no production of RDX for cumulative shells) took a lot of money and time, instilled unreasonable illusions into the minds of the leadership of the Red Army.
  3. ruslan207
    ruslan207 12 October 2013 19: 10
    -1
    He also created the Airborne Forces in the 30's and not Margelov
    1. Kolovrat77
      Kolovrat77 12 October 2013 20: 16
      +3
      Yes, business, not Margelov, damn papados. All the brothers, take Berets. We were opened from behind a hill. And I thought Vasil Filipych (Kingdom to him be Heaven), and it’s not he who is attacked, but another.
      1. datur
        datur 12 October 2013 21: 00
        +2
        [quote = kolovrat77] Yes, business, not Margelov, damn papados. All the brothers, take Berets. We were opened from behind a hill. And I thought Vasil Filipych (Kingdom to him be Heaven), but it’s not he who gets punished, but another - yeah sure belay generally the Jews told us yes Yes, and created the airborne wassat !!! belay laughing from which just pulls to vomit, by the way after the holiday dinner !!! After all, there is and will spoil everything !!!! angry
        1. Kolovrat77
          Kolovrat77 12 October 2013 21: 25
          +1
          Besides, well, why is this. He wrote that Grokhovsky was one of the founders. Basta, no, you still need to add trollins. At least Dad counted from 1908, in the 30s he was a platoon. And then aaaaaaaaa anti-sims.
    2. svp67
      svp67 13 October 2013 11: 52
      +1
      Quote: ruslan207
      He also created the Airborne Forces in the 30's and not Margelov

      Do not confuse "God's gift with scrambled eggs ..."
      To begin with, Grokhovsky did not create the airborne forces of the USSR and made many inventions, the main thrust of which is to equip the airborne forces.
      In the 30 years, Margelov did not create airborne forces, but
      In 1928, he was drafted into the Red Army. Sent to study at the United Belarusian Military School (OBVSh) them. CEC of the BSSR in Minsk, enrolled in a group of snipers. From the 2nd year - the foreman of a machine gun company.
      In April 1931, he graduated with honors from the Order of the Red Banner of Labor; The Central Executive Committee of the BSSR, was appointed commander of the machine gun platoon of the regiment school of the 99 rifle regiment of the 33 th territorial rifle division (Mogilev, Belarus). Since 1933 year - platoon commander in the Order of the Red Banner of Labor OBVSh them. CEC of the BSSR (since 6.11.1933 - named after M. I. Kalinin, since 1937 years - Order of the Red Banner of Labor Minsk Military Infantry School named after M. I. Kalinin). In February 1934, he was appointed assistant company commander; in May 1936, he was appointed commander of a machine gun company.
      From October 25 to 1938, he commanded the 2th battalion of the 23th Infantry Regiment of the 8th Infantry Division named after Dzerzhinsky Belarusian Special Military District. He headed the reconnaissance of the 8th Infantry Division, being the head of the 2th Division of the headquarters of the division. In this position he participated in the Polish campaign of the Red Army in the 1939 year.

      And his merit to our country is that he became Commander of the USSR Airborne Forces
      The author and initiator of the creation of technical means of the Airborne Forces and methods of using units and formations of the Airborne Forces, many of which personify the image of the Airborne Forces of the USSR and the Russian Armed Forces that currently exists
  4. bask
    bask 12 October 2013 21: 19
    +1
    Amerovsky tailless tailless. (gyroplane).
    Willys (Rotabuggy). And even flew. yes