Military Review

Political assassination 25 years ago the Ceausescu couple were shot

34
Exactly twenty-five years ago, on December 25 of 1989, President of the Socialist Republic of Romania (CPP) Nicolae Ceausescu and his spouse Elena Ceausescu were shot dead. A man, twenty-four years old, from 1965 to 1989, who ruled one of the largest countries in Eastern Europe, fell victim to, as one would say now, the classic "Orange Revolution". Two decades later, the practice of such “democratic revolutions” will become typical for all countries whose policy changes the United States wants. At the same time, military coups and insurgencies disguised as "popular uprisings" only gained momentum. In the countries of the “third world” it was more convenient to act by means of classical military conspiracies, but in such large countries as Romania, moreover, located in Europe and were visible to the world community, a simple military coup could not make the proper impression. Therefore, the tactics of “velvet revolutions” were applied here, which subsequently proved its effectiveness in the post-Soviet space. Before turning directly to the story about the events of December 25 1989, it should be briefly recalled what constituted a socialist Romania.


From kingdom to people's republic

For most of its new and newest stories Romania remained the far periphery of Europe. After being liberated from vassal dependence in relation to the Ottoman Empire, independent Romania turned into a country with tremendous social polarization, high corruption of power, and arbitrariness of officials. The Hohenzollern dynasty that ruled Romania and the Romanian aristocracy and oligarchy that surrounded it occupied frankly anti-national positions and cared solely about their own selfish interests, while not forgetting to throw nationalist slogans into the masses and cultivate the myth of “Great Romania”, “glorious data”, “glorious damers”; hostility to all surrounding countries.

After the end of the First World War, right-wing ideas began to gain popularity in Romania, which resulted in the formation of a number of nationalist revolutionary organizations. The most famous among them was the "Iron Guard". The political situation in Romania at the end of 1930's led to the fact that the actual power in the country as a result of a military coup seized General Ion Antonescu. This right-wing radical Romanian warlord proclaimed himself the “conductor”, that is, the “leader”, the “führer”. During the Second World War, Romania took the side of Hitler's Germany, which was not surprising, given the ideological affinity of the ruling regimes and the long-standing political and economic ties between the two countries.

However, as the Hitler’s plans of a quick victory over the Soviet Union collapsed and, moreover, the Wehrmacht began to retreat on the Eastern front, dissatisfaction with the military-political course of Antonescu grew in the Romanian ruling circles. Moreover, the Romanian armies, who fought against the USSR, suffered tremendous casualties and gradually abandoned the positions they occupied. 23 August 1944 King Mihai I, relying on the support of the Romanian Communist Party, produced a military coup. Marshal Antonescu was arrested. Romania declared its withdrawal from the war, after which the Romanian troops, with the help of the Soviet troops that entered the territory of Romania, were partly defeated and destroyed, and the Wehrmacht forces stationed in the country were captured. Thus began the history of post-war Romania.

Coming out of the war, King Mihai was obviously guided by considerations of maintaining his own power. However, the entry of Romania, after the end of the Second World War, into the orbit of Soviet influence violated all his plans. After a brief reign of two cabinets under the leadership of General Constantin Senatescu (reigned from 23 in August 1944 to 16 in October 1944) and General Nicolae Radescu (board from 6 in December to 1944 to 6 in March 1945), the Romanian government led a pro-Soviet politician, Pogo, went to head the pro-W. Although officially he was not a member of the Communist Party, he sympathized with the Communists and in fact brought them to power in the country.

In November 1946, the Communists won the parliamentary elections. In the end, the king was forced to abdicate, and on December 30 1947 the Romanian People’s Republic was proclaimed. Its actual leader was the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party, George Gheorghiu-Dej (1901-1965) - a veteran of the Romanian communist movement. In 1947, the Romanian Communist Party merged with the Social Democratic Party, as a result of which the Romanian Labor Party was created. The communist reorganization of the Romanian state began, which included the establishment of one-party rule, collectivization and industrialization. Since Gheorghiu-Dej was a staunch Stalinist, he sought to learn from the experience of collectivization and industrialization in the Stalinist USSR, including using rather tough methods in relation to the opposition.

However, in 1948-1965, when the country was actually led by Gheorghiu-Dej, Romania made a huge economic leap. The bulk of the investment was directed to the development of the Romanian industry, including the chemical and metallurgical industries. In this case, Gheorghiu-Dej after the death of I.V. Stalin and the de-Stalinization policy that began in the Soviet Union was able to ensure a relatively independent domestic and foreign policy course of Romania. So, unlike most other socialist countries of Eastern Europe, Soviet troops were not based in Romania. Romania traded freely with Western countries, while ideologically sticking to more radical communist (Stalinist) positions than the Soviet Union. An independent domestic and foreign policy was pursued and replaced in 1965 by the city of Gheorghiu-Deja as head of the Romanian state and the Communist Party Nicolae Ceausescu.

Nicolae Ceausescu

Nicolae Ceausescu was born on January 26 1918 in the village of Scornichesti in a large peasant family. In addition to Nicolae, his father Andruцă, a local peasant who worked as a tailor, had nine more children. The family lived poorly, but she managed to give her primary education to her son. Then, in 11 years, Nicholas was sent to Bucharest, to his older sister. There he began to master the shoemaking craft at the workshop of Alexander Sandulescu. The master was a member of the underground Romanian Communist Party and attracted the young student to political activities. From 1933, Ceausescu became involved in the activities of the communist movement - initially as a member of the Communist Youth Union. In 1936, he joined the Romanian Communist Party. By this time, young Ceausescu had several prison breaks in prison, during which he met with influential figures like the same George Gheorghiu-Dej, who became the patron saint of a convinced young communist. In 1936-1939 and 1940-1944 Nicolae Ceausescu was imprisoned in prisons of royal Romania. In the interim, he met Helena Petrescu (1919-1989), also a young Communist Party activist, who later became his wife and faithful ally.

After Romania left the war against the USSR, Nicolae Ceausescu escaped from prison, and since the political situation in the country was changing rapidly, he quickly legalized and quickly made a career in the leadership of the Communist Party. He headed the Union of Communist Youth, and in 1945, at the age of 27 years, he was appointed head of the Supreme Political Directorate of the Armed Forces of Romania with the assignment of the military rank "Brigadier General" (although he had never served in the army before and did not have a higher or even average education). In 1947-1948 he headed the party obkomy in Dobrudja and Oltenia, then, from 1948 to 1950. He was the Minister of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China. That Ceausescu was at the forefront of the policy of collectivization of the Romanian village pursued by the government of Gheorghiu-Deja. Later in 1950-1954. Ceausescu served as Deputy Minister of the Armed Forces of the People’s Republic of China, receiving the rank of Major General. From 1954, Mr. Nikolay became secretary of the Central Committee of the RRS, and from 1955 he became a member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the RRS, joining the highest political elite of post-war Romania. Ceausescu's competence included, among other things, the leadership at the party level of the activities of the Romanian special services.

19 March 1965 Mr. Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dejes passed away, and 22 March was Nicolae Ceausescu, who was 47 years old at the time, was elected first secretary of the Central Committee of the Romanian Workers Party. In July, 1965 was, on his initiative of the party, the former name returned - the Romanian Communist Party. A month later, in August 1965, the Romanian People’s Republic was renamed the Socialist Republic of Romania (SRR). In addition to the party leadership, Ceausescu became Chairman of the State Council - in 1967, and Supreme Commander - Chairman of the Defense Council in 1969. Thus, all the real power in Romania was concentrated in the hands of Ceausescu. This subsequently gave his critics the reason to accuse Ceausescu of establishing a dictatorial regime and creating a "personality cult." Certainly, both of these took place, but opponents of the Ceausescu regime constantly forget about the other side of the Romanian leader’s leadership - the unprecedented development of the economy, culture and science in a country that has always been on the periphery of the European world. It was the years of Ceausescu's rule, perhaps, that was the only period in the history of the country when it could be counted among the truly developed and independent countries.

Romania’s Golden Age

The independence of Romania in foreign policy was a great achievement of Ceausescu as a politician. Although its foundation began to be laid under his predecessor, Gheorghiu Dejé, as party leader, the autonomous foreign policy of the Romanian leadership reached its apogee during the years of the Ceausescu rule. Romania was friends and wanted to trade with anyone, which was due to the adoption of a special document back in 1964 confirming the autonomy of each communist party in choosing the optimal political development path for their country. Thus, the Romanian leadership avoided the need to make a choice in favor of the Soviet or Chinese course in the world communist movement, while maintaining good relations with both the USSR and the PRC.

Political assassination 25 years ago the Ceausescu couple were shot


However, the relations of Romania with the Soviet Union were not so cloudless. Although openly speaking, the USSR never clashed with the USSR, but hidden contradictions existed and were connected, first of all, with the expansionist aspirations of the Romanian leadership. The fact is that nationalism has always been the “sore point” of the Romanian government. Like many other Eastern European countries that have been under foreign control for a long time, for Romania, issues of national identity and national revival have always been a sore point. This was emphasized by the royal authorities, the “iron guards”, and numerous nationalist parties and groups. This problem was not avoided by socialist Romania. Although there were no open claims to the Soviet Union (and they couldn’t be presented - Ceausescu adequately perceived his place in world and European politics), but, of course, many Romanian politicians looked at Moldova and Bessarabia with ill-concealed irritation, considering them the historical territories of Romanian of the state.

On the other hand, the mythology of the “Great Romania”, combined with the Leninist-Stalinist vision of communist construction, gave impetus to the development of national statehood and the economy - strengthening the political system, industrialization, “cultivating” the broad masses of the proletarian and peasant population. The cause of cool relations with the Soviet Union was Stalinism and Ceausescu. The Romanian Communist Party, although it condemned the excesses of the policy of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Deja after his death and Ceausescu's coming to power, generally followed the Stalinist concept of industrialization.

Realizing the complexity of his position between the capitalist West and the Soviet Union insisting on the adoption of its ideological line, Ceausescu sought to make Romania a self-sufficient state, able to rely on its own forces. In many ways he succeeded. Moreover - practically without the use of Soviet assistance. Ceausescu had to apply for loans to Western countries, which, although they were on the completely opposite “line of barricades” ideologically, did not refuse Romania for reasons of opposing it to the Soviet Union. Thanks to the use of Western loans, Ceausescu was able to modernize the Romanian economy, creating his own and highly developed heavy and light industry. During his reign, Romania produced its own cars, Tanks, airplanes, and not to mention the large volumes of furniture, food, textile, shoe production. The Romanian army was significantly strengthened, becoming one of the most powerful and well-armed in the region (not counting the Soviet, of course).

Among the obvious achievements can be called the creation of not only industrial enterprises of machine-building, chemical, metallurgical profile, but also the development of the textile and food industry. Finished products prevailed in Romanian exports, which confirmed not the raw material, but the industrial status of the country. Developed and leisure infrastructure. Thus, a network of resorts was built in the Carpathian Mountains, where foreign tourists came - not only from socialist, but also from capitalist countries. With regard to indicators of the industrial development of the country, in 1974, the volume of industrial production in the country was a hundred times higher than the 1944 year. In 15, national income has grown.

Thus, the money borrowed from Western countries was spent for future use by Ceausescu on the development of the national economy, which was led by socialist principles. At the same time, in 1980-s. The Ceausescu government managed to pay off its debt to Western countries. Meanwhile, in 1985, the Gorbachev “new turn” began in the political and economic life of the Soviet Union, which ideally corresponded to the US plans to weaken and further disorganize and destroy the USSR and the Soviet bloc. In the Soviet Union and other socialist countries of Eastern Europe, the “fifth column” of the West strenuously pushed ideas about the non-viability of the socialist model in economic terms, about the extraordinary brutality of the socialist “totalitarian regimes” that suppressed any dissent.

The collapse of the Soviet bloc was being prepared and in this context Romania under the leadership of Ceausescu was a very uncomfortable country. After all, Ceausescu was not going to give up the socialist course of development - he was, unlike Mikhail Gorbachev, a “classical formation” communist — an old revolutionary for whom the “school of life” was not a career of Komsomol and party worker, but the underground and long years of imprisonment.

The existence of a state like Romania, that is, uncontrolled neither by the West, nor by “restructuring” in the Western way and in the Western interests of the Soviet Union, and even in the center of Europe, was a serious problem. In fact, it violated the plans of the United States and its allies to quickly destroy socialist ideology in Eastern Europe. Therefore, experts of Western intelligence services began to actively develop a project to overthrow the objectionable Ceausescu and establish control over Romania. Moreover, Romania, located near the borders of Russia / Soviet Union, has always been of strategic interest for the West — first for England and France, then for Nazi Germany, and then for the United States of America.

It must be said that Ceausescu, even before the beginning of perestroika in the USSR, was well aware that the Romanian state, having chosen a path that was truly independent both politically and economically, should be able to stand up for itself in military, intelligence and counterintelligence terms. Therefore, the Socialist Republic of Romania spent considerable forces and means on strengthening its military potential, as well as on the maintenance and development of the state security forces.

Back in August, 1948, almost simultaneously with the approval of the new communist government, in Romania, the Department of State Security (Departamentul Securităţii Statului) was created - a special service that received wide fame as part of its name - “Securitate”. The "Securitate" consisted of the Directorate General for Technical Operations (radio interception and decryption), the Directorate of Counterintelligence (the fight against foreign spies), the Directorate for Prisoners' Affairs (penitentiary institutions), the Directorate of Internal Security (exercised control over the "Securitate" itself), the National Commission on visas and passports (similar to the Soviet OVIR), the Directorate of the State Security Forces (led by the 20-thousand troops, guarding important state facilities), the Police Directorate (supervised the police) and the Directorate “V” (responsible for organizing the personal security of the Romanian leadership).

Ceausescu had placed great hopes on the Securitate, trusting the secret service much more than the less politically reliable army. Moreover, pro-Western sentiments gradually began to penetrate into the political and military leadership of Romania in the 1980-s. Since Romania, which was trying to quickly get rid of debt dependence and pay off loans granted to it by Western countries, existed for some time in a mode of saving money, many high-ranking functionaries began to show discontent with the deterioration of their financial situation. There is no doubt that a certain part of the Romanian elite ended up “on the backing” of the American special services. The latter were carrying out plans for a “popular uprising” in Romania, which was to overthrow the Ceausescu government. At the same time, in its decision to destroy the socialist regime in Romania, the United States enlisted the unofficial support of the Soviet Union, at the end of the 1980s. already fully following in the wake of American interests. American leaders set up the Soviet Secretary General, Mikhail Gorbachev, against Ceausescu, while at the same time pushing him towards an "independent solution to the Romanian problem." The Soviet leadership, which had only ended the ten-year war in Afghanistan, did not want to get involved in yet another armed conflict, so the United States decided to “throw down” Ceausescu with the actual support of the USSR by inflaming so-called “Popular revolution” - allegedly the Romanian people themselves, dissatisfied with the dictatorial regime, will stand on the barricades and overthrow the Ceausescu government. This required strengthening the information war against the internal political course of Ceausescu and the Romanian Communist Party.

"Orange Revolution" 1989 sample

In the Soviet press began to appear critical materials in relation to Ceausescu, who was called not only as a Stalinist and a violator of Leninist principles in the construction of communism. Ceausescu, who was re-elected General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party in November 1989, sharply criticized the Perestroika policy pursued by the Soviet leadership and prophetically claimed that it would lead socialism to collapse. The West, through the mouths of Romanian oppositionists who fled to the United States, in turn, wound up Romanian society with massive propaganda. Ceausescu was declared the main culprit in the deteriorating economic situation of the country. The West put pressure on Ceausescu through Mikhail Gorbachev. The last meeting of the Romanian leader with the Soviet Secretary General took place on December 6 1989. On it, Mikhail Gorbachev once again began to convince Nicolae Ceausescu of the need for political and economic reforms in Romania. To which the President of the SRR gave his famous answer: “Rather, the Danube will begin to flow backwards, than restructuring will take place in Romania.” Mikhail Sergeyevich, not seriously offended, threatened with consequences. It took less than three weeks, as his words showed his fatal correctness.



The “Orange Revolution” in Romania was carried out according to the classical scenario, which we could observe in our days in the Arab countries, Georgia, and more recently in Ukraine. At first, an “opposition” was created, headed by officials and party functionaries of the same Ceausescu regime recruited by the West. This is the first refutation of the supposedly “popular” character of the Romanian revolution. There were no revolutionary movements created by the “people”, no “people's leaders” appeared - saving time and money, the Western agents simply recruited a number of former and current political leaders of the SRR, including party functionaries and representatives of the army command.

The primary role in the "opposition", as it turned out, was played by Ion Iliescu (R.N.XX). At that time, fifty-nineties Iliesku his entire adult life was Komsomol and party functionary. He joined the Union of Communist Youth in 1930, in the party in 1944, and in 1953 he became a member of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party. Back in the middle of 1968's. Ceausescu, obviously having some information, pushed Iliescu away from significant posts in the party hierarchy and transferred him to the post of chairman of the National Water Management Board. In 1970, Mr. Iliescu was removed from this position and expelled from the Central Committee of the RCP. At the same time, the “terrible dictator” Ceausescu did not deal with him and did not even put him in prison. As it turned out - in vain: to the very Ceausescu, Ion Iliescu was not so supportive.

Western agents used a national minority to provoke a “popular revolution” across the country as a skirmisher. 16 December 1989 in Timisoara, the key city in the region where ethnic Hungarians prevailed, held a rally in support of the Hungarian opposition figure Laszlo Tekes, who was being evicted by order of the authorities. The rally turned into riots, and economic and social slogans were deliberately raised. Soon the unrest spread throughout the country and in Bucharest, on the Opera Square, appeared "Maidan". 17 December 1989. Military units and employees of the "Securitate" opened fire on the protesters. The world's leading TV channels showed footage from Romania, trying to show the world community the "bloodlust of the dictator Ceausescu."



December 18 Ceausescu went on a visit to Iran, but on December 20 was forced to suspend the visit and return to Romania. Here he held an emergency meeting on state security and the state of emergency in the country. On December 21, a state of emergency was introduced on the territory of Timis County, populated by the Hungarians. Ceausescu himself came out with a speech to the people - about a hundred thousand people gathered in a rally in support of him. However, suddenly the provocateurs in the crowd began shouting "Down", blew up the squib. As a result, the rally was disorganized, and Ceausescu left the podium. Riots began on the streets of Bucharest, army units were introduced. Skirmishes between rebels, military units, Securitate officers, and criminal groups began. December 22 was found murdered by the Minister of Defense of the country, General Vasile Mil - he allegedly shot himself, not wanting to give the troops an order to suppress popular demonstrations. On the same day, at 12.06, Ceausescu, along with his wife Elena and several guards and comrades in arms, fled in a helicopter that had risen from the roof of the residence of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party, which had by this time been besieged by crowds of demonstrators. The opposition seized the Bucharest television station and announced the overthrow of the secretary general.

Pseudo vessel and murder

The Ceausescu couple went first to their dacha, from where they expected to leave for the reserve command post, which General Stanculescu was to provide. However, the latter, as it turned out, was also among the rebels (that is, “oppositionists”). Then Ceausescu tried to break into Pitesti, who remained loyal to the General Secretary, but in the process of movement was captured by the rebels. For two days the couple of Ceausescu were in Targovishte on the territory of a military unit, and for some time the elderly (and they were 71 and 70 years) were kept inside the armored personnel carrier.

December 25 held what the opposition and their American patrons called the court - of course, without any preliminary investigation. Major-General Djiku Popa, Deputy Chairman of the Military Tribunal for Bucharest, was appointed the state prosecutor. The spouses of Ceausescu were accused under the following articles of the Romanian Penal Code: the destruction of the national economy, the armed intervention against the people and the state, the destruction of state institutions, genocide. The Ceausescu couple refused to recognize themselves as mentally ill, were found guilty on all charges and sentenced to capital punishment - the death penalty through execution. According to the decision of the tribunal, ten days should have been allocated to appeal the death sentence. But the oppositionists were so afraid of Ceausescu that they decided to kill him and his spouse immediately, fearing that they might be beaten off by armed supporters or employees of the Securitate.

- General Victor Stankulescu

For the murder of the spouses of Ceausescu, General Stenculescu, who was the former minister of defense of the rebels, identified an officer and three soldiers. In 16.00, Nicolae and Elena Ceausescu were barred into the courtyard of the military unit’s barracks and shot. Their bodies lay day and night at the football stadium, and then were buried in the Gencha cemetery in Bucharest under other names (the executioners hoped that they would interfere with the “worship” of the graves by supporters of the communist ideology and the Ceausescu regime). Only later were the bodies exhumed, reburied and a modest monument was erected on the grave.

In fact, the execution of Ceausescu's spouses was an ordinary political assassination disguised under a court sentence. The politician, who turned out to be disagreeable to both the United States and the Gorbachev USSR, was accused of human rights violations and political repression, but he himself, in fact, was the victim of political murder. The world community of a “liberal” orientation is more likely to have approved the murder of Ceausescu. The shooting was filmed on video and was shown on Romanian television. Pro-American Soviet leaders were among the first to respond positively to the murder of Ceausescu's spouses. The then USSR Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze soon arrived in Romania to congratulate the new leadership of the country. By the way, it consisted of former party functionaries, who had been removed from power during the years of Ceausescu's rule and reoriented towards cooperation with the West.

Already in the second half of the 2000-s, many ominous details of the 20-25 events of December 1989 were revealed. In particular, it was found that the order to shoot at the crowd was not given by Nicolae Ceausescu (as stated by the world media), but by General Victor Stenculescu (by the way, this man, who was directly responsible for the murder of Ceausescu, stayed for a long time as an army minister, he was dismissed, and in 2008, he was arrested and convicted on charges of leading a massacre of people in Timisoara). And as a result of shootings in the streets of Bucharest and other Romanian cities, it was not thousands of people 64 (as the world media said), but less than a thousand. There is information about participation in the provocations during the rallies in the Romanian capital of Soviet intelligence officers. This is not surprising, since Mikhail Gorbachev himself supported the overthrow of Ceausescu and received a blank check from the American leadership on this score: Washington even allowed the Soviet Union, if desired, to remove the Ceausescu regime by armed means. True, this did not happen.

After years in the Romanian society, hysteria about the attitude to Ceausescu's personality subsided. The materials of sociological polls of Romanian citizens show that modern Romanians for the most part have a positive attitude to the figure of Nicolae Ceausescu and, at least, they claim that he should not have been executed. So, 49% of respondents believe that Nicolae Ceausescu was a positive leader of the state, more than 50% regret his death, 84% believe that shooting Ceausescu was illegal without investigation and trial.

“Romania today is a market for foreign goods, in fact, an economic colony of international capital. Over the past twenty years, the national industry has been eliminated, and strategic sectors sold to foreigners. Salaries have been cut, unemployment is increasing, drugs and prostitution have appeared. Although each year in December, the spells of politicians about “freedom” and “democracy” are heard, people understand that this is a shameless lie of the most corrupt, incompetent and arrogant political class in the entire history of Romanians. Therefore, today the Romanians believe that December 1989 of the year turned out to be a misfire, an unsuccessful start, ”says historian Florin Constantinio (quoted in: Morozov N. December 1989 events in Romania: revolution or putsch? // Reserve Reserve. 2009, No. 6 ( 68)). Flowers are brought today to the grave into which 2010 was reburied after the exhumation of Nicolae Ceausescu and Elena Ceausescu (Petrescu). Realizing what the pro-American “people's revolution” brought them, many Romanians regret the murder of Ceausescu and, in general, the collapse of socialism.
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  1. Lindon
    Lindon 25 December 2014 07: 35
    +22
    The first victim of Gorbachev is Romania and Ceausescu.
    But now the Romanians can work as migrant workers in any country, and the remnants of the industry have been bought up by foreign investors, including and the diamond of the Romanian oil industry, Rompetrol 100, a share of which is owned by the Kazakh national oil company KazMunayGas.
    1. Enot-poloskun
      Enot-poloskun 25 December 2014 07: 58
      +4
      No matter how Ceausescu was treated, I think their killing was beneficial to the West.

      Most likely, Western intelligence agencies had a hand in this.
      1. Rastas
        Rastas 25 December 2014 22: 47
        +2
        Ceausescu's problem was that for no reason in the mid-80s he set about the idea of ​​paying off all external debt as soon as possible, while tightening his belts as much as possible inside the country. Who inspired him with this idea remains a mystery to this day, there was no urgent need for this. As a result, people began to get poorer, there was not enough food, but by the middle of the 89th, external debt was paid off.
        1. Nonik
          Nonik 25 December 2014 22: 59
          +1
          Debts are a weapon, through debts they command. But yes, "the people did not understand this." Although, of course, not the people overthrew him, but all the same "Maidanists". Yes, "Maidan" has become a truly international word))
    2. Tron
      Tron 25 December 2014 08: 36
      +5
      Quote: Lindon
      Gorbachev's first victim - Romania and Ceausescu

      Romania and Ceausescu have fallen prey to the crowd, for which the slogan "Bread and circuses" is more important than the greatness of their country and nation. Well, the West has skillfully implemented the principle of "Divide and Conquer", using the base aspirations of this cattle.
      And now all "orange revolutions" are carried out only because these lumpen and traitors live among us.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. siberalt
      siberalt 25 December 2014 17: 48
      +1
      And what has changed? Humpbacked passed Ceausescu, and Gaddafi Medvedev.
      1. Nonik
        Nonik 25 December 2014 23: 00
        0
        Quote: siberalt
        And what has changed? Humpbacked passed Ceausescu, and Gaddafi Medvedev.

        You don’t harness for everyone, we do not have the same influence as the United States. At least it was.
  2. Makarych
    Makarych 25 December 2014 07: 39
    +3
    “Romania today is a market for foreign goods, in fact, an economic colony of international capital. Over the past twenty years, national industry has been eliminated, and strategic industries - sold to foreigners. Salaries have been cut, unemployment is growing, drugs and prostitution have appeared. Although politicians spell out “freedom” and “democracy” every year in December, people realize that this is the shameless lie of the most corrupt, incompetent, and arrogant political class in Romanian history. Therefore, today the Romanians believe that December 1989 turned out to be a misfire, an unsuccessful start ”- perfectly said. And now change the name of the country and the date and hang out a huge banner in the center of Kiev. And history does not teach anything. If we step on the rake, then on our own on the national.
    1. Dazdranagon
      Dazdranagon 25 December 2014 08: 57
      +12
      Quote: Makarych
      If we step on the rake, then on our own on the national.
      - 1917 in the picture is a little off topic - when Lenin came to power, he began to strengthen only the created USSR! Unlike the same Romania!
    2. Romans
      Romans 25 December 2014 10: 08
      -1
      Dear, read carefully about 1917 !!!
      1. sergnow
        sergnow 25 December 2014 11: 30
        +6
        Ops, no liberal fairy tales! By the 17th year, Russia was in opera and the commies managed to raise it! There is no need to repeat the tales of the liberals about their bloodthirstiness. In fact, both world wars were unleashed by the bourgeoisie and the iron curtain and the cold war were their own business, and with the outcome of the "bloody" USSR, wars in the world flared up with greater force - whether the bourgeoisie or the commies from underground ?!
    3. sergnow
      sergnow 25 December 2014 11: 22
      +3
      Yes, here Lenin is completely out of the question here! What a stupid thing!
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 25 December 2014 07: 54
    +6
    Whatever Ceausescu was, but Gorbachev passed it as glass containers ... to the reception point ...
    1. Russian Uzbek
      Russian Uzbek 25 December 2014 08: 33
      +9
      he not only passed it! Suffice it to recall the "strange" suicides of Marshal Akhromeev and KGB Chairman Pugo
      1. Romans
        Romans 25 December 2014 10: 26
        +6
        Dear, do not think that I am picking on you, but Boris Karlovich Pugo was the Minister of Internal Affairs, and the KGB chairmen under the "tagged" one were: Viktor Mikhailovich Chebrikov until October 1, 1988; Kryuchkov Vladimir Aleksandrovich from October 1, 1988 - until August 29, 1991 and finally the liquidator of the service - V.V. Bakatin (I don’t want to write the name and patronymic of this bastard) from August 29 - December 3, 1991.
        1. Russian Uzbek
          Russian Uzbek 25 December 2014 17: 36
          +1
          yes you are right of course
  4. svskor80
    svskor80 25 December 2014 07: 57
    +3
    And so in fact throughout the ex-socialist camp, the collapse of their own industry and the market for Western products, and endless lamentations about democracy, freedom, etc. Everyone wanted to heal richly, and got only the bits from the master's table.
  5. Leader
    Leader 25 December 2014 09: 43
    +3
    The same perestroika in the USSR was invented by the snickering Soviet party leaders who stole millions and want to openly use this money. And direct accomplices are army politicians.
    All this "Komsomol-communist" shobla - again in office.
    "Shitcrats"!
    I hate these ssssuk!
    1. Romans
      Romans 25 December 2014 10: 30
      +3
      What does the political party have to do with it !? And traitors are everywhere traitors, they change color depending on the benefits and changes in the political situation. Ceausescu is a revolutionary, leader, communist of the Stalinist formation, and those about whom you write are traitors !!!
    2. dmb
      dmb 25 December 2014 13: 58
      +3
      About "snickering" and then not all of you are absolutely right. They also blurted out with political officers as a social group without thinking. Among both categories I know quite a few decent people who have remained faithful to the cause they served. Pugo was the first-level party chief, but he had the honor. Grachev and Shaposhnikov were never political officers, and they sold their homeland with a whistle. Most of the "Chekist soldiers" who are now in power are out of the question. However, their existence is not a reason to forget about the real merits for the country of their predecessors. Most importantly, I personally do not have an unambiguous answer to the question of how it was possible to prevent the emergence of people at the head of the socialist state who began to put their personal interests above the interests of society. And to know such an answer is, oh, how necessary, if only so that after the inevitable return to socialism, over time, you will not get the new Gorbachevs and Putin's in power. If you have such an answer, I will study it with interest.
      1. Argon
        Argon 25 December 2014 17: 51
        +1
        I thought about this for a long time in my time, I will not express all the considerations in the wrong format. To create an "unreasonable house" against the background of which the collapse of the Union took place, it was necessary to have at least two figures in the body transforming the introductory "theoretical" resolutions (coming from the top) into purely practical directives that diverged into places, such a body was the apparatus of the Council of Ministers. One figure in the State Plan. But this "network" must, something to protect, some element that can secretly "quietly" influence both the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the KGB Such an element should be a figure of a functionary (a person who had a real opportunity to influence the timing of the "move", and, if necessary, tacit "correction" of outgoing documents, to deal with the distribution of some privileges, material benefits among employees) of a fairly high level in the apparatus of the Central Committee of the CPSU, I emphasize that this is not about politics. It is clear that such activities (for a rather long time, at least 4 years) could not fail to attract attention (well, at least once). better, such a person should have enjoyed the protection of a "reinforced concrete roof." laughing ).
        1. Romans
          Romans 27 December 2014 13: 39
          0
          You are about Mr. Yakovlev A.N.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Romans
        Romans 27 December 2014 14: 52
        0
        Hello Dmitry!!! The Chinese gave an exhaustive answer to this question, what will happen next: We will see! smile
  6. Karabanov
    Karabanov 25 December 2014 09: 52
    +2
    Ceausescu’s personality is certainly ambiguous ... I remember in the Soviet media a lot was said then about the events in Romania. But still striking is the frenzy for the Ceausescu couple that these fanatics dealt with. And as we see, history does not teach anything. Ah, Ukraine ...
  7. Takashi
    Takashi 25 December 2014 10: 27
    -2
    I think there was no color revolution in sight.
    89 - year. the collapse of the Warsaw block countries, events in Poland, the USSR. The economy of the USSR began to rebuild and try to save itself. Before Romania it was like before the moon.
    In Romania, too, dark days came - the economy contracted sharply, Security began to atrocities, life by coupons (and in rural areas there were cases when mothers ate their children). Ceausescu's brain was shifted in terms of paying the country's debt to the detriment of domestic consumption. As a result of such an economic policy that lasted 7 years (from 82 to 89) - the country's inhabitants simply became impoverished. And tired of living like that. The country is small, this is not Russia for you (where there are many .. total people and space). Moreover, part of the army came out on the side of the strikers.
    I don’t like Wiki at all, but for chronology, it’s useful to read: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Causescu, Nicolae
    In short, this peasant simply "got" the whole country - and with the economy and cult he is pursuing. The hatred for him was so great that neither the court / tribunal, nor the Western countries - could no longer save him - that's why they shot him near the outhouse.

    And about the fact that at the present time people voted for Ceausescu, let's look at the time - they executed him in 89 - 20 years have passed. The generation has changed, it already poorly remembers the atrocities of Securiti (does not even know), and does not know much about hunger. The situations in the economy are bad, but you can live, you can go wherever you want. A kind of illusion of freedom.
    The same analogy in Russia about Stalin - all too often make comparisons - that it was good to live with him.


    So, do not confuse the events taking place in Romania in 89 years - with the events in Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova, Libya.
    1. sergnow
      sergnow 25 December 2014 11: 40
      +3
      Oh, that looks like a reprint of liberal views on the reasons for the destruction of the country. And do not embellish Romania’s state today. There’s nothing good or anything. You don’t need to wishful thinking! And even more, you don’t have to slander a dead man who did not deserve bad words. Everything is correctly written in the article and this is true, but does it stab the liberast’s eyes ?!
    2. Romans
      Romans 27 December 2014 14: 37
      0
      There were objective and subjective factors of the collapse of the USSR and the ATS. Subjective factors include: 1) Gorbachev M.S. and his supporters at the head of state (economic policy, management reforms, foreign policy initiative and anti-communist-anti-Soviet ideological activity); 2) The inability to exercise privileges in the material goods for middle and high officials; 3) National strife; 4) The passage of crime into the ranks of the bureaucracy; 5) The weakness and fragmentation of patriotic forces (both within the CPSU and outside it); 6) Liquidation, both physical and moral, of the most capable party leaders of the KGB under Andropov and after him; 7) The naivety and inertia of the masses; 8) The activity of external forces.
      Objective factors: 1) Chernobyl disaster; 2) Earthquake in Armenia.
  8. Kazanok
    Kazanok 25 December 2014 11: 30
    -16%
    Yes, and to hell with him .... the usual dictator half-fool ... king! there and the road .... I think it will also be in Belarus .......
    1. Dazdranagon
      Dazdranagon 25 December 2014 12: 28
      +3
      Quote: Kazanok
      Yes, and to hell with him .... the usual dictator half-fool ... king! there and the road .... I think it will also be in Belarus ......
      - What, do not pay unemployment benefits? laughing
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. virm
      virm 25 December 2014 12: 41
      +1
      It is not necessary to think about Belarus.
      After all, Ceausescu was the "leader of the nation." Laudatory odes were given to him in all the media. The day before the overthrow and massacre, rallies in support of Ceausescu were organized in the cities of Romania. And then some unknown people shot him in the basement. And my wife, by the way. It would be better if he divorced beforehand.
    4. bolik
      bolik 25 December 2014 12: 56
      +2
      So you are my friend, it turns out balls, a revolutionary, in the KGB to the Old Man you need.
      You Liberal only spoil everything for the people, as the Russian kingdom merged, the USSR
      and now trying to spoil.
    5. Dry_T-50
      Dry_T-50 25 December 2014 20: 52
      0
      Quote: Kazanok
      Yes, and to hell with him .... the usual dictator half-fool ... king! there and the road .... I think it will also be in Belarus .......

      What do you want to work as a gaster?
    6. Vladimir 5
      Vladimir 5 19 February 2018 17: 47
      -1
      Then the fate of the Romanians awaits the Belarusians, those so far will dominate as rogues, thieves, prostitutes, and beggars in Eurocities, and in Romania there is no work, no earnings ... There will be an opportunity to surpass them ...
  9. Roman 1977
    Roman 1977 25 December 2014 17: 26
    +6
    You can treat the "genius of the Carpathians" as you like, but the fact remains that he raised the Romanian industry, and especially the military-industrial complex. Under him, Romania built its own combat aircraft:
    IAR-93 attack aircraft (jointly with the Yugoslavs)

    training aircraft IAR-99 SOIM

    A fighter of the 4 generation IAR-95 and its improved version IAR-95ME were developed.


    Multipurpose helicopters "Alouette 3" and "Puma" were produced under a French license.
    On the basis of the Soviet T-55 and T-72, the serial production of TR-85, TR-580 and TR-125 tanks was created and adjusted.

    Own wheeled armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles were produced
    Artillery and anti-aircraft systems.
    A whole fleet of destroyers, 6 corvettes, 2 floating bases, 4 MPK, 41 torpedo boats was built (this is not counting Soviet deliveries)
  10. 16112014nk
    16112014nk 25 December 2014 18: 40
    0
    Interesting article. I did not know many details.
  11. Jmbg
    Jmbg 25 December 2014 19: 09
    -3
    From 1983 to 1986, I visited Romania several times in connection with university activities. I was struck by total impoverishment, taken to extremes, along with universal fear. I sympathized with the Romanians and fully understand why they killed Ceausescu. You, Russians are patient with their superiors, so are my Bulgarians, but we don’t dream that we suffered romania. No one has to endure this.
    1. artalex32010
      artalex32010 25 December 2014 20: 49
      +3
      Writes a resident of a country that, because of the same "freedom-loving" that overthrew Ceausescu in Romania, became one of the poorest and degrading countries in Europe, not much better than Romania, but Bulgaria is not far from their level. You can see, a cosmopolitan from those who terribly hate Todor Zhivkov, for those that Zhivkov, that Ceausescu are bloody tyrants and despots. How good it is for you and the Romanians to live in free Europe, huh ?! When did your countries actually become colonies of the USA, France and Germany ?! The same Germany can just buy your country entirely!
      1. Roman Skomorokhov
        Roman Skomorokhov 26 December 2014 00: 05
        +1
        And let them ...
        Time will put everything in its place.
        Romanians were the first in a series of Euro-diversities, while the Bulgarians are only to come.

        But go by leaps and bounds.
  12. artalex32010
    artalex32010 25 December 2014 20: 40
    +1
    Here is literally an example for the Ukrainians! “Down with the bloody tyrant and despot Ceausescu! We want freedom!” - shouted the foolish Romanians ... And where is Romania now ?! do you want your country to become the same ?!
  13. jamalena
    jamalena 25 December 2014 22: 25
    +1
    Already become .. Unfortunately.
  14. Plamenvarna
    Plamenvarna 26 December 2014 19: 31
    0
    Something is not visible on the site. So that they would pour their hypocritical propaganda here again - like the "brothers" they threw you and beat you in the back. And to read how the Soviet perestroika then leaders threw consistently and together all the social. commonwealth.
    After Romania, your Gorbi Perestroika First decided to take care of our Todor as well. His comrades took off under the pressure of the Soviet ambassador in Sofia. No America, no NATO could then dangle at our feet. Mi - the Bulgarian people did not want blood in difference from the Romanians and did not kill. They didn’t want to kill how the Nazis killed our partisans during the WWII and how later the communists killed our opposition in the 45th. To stop the pendulum of revenge in time - therefore, it was necessary to learn from the Bulgarians.
    My ancient people, have seen a lot of things with us and our neighbors.
    It has long been fought and revolutionized. Tired of terrible death and a refugee to beat.
    Learning from what to refrain from killing is not weakness and fear.
    Learn from the fact that friends are "not a chicken" and "not a bird" and "not abroad", they are just friends.
    You can disagree with their opinion, you can argue, quarrel, etc. but not to impose Stalin's socialism, square-nesting methods, "peas and only peas" of your maize Khrushchev, and finally "all comrades must be rebuilt" and "pay off in dollars" of your Gorbachev Marked.
    ---
    If they said that the AES "Belene" should be built, that is all. It is not for the Turks to build an AES, which will throw you like a naive Russian tourist in Istanbul.
    If they said - it is necessary to build the UP - to build it. Not the Turks who dream of your Caucasus day.
    And not the Chinese, who dreamed not of your Damansky, whom they had already taken away, but your Siberia. It is not for the Chinese to build a pipe and sell the latest weapons.
    Americans can do everything that Eurasia does not beat.
    And you help them a lot in this.
    A Eurasia is Europe + USSR Countries, not Russia + Turkey + China.
    You need to take away Europe from the Americans.
    Fast and forever.
    1. Romans
      Romans 27 December 2014 14: 43
      0
      Don't write about the Chinese, they don’t need anything from us, they already got everything for American money.
  15. maximus2000
    maximus2000 27 December 2014 20: 45
    -2
    Another attempt to rehabilitate one of the most bloody and odious dictators of Eastern Europe. I studied in the second half of the 80s. together with the Romanians. It is difficult to convey in words how happy they were at the death of this brilliant ruler, remembering the Stalinist terror he had arranged. The author of the article would probably say that these Romanians, who studied at a Soviet university, were recruited by American intelligence agencies or came under the corrupt influence of Gorbachev perestroika, an ideological device very popular with modern supporters of the restoration of the obscurantist Stalin-Maoist regime in Russia. I look forward to new materials about great historical figures such as Mao, Polpot, Bokassa and the now-living Bob Mugabo.
  16. Molson
    Molson 29 December 2014 23: 11
    -1
    The will of the people is the law. Brought the country to the handle - get 9 grams.
  17. Dmitry Polishchuk_2
    Dmitry Polishchuk_2 25 February 2018 00: 00
    0
    The Ameorikos are muddied! As in Libya and Yugoslavia. And now Romania is in the ass in all respects