Military Review

The lunar program is interesting to Russia, China and Europe

The natural satellite of the Earth is still an interesting option for a variety of space programs. The moon is important for humanity as the closest object to Earth and as the first step towards the possible colonization of space. Interest in a natural satellite today is shown both in Europe and in Asia. Russia, China and Europe have their lunar programs.

At the meeting, which took place on December 2 2014 in Luxembourg, ESA (European Space Agency) put forward an idea that involves cooperation with Russia in the form of supplying equipment for two space missions planned by Roscosmos over the next six years. The first of these missions, Luna-27, is scheduled for 2019. It is assumed that the lunar module should land in the southern hemisphere of the moon, where he will study the atmosphere and soil. The second Russian lunar mission is scheduled for the 2020 year, it will be sent to deliver samples collected on the Moon back to our planet.

It should be noted that originally European science officials did not intend to cooperate with our country, but the ESA indicated to them that such cooperation is almost the only opportunity for Europe to secure long-term access to the Moon, while cooperation between Europe and Russia will provide potential benefits to both parties. Initially, the idea of ​​partnership with the Russian space agency was a potential solution to the problems that the lunar mission of European countries encountered in 2012, when the proposal to develop a European landing module could not gain enough support.

The proposal for a joint mission to the South Pole of the Moon is superimposed on the growth of political friction between the West and Russia, which gives many well-founded fears in the success of any joint missions, even in space. However, at the moment Roskosmos continues to cooperate with its Western partners. So the Russian space agency collaborates with the mission ESA ExoMars. As part of this mission, the Russian rocket, the carrier module and the landing module will deliver the ESA rover to the red planet in 2018 year. In addition, Roscosmos, together with the European Space Agency, continues its work on the ISS. Both of these missions are going smoothly today, European officials say, without any influence of the current geopolitical situation.

China is planning a manned mission to the moon

Currently, China is working on the creation of a large launch vehicle that is designed to carry out a manned mission to the moon. This is reported by the Chinese state media. According to the information of the publication China Daily, the rocket under the name "Great campaign-9" will belong to the same family of rockets. Currently, work on its creation is at the design stage, and the first launch of the rocket will have to take place in 2028 year. It is reported that the Great March-9 rocket will be able to launch into 130 space tons of payloads, i.e., about the same amount as the space launch system - a heavy NASA launch vehicle to be launched in 2018 year. It is assumed that the original American rocket will put into orbit 70 tons of cargo. At the same time earlier, NASA has already announced that their missile system will have "unprecedented lifting force."

Li Tongyu, who is the head of the Aerospace Development Department of the Chinese Academy of Launcher Technologies, noted that Chinese-made launch vehicles already in service, including the Great March-5, which will be launched soon, fully satisfy Beijing needs for the next 10 years. At the same time, he agrees that for the implementation of promising programs, the capabilities of existing missiles are not enough.

The PRC considers its own extremely expensive space program as an opportunity for the state to declare itself, as well as to confirm the correctness of the chosen course, which was taken by the ruling Communist Party of the country. The plans of Beijing include the assembly of an integrated space station by the 2020 year (the first modules of the station have already been put into orbit), as well as the man’s flight to the moon and the construction of a permanent habitable base on its surface.

According to Li Tongyu, the height and diameter of the Great March-9 rocket will significantly exceed the dimensions of the Great March-5. He noted that the need to develop a new rocket appeared for the reason that the thrust of existing rockets is simply not enough to bring the spacecraft to the lunar path. At the same time, the new super-heavy rocket “The Great March-9” should be used not only for flights to the Moon, but also in other promising programs aimed at studying deep space. In the meantime, Chinese engineers estimate that the diameter of the new rocket should be from 8 to 10 meters, and the mass - about 3 thousand tons.

At the same time, the lunar program of the sky began in the 2007 year, when China first launched the Chang'e-1 probe into lunar orbit. A second spacecraft of this series followed, and the landing module of the third probe allowed the first Chinese lunar rover, Utah, to land successfully. In the coming years, China expects to launch new probes, which will have to deliver new samples of lunar soil to our planet.

Beijing is planning to build its own permanent base on the moon by 2050. This was reported last year by the Beijing Times, citing sources in the Chinese army. Also in September, 2014, the Japanese media reported that China wants to create PLA aerospace troops. And the chairman of the Communist Party of China, Xi Jinping, appealed to the military to actively develop the space and air forces, strengthening their defensive and offensive potential.

Russian orbital station, as a step to the moon

Obviously, the past year finally convinced the Russian government that with Russian-American cooperation on the ISS, after 2020, we will have to finish. At the same time, information appeared about the construction of its own, fully Russian station. At least, this is the key that sounded at the end of November 2014 of the year during the meeting, which was held at Baikonur. The meeting was devoted to the development prospects of the national space program after 2020. From a technical point of view, what the general and chief designers of Russian space enterprises are talking about, the country is already ready to deploy its high-latitude orbit 2017 inclination versus 2018 degrees at the International Space Station for the 64,8-51,6 year). In its initial configuration, it may consist of a multipurpose laboratory, as well as energy modules, connected by Progress-MS and Soyuz-MS, as well as the promising spacecraft OKA-T.

According to the Zvezda TV channel, the OKA-T spacecraft should be an autonomous technology module. This module consists of a sealed compartment, a scientific laboratory, a docking station, a lock chamber, and a non-pressurized compartment in which it will be possible to carry out experiments while in space. The mass of scientific equipment to be put into the project should be approximately 850 kg. In this case, the equipment can be positioned not only inside the device, but also on the elements of its external suspension.

What can our country provide its own space station besides the feelings of self-sufficiency and independence? The first is a significant strengthening of control over the situation in the Arctic. This region for Russia in the coming years begins to acquire strategic importance. It is in the Arctic today that the “hydrocarbon Klondike” is located, which for many years will feed the Russian economy and help to survive even the most difficult economically. Also in the Arctic today passes the Northern Sea Route - the transcontinental sea route, which connects Southeast Asia and Europe. In the middle of the XXI century, this highway may begin to compete in the volume of cargo transportation with the Strait of Malacca or the Suez Canal. Secondly, the work of the Russian rocket and space industry will be significantly intensified, which will be able to get a real point of application of efforts and ideas. Thirdly, the development of a national orbital station makes it possible to get close to the idea of ​​manned flights of Russian cosmonauts to the Moon and so far so far Mars. At the same time, manned programs are always very costly, the decision to implement them is often political in nature and should be in the national interest.

The lunar program is interesting to Russia, China and Europe

In the case of the Russian orbital station, they are respected. At the current stage of development of the ISS in its current form for Russia is already past stage. However, flying to a domestic station is the same as on the ISS. Therefore, it is important to immediately determine the range of tasks of the new Russian station. According to Vladimir Bugrov, the lead designer for manned space-rocket complexes for landing on the Moon and Energiya-Buran, the future Russian station should be a prototype of an interplanetary spacecraft. Initially, Sergei Korolev planned to work out his TMK - a heavy interplanetary ship orbiting the Earth, like a heavy orbital station. Such a decision was the basis of the proposed interplanetary program, which was approved by a political decision.

In addition to the main benefits that Russia can receive when developing its own orbital station, there are a large number of pleasant “bonuses” - starting from the additional load that our Plesetsk cosmodrome will receive and ending with the paid training of Chinese cosmonauts. It's no secret that Beijing has developed a very ambitious space program. Already in 2030, our big southeastern neighbor expects to land his first taikonaut on the moon. And in 2050, China expects to start from its own lunar base to Mars. However, at present, the Chinese simply have no experience in conducting long-term space missions.

So far, there is nowhere to get such an experience. China does not yet have its own full-fledged station, and the Soviet Mir was flooded long ago. On the ISS, the Americans do not allow the Chinese. According to the adopted rules, access to the ISS board is available only to those people whose candidacies have been agreed upon by all the states that are participants of the ISS project. Given the general tensions of the US-China relations, one can hardly hope that in the next 6 years, the legacy of the taikonaut will be able to step onboard the ISS. In this regard, the Russian orbital station could give the Chinese a unique chance in order to gain invaluable experience of a long stay in orbit before they go to the Moon. However, it is not excluded that such an option when Russian cosmonauts and Chinese Taikonauts at some stage of cooperation will be able to fly to the Moon together.

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  1. ziqzaq
    ziqzaq 19 December 2014 07: 27 New
    It is assumed that the lunar module should land in the southern hemisphere of the moon, where he will study the atmosphere and soil
    Atmospheres ???? belay It's about the moon ??
    1. Andrey Yuryevich
      Andrey Yuryevich 19 December 2014 08: 07 New
      Quote: ziqzaq
      Atmospheres ???? It's about the moon ??

      and what do you think sleepwalkers breathe? laughing
      1. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 19 December 2014 12: 21 New
        and what do you think sleepwalkers breathe?
        Of course, a liquid vacuum from cylinders. wassat
        I also pricked this blunder.
        And to this:
        originally, European science officials were not going to cooperate with our country, but the ESA pointed out that such cooperation was almost Europe's only opportunity to secure long-term access to the moonwhile cooperation between Europe and Russia will provide potential benefits for both sides
        This is called - on someone else's hump in paradise.
      2. erg
        erg 19 December 2014 13: 25 New
        The atmosphere of the Moon is the extremely rarefied gas shell of the Moon, ten trillion times less dense (surface pressure of about 10 nPa) compared to the Earth’s atmosphere, consisting mainly of hydrogen, helium, neon and argon.

        Sources of the atmosphere are both internal processes (gas evolution from the Moon’s crust and volcanism), as well as external ones - micrometeorite falls, solar wind. The moon does not hold on to all the released gases, because it has weak gravity; most of the gases rising from its surface are scattered in space.

        The concentration of particles at the surface of the moon varies significantly depending on the time of the lunar day: at night, 1 particle³ accounts for 105 particles, and during the day 104. For the Earth, this figure is 2,7 · 1019.

        As part of the Apollo project, studies were conducted of the atmosphere of the moon, as a result of which the presence of argon and helium atoms was detected in it; subsequent observations from the Earth showed the presence of sodium and potassium ions.

        In 1991, researchers from Boston University discovered a sodium tail that extends up to 15–20 moon radii in the direction opposite to the sun.
        Data from Wikipedia, but it is true. You can check the relevant literature.
        1. abrakadabre
          abrakadabre 19 December 2014 14: 43 New
          In this case, the applicability of the term "Atmosphere" is a controversial issue. Because the second cosmic speed for the Moon is 2,38 km / s. The temperature of the lunar surface during the day can reach 303K (130 degrees Celsius). At this temperature, the speed of gas molecules is very comparable to the second cosmic for the Moon.
          Given the description:
          In 1991, researchers from Boston University discovered sodium "tail ", extending to 15-20 radii of the moon in the direction opposite to the sun.
          and the indicated values ​​of the concentration of gas molecules, I would rather agree with the comet tail analogy. And would call it a halo, and not a full atmosphere.
          1. erg
            erg 19 December 2014 17: 38 New
            You see, the concept of a full atmosphere is not correct. Since the atmosphere is called the gas shell surrounding the celestial body. Comets also have an atmosphere that, together with a solid body, forms the head of the comet. Only the comet's atmosphere evaporates into space. By the way, gas tails have all the planets, including planet Earth. But the halo is an optical phenomenon or an illusion caused by physical bodies, most often ice crystals in the Earth’s atmosphere. That is, the lunar halo is the light of the moon reflected in such crystals in the Earth’s atmosphere.
            1. abrakadabre
              abrakadabre 22 December 2014 12: 27 New
              Your formulation of the term "gallo" is narrowly applied to atmospheric phenomena. There is also a gallo in galaxies.
              For comets, the term atmospheres is inapplicable. Since the gravitation of cometary nuclei is unable to keep gases. The comet's "head" is a fickle phenomenon, it exists only near the Sun and is caused by the sublimation of frozen gases from heating by solar radiation.
              The atmosphere is a stable gas shell of large space bodies, existing because the surface temperature is sufficient for the existence of the gas phase, and the gravitational field is too large for a noticeable escape of gas into interstellar space.
              Formally, of course, such a concept as atmosphere is used for the Moon. But still this is quite controversial.
        2. Erg
          Erg 20 December 2014 00: 51 New
          Have you tried to think?
  2. saag
    saag 19 December 2014 07: 36 New
    "... the rocket" Great March 9 "will be able to launch up to 130 tons into space"

    Saturn 5 or something to copy?
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 19 December 2014 12: 21 New
      Saturn 5 or something to copy?
      Not otherwise
    2. Erg
      Erg 20 December 2014 00: 54 New
      Saturn is a scam for ... You can study materials on "Sunrise", "East", etc. And what about "Saturn" where? Is it so classified? wassat
      1. Herr tur
        Herr tur 20 December 2014 06: 03 New
        It was full of materials in the 80s and in books and in technical information and in the museum it lies.
        Scam video from the moon, and the rocket was.
  3. Andrey Yuryevich
    Andrey Yuryevich 19 December 2014 08: 10 New
    45 years ... a huge period, just a huge ... since 1969! during this time the moon was not mastered! secret of secrets! request
    1. Alexdark
      Alexdark 19 December 2014 08: 12 New
      Well, now it's time to tear secrets. Give us your station in orbit!
      1. RONIN-HS
        RONIN-HS 20 December 2014 02: 09 New
        ... Give ours, your station in orbit! ..

        I agree station US very much needed. Only here again everyone is stuffing themselves into "partners", and they forgot about the sanctions. Send ALL the forest!
        And then with this "give" it turns out according to the saying: memory girlish - "I gave it. And to whom I don't remember ..." negative
    2. Pervusha Isaev
      Pervusha Isaev 19 December 2014 09: 01 New
      Quote: Andrey Yurievich
      45 years ... a huge period, just a huge ... since 1969! during this time the moon was not mastered! secret of secrets!

      mystery is a vulgar word plot, for rent, this "mystery" is only for fools, but for thinking people, including brains and being able to compare facts, this has long ceased to be a "mystery" ...
      1. Erg
        Erg 20 December 2014 00: 56 New
        I already thought that one in this darkness ... Thanks, friend
    3. erg
      erg 19 December 2014 13: 28 New
      Not mastered, because there is nothing to do there. At best, a research station. But it is very expensive, especially in operation. And the development of robotics allows you to do without people. In the industrial exploration of the moon, we do not need it yet.
      1. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 19 December 2014 14: 45 New
        In short: technically feasible, not economically viable.
  4. Afinogen
    Afinogen 19 December 2014 08: 36 New
    I do not believe that the mattresses were on the moon.

    1. Andrey Yuryevich
      Andrey Yuryevich 19 December 2014 08: 40 New
      Quote: Athenogen
      I do not believe that the mattresses were on the moon.

      if in 45 years no one else has been, doubts arise by themselves! with modern technology, this is simply inexplicable!
      1. Pervusha Isaev
        Pervusha Isaev 19 December 2014 08: 58 New
        Quote: Andrey Yurievich
        if in 45 years no one else has been, doubts arise by themselves! with modern technology, this is simply inexplicable!

        Well then, the question arises about the position of cosmonaut Leonov, who simply sputters behind the amerof, and that’s it, why do you think he says that?
        1. Erg
          Erg 20 December 2014 00: 58 New
          Sold out. The whole answer. I am ashamed of the legend
    2. Erg
      Erg 20 December 2014 00: 57 New
      And rightly so, do not believe. Even now there is no such technology. It’s amazing that still passions will not subside
  5. valokordin
    valokordin 19 December 2014 09: 52 New
    Stop dreaming about the Moon, you have to be realistic in Russia, there is no money for this, and no mind. If only in the distant future. You can follow the successes of the Chinese, Americans and Europeans and read Jules Verne. And how well it all started, what the impulse was, and where is it now. "Unions" and "Protons" will end, "Angara" will come, but there will be no "Energy", "Buran", "Almaz", "Spirals" and the like, there will be Chubais, Vekselbergs, Abramovichs, Usmanovs, Deripaska, Potanins, Grefs, Kostins and other Rotenbergs.
    1. Mairos
      Mairos 19 December 2014 13: 03 New
      ..and there was seven-boyars and seven-bankers and what and who just didn’t exist .. everything was washed away by history, but Russia is - maybe stop whining?
  6. abrakadabre
    abrakadabre 19 December 2014 12: 25 New
    Something smallish "Oka-T" for the backbone of the station. And even more so for the interplanetary module. Is it really impossible to launch an increased volume into space? Unfolding, inflatable and so on.
    1. Mairos
      Mairos 19 December 2014 13: 04 New
      so "Oka" is just a laboratory module - nothing more
    2. schizophrenic
      schizophrenic 19 December 2014 15: 05 New
      Quote: abrakadabre
      Foldable, inflatable and so on

      A strong meteor shower from dust will quickly eat any fabric, besides, while the plastics are not very resistant to vacuum and because of this, the service life is much less. The only way out when using an inflatable structure is to make an aluminum shell, and for this we already need a plant in orbit.
      1. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 23 December 2014 08: 23 New
        In fact, the fabric can be made with the addition of metal threads or even completely metal. They make bonds on cables and hoses. Further development of this technology is required. This time.
        plastics are still used everywhere. For structural stability, it is possible to make an inflatable sandwich of several metal-woven (or carbon fabrics, or a combination thereof for better protection against radiation) of the shells with filling the gaps with hardening foam. Also between these shells there will be all pipelines and the necessary wiring.

        In this case, the deployment may be in the following order:
        1. Blowing the inner shell for example to a pressure of 0,8 atm.
        2. Foam injection between the inner and the next shell to a pressure of 0,5 atm. This is quite enough for the complete expansion of the subsequent shell.
        3. We are waiting for the curing of the foam.
        4. Steps 2 and 3 are sequentially repeated for all layers, with a gradual decrease in pressure to the outer shell. In this way, a significant amount can be made with at least two meter thick walls with sufficient bearing strength. Plus high thermal insulation. In thick walls, it is possible to place both parts of the equipment, and technological tanks in flexible expandable shells. The most important thing. astronauts will have a larger volume. In order not to fly in orbit for a year like a herring in a barrel.

        By the way, in the case of micrometeorites, due to some elasticity of the foam filler, internal excess pressure will tend to squeeze the material into the lumen of the micro-hole. That is, the function of self-repair within certain limits.
  7. saag
    saag 19 December 2014 16: 57 New
    Caves under the base must be sought or done, which is of course worse, but with the finished cave many questions are immediately addressed, this is for you a constant temperature regime and some protection against radiation and meteorites
  8. I think so
    I think so 20 December 2014 00: 34 New
    Laughter ... What kind of lunar program the author of an article in Russia raves about, as it were not to HUNGER ... China and Geyropa may be thinking about the Moon, and Russians DO NOT ALREADY ... And for a long time ... if not forever .. .
    1. Erg
      Erg 20 December 2014 01: 01 New
      The moon is an artificial satellite. That's all! There will be no flights. Gut is thin soldier
  9. guznorodov
    guznorodov 22 December 2014 19: 41 New
    you need to create your own orbital station and with prostitutes like America you need to keep your distance
    1. Erg
      Erg 24 December 2014 00: 11 New
      About prostitutes - you said it for sure hi