From the Editorial of the PH: The approaching anniversary of the Great Victory in the Patriotic War makes us again and again comprehend the phenomenon of the madness of fascism. With tremendous sacrifices and blood, the greatest victory was won in the bloodiest war in stories humanity, but alas, it turned out that fascism was never defeated - its root cause, which again raises its head on the planet, including even at home, in the countries of the Russian World. This article is devoted to the problem of the revival of Nazism and the introduction of the Nazi worldview in the public consciousness. The undoubtedly man-made and project-oriented nature of modern fascism, cultivated by world puppeteers, is artful.
Author Boris Fedorovich Kalachev - criminalist, expert on neo-Nazism and drug trafficking, PhD in Law, Professor of the Department of Criminal Law Disciplines of the Moscow Order of Peoples Friendship of the State Linguistic University, Professor of the Department of Criminology and Crime Prevention of the Moscow Academy of the Ministry of the Interior of Russia, Honored Employee of the Russian Internal Affairs Agencies Federation, police colonel.
This analytical article "Contrary to the decisions of the Nuremberg Tribunal: new trends and forms of propaganda of fascism" was published in the journal "Vedomosti of the penitentiary system" No. 5 for 2011 year. Below, it is presented in an adapted form with minor reductions (mainly reference apparatus).
In my life it turned out that for a long time, when directly, and when indirectly, I had to deal with the theme of fascism and the carriers of the Nazi worldview. The empirical and other information given by me is borrowed from bulletins and summaries of world news agencies - ITAR-TASS, Reuters, EFE, and other public sources.
FIRST TREND: PUBLICITY
I will begin the article in the form of a memoir, making a brief excursion into the 1980s. These memories will form the basis of the first trend - the presence of the theme of fascism in the life of society after the Nuremberg Tribunal and the first form of propaganda - the publicity of the actions held.
21 April 1982, the author, then a police lieutenant, inspector of the Moscow Criminal Investigation Department, as usual came to the service in the morning and saw: the duty unit was full of not traditional vagrants, drunkards, rowdy and petty speculators, but young people, decently dressed and completely sober. To the question "What is this audience?" The duty officer replied: "The Fascists."
So I found out about what I had never known before, because in Soviet educational institutions such questions were not studied. It turns out that 20 on April 1889 was born Adolf Hitler, and this date was publicly celebrated by a group of young people who gathered in Pushkin Square of the hero-city of Moscow. We must live at that time in order to understand what a strong emotional shock those citizens of the USSR experienced, the victorious state in the Great Patriotic War over Nazi Germany, who became aware of what had happened.
Around the red banners, Octobrists, Komsomol members and suddenly - the Nazis! Later it turned out: the metropolitan neo-Nazis mostly belonged to the elite strata of society. The shameful event itself was tightly closed for any public discussion, although critical articles and notes on the activities of foreign neo-fascists in the Soviet press were published regularly. Thus, the author’s breach of politics that was not sophisticated in politics: it turns out in families of leaders of the Soviet government and the Communist Party, economic workers, law enforcement officers and special services, not to mention intellectuals, workers and peasants, who can bring up individuals whose worldview doesn’t fit into the political the scheme of legally promoted arrangement of society and the state.
No sooner had this case been “digested” in consciousness, as 22 of June 1983 of the year had to work together with a worker of the district KGB department (at that time, the structure of the KGB of the USSR included district departments. In Moscow 1980's functioned as a part of the KGB Directorate USSR in Moscow and the Moscow region), the same as me, lieutenant, diligently erase from the wall of a residential building in one of the courtyards of Petrovka street the inscription: "Hitler died, but his ideas are alive!" ... Oh, the author of this laconic slogan, it seems, was not only a well-read, but also a sophisticated man, instead of a paint brush, he used tufts of lawn grass, knowing that green juice just wouldn’t be scraped off ...
In the 1984 year - the third episode. During the interrogation of a street robber - a fan of "Spartacus" and at the same time a pedophile - his commitment to Nazi ideas was clarified, the awards of the Third Reich were confiscated. I, a police officer, was not trained to work with such subjects. Therefore, when the detainee began to excitedly talk about some summer camp, where he underwent military and physical training, a group of fascist associates, books preaching Nazi ideology, and the like, I had to realize my complete lack of awareness in matters of this kind ...
In the spring of 1985, a new story. Now, as a “connoisseur” of the Nazi subject, I am included in the capture group — to detain “black diggers” who were fascinated by the fascist ideology and the search for weaponsleft on the battlefields of the Great Patriotic War. We arrive at the right address on the outskirts of Moscow, burst into the first apartment, and it is all literally littered with rusty mines, shells, aviation bombs, ammunition, small arms, military ammunition ... On the wall of the room there is an inscription painted (for some reason in English): "We must make a coup!" Searches conducted by other members of the pro-fascist group found the same explosive assortment.
After the fourth incident, it finally dawned on me:
experienced situations are not separately taken excesses or accidents. And now, remembering the days of the past, sad thoughts come to mind: if the neo-fascists of that time turned 16 – 20 years old, today they are 25 – 28 years older ...
What do these citizens of the Russian Federation carry in their hearts and souls? I doubt that they radically changed the assimilated outlook once upon a time. Hidden for the time being - yes.
Since then, despite being busy with the main professional credo in practice and in theory - the fight against drug trafficking, I began to accumulate materials - cuttings from Soviet newspapers and magazines about the problem of neo-Nazism in the USSR. And in 1989, he published a big problem article in the journal "Cultural and Educational Work". But full-fledged verification of information received about the fascist youth in the run-up to the collapse of the state, apparently, no one was engaged.
It, in particular, reflected the territorial spread of neo-fascism in the cities of Moscow and Leningrad, the Khabarovsk Territory, the Sverdlovsk, Amur, and some other areas, if we talk about the RSFSR - the current Russian Federation, omitting the more vivid centers of neo-Nazism in the Baltic Soviet republics and the Ukrainian SSR (Western its parts). In the following years, he conducted new studies and regularly published their results, including in UN publications.
However, the more it was written about the fascism of scientific and fictional works, the larger-scale and more aggressively the analyzed problem developed in the international space and directly in Russia. In 2010, according to criminal statistics, it can be (while in digital perception) more intense than the phenomenon of terrorism (see fig.1).
And, I admit, in the near future already, ultra-right extremists will more often resort to methods of terror, i.e. both problems are intertwined even more closely than before.
Thus, fascism as an asocial political phenomenon has completely failed to eradicate the world community. The descendants of the organizers of the Nuremberg Tribunal turned out to be executed far from impeccable.
Nuremberg Palace of Justice, 1945 – 1946 years
That is why further I intend to describe the tendencies and forms of propaganda of this already hardened topic, which are fixed today. In total, I identified about thirty such trends and forms of propaganda;
even a brief presentation of them would have resulted in a monographic publication. Based on these considerations, we will dwell only on six of them - in this article without discussing the causes and conditions (determinants, factors) of the current development of this phenomenon and the measures to prevent it.
SECOND TREND: GLOBALIZATION OF FASCISM
So, if the first trend, as was shown above, is the preservation of the problem of fascism in modern society, the second trend is the globalization of fascism, which means at the same time the global scale of its propaganda.
On the eve of the 65 anniversary of the Nuremberg Tribunal (1945 – 1946 years), I organized a temporary research group of fifth-year students of the MSLU. The purpose of the young people's zeal was to find out the prevalence of the discussion of the topic of fascism in the Internet environment, and my leader, his current characteristics.
Soon, for the given search parameters, the students conducted the necessary screening in five languages - Russian, English, German, Spanish and French in the most popular search engines of the global web: Rambler (Google), Yahu! (Yahoo!) and Yandex (Yandex). 189 UN Member States are analyzed.
The results of this work allowed us to formulate a conclusion: in all the countries studied, whether in the past the countries of the Nazi bloc (the Axis state) or the anti-Hitler coalition, the theme of fascism is everywhere discussed. It was possible to distinguish 17 countries where this problem is being discussed with particular vigor, and six states that differ in minimum indicators (Table 1).
It is instructive and more. The word "fascism" is used many times more often than the word "anti-fascism" in all the Internet search engines studied and in all five languages used (tab. 2).
According to the author, this is an indirect signal of weakness and inconsistency in the measures of international countering the globalization of fascism.
Has touched with its wing the globalization of fascism and our country, Russia. In October 2010, the author did not find a single subject of the Russian Federation, where on a given scale this topic, in its negative accent, was not present.
In comparison with the data of the General Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation, published in the spring of this year, it became clear that the problem under consideration is of a noticeable latent nature (tab. Xnumx).
The rating list of territories with increased energy of the discussion of the problem under study was 22 of the subject of the Russian Federation, and the declared by the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation as being characterized by extremist activity - only five.
THIRD TREND: DOUBLE STANDARDS
The third trend registers group and well-coordinated practice of double standards in response to anti-fascist initiatives. Thus, mediated support, propaganda of the objectivity of the fascist ideology is conducted.
In particular, I would like to add the words of KI Kosachev, Chairman of the Russian State Duma Committee on International Affairs, at the opening of the international scientific conference "The Nuremberg Process: Historical and Legal Aspects" held on the basis of the Russian Academy of Sciences (organized by the Russian Academy of Sciences General History, Institute of State and Law, from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia - MGIMO-University. The event took place during 9 – 10 in November (2010).
He drew attention to a deep political split among the participants in the plenary session of the 64 session of the UN General Assembly in New York on December 18 of 2009. Then 127 voted to adopt a Resolution on the “Inadmissibility of certain practices that contribute to the escalation of contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance”, initiated by the Russian Federation.
Who voted against this Resolution? Alas, the USA is in the past an irreconcilable member of the anti-Hitler coalition who lost over 418 thousand people in the Second World War.
Who abstained from voting? All EU member countries (!), Ukraine, Moldova joined them. In total, 54 abstained from the delegations from the states where the topic of neo-fascism is not a fixed tabi, is present to some extent.
In other words, a cohesive global opposition to global anti-fascist initiatives is entering the orbit of big world politics.
The personal characteristics of individual fascist individuals, scattered across different countries, are weaved into a single network by an invisible thread, the network forms a global outlook ...
FOURTH TREND: POPULARIZATION OF FASCISM
The fourth tendency is expressed in the steady popularization of fascism, both direct and indirect. Here, the concepts of "trend" and "propaganda" merge together.
American marines in Afghanistan photographed against the background of a symbol resembling the emblem of the SS - the militia of Nazi Germany. The authenticity of the photo, which appeared on the Internet, as reported by the Associated Press, was confirmed in the US Marine Corps.
First, it becomes a strange fashion to appear in a society dressed in Nazi uniforms. I will cite only two facts from their long line.
The first of these concerns the active state of the anti-Hitler coalition - the UK. The heir to the throne - Prince Harry, apparently, decided to revive the traditions of Sir Oskald Mosley - the leader of the British fascists 1930's. 13 January 2005, he appeared on a costume party in a red armband with a Nazi swastika.
Meanwhile, Great Britain during the Second World War in the fight against fascism lost the dead, according to various estimates, from 370 thousand to 450 thousand people. A number of combat and other awards, in particular, the Military Medal of World War II, are devoted to the tragic events of that time.
(The medal was established in 1945 year and was designed to reward all military personnel for at least 28 days from 3 September 1939 to 2 September 1945. The coins were minted from a copper-nickel alloy. The colors of the ribbon correspond to the colors of the UK flag (Union Jack). - Here and further - note of the author).
The father of the hooligan offspring of the British crown, Prince Charles, acted wisely: he sent his son on an excursion to the Auschwitz concentration camp kept for history. After what he saw there, the young man made a public apology, although his former high reputation still remained thoroughly tainted.
The second case, on the contrary, belongs to the satellite state of the Third Reich - Romania. 19 July 2009, Radu Mazare, mayor of the port city of Constanta, took part in a fashion show in the uniform of the Wehrmacht general. The mayor was accompanied by his 15-year-old son, also dressed in Nazi uniforms.
Mayor of the Romanian city of Constanta Radu Mazare takes part in a fashion show with his 13-year-old son. © REUTERS / Stefan Ciocan. Mazare himself - the owner of several newspapers and TV channels and one of the richest people in Romania, said that he put on the Wehrmacht soldiers uniform because "he always liked her", besides he was inspired by the film "Valkyrie", reports Lenta.ru. According to the mayor, he also always admired the rigid organization of the Hitler army, Gazeta.ru writes.
(In 1941 – 1944, the Romanian army took part in the Second World War on the side of the Third Reich as the largest allied contingent from among the satellite countries of Germany (267 727 people). In the territories of Moldova, Transnistria and Ukraine occupied by Romania from 1941 to 1944 years Romanian fascists were destroyed, in addition to other ethnic groups, according to various sources, from 380 to 600 thousand Jews).
As in the British Empire, military awards were instituted in the Kingdom of Romania during the Second World War, but in the opposite sense to the British - for example, the Crusade Commemorative Medal against Bolshevism.
(The medal was established on 1 on April 1942 of the year by King Michael I, it was awarded to participants of the war with the USSR, the servicemen of the Romanian and Hitler army, armies of the allied countries of Hitler's Germany. The medals were bronze and silver bars: AZOV, BASARABIA, BUCIVINA, BUG, CRIMEA, DOBROGEA , DONET, NIPRU, NISTRU, ODESSA (this military award was minted at the Mint of Bucharest, as well as in Germany and Austria).
This bloody voyage cost the Romanian nation 850 thousands of victims and ended in a complete defeat and loss of monarchical sovereignty. Unfortunately, no one sent a port governor to Auschwitz or to any other preserved Nazi concentration camp on a tour, which Traian Basescu, the President of Romania, could well have done. Mayor Radu Mazar didn’t show any intelligible public repentance for causing family antics.
If you look at the latest estimates of the victims of the Second World War - up to 70 million people, then any form of fascist resuscitation seems psychiatrically abnormal.
(for some reason, when calculating the death toll during the Second World War, sometimes victims of military actions from among military personnel and civilians of the African and Asian continents are not taken into account - for example, in China (20 million people), Indonesia (4 million people). , Ethiopia (100 thou. People), other countries. In these and many other states, the civilian population died due to hunger, epidemics, and other troubles caused by the consequences of the Second World War).
By the way, 1 January 2009, the Seattle police (USA) had to shoot 22-year-old student Miles Murphy, dressed in Nazi uniforms. He and his friends opened fire in the dwelling, to which neighbors complained. Despite the demands of law enforcement officers, a drunken student refused to take the barrel of the carbine, aimed at the police, in response to it was opened to kill. This young man was going to become a professor of German literature ...
Secondly, in addition to the aggressive and multilingual advertising of fascism on the Internet, the number of Russian-language sites is increasing: at the beginning of 2010 there were at least five hundred of them. They are created mainly outside Russia, who finance them, remains a mystery.
Thirdly, the political activization of Wehrmacht veterans, the SS, the Luftwaffe, etc., that has been increasing since the 1990s, is depressing. And sometimes artificially generated by the state itself - such as, for example, in Ukraine during the rule of President Viktor Yushchenko (he didn’t even have to try on the Nazi form for this) in the Baltic states.
V. Yushchenko with UPA veterans / photo of the Presidential Press and Information Office
But only in Babiy Yar (in Ukrainian - Babin Yar), that in the north-western part of Kiev, the Nazis shot 1941 – 1943, according to different sources, from 70 thousand to 200 thousand people (Jews, Gypsies, Kiev Karaites, Soviet prisoners of war of various nationalities, other "racially inferior").
Fourthly, I pay close attention to this form of propaganda of fascism, because it makes a profit. I am talking about the mass production of plastic, cardboard and models of military equipment and military personnel (soldiers) of the Axis states made of other materials. Of such tanks, but not cardboard, but covered with armor, cast at the Austrian factory Djrtmunder-Huehler in Kapfenberg and the Czech Witkowitzer Bergbau und Eisenhuetten Geverkschaft in Moravia, during the Great Patriotic War they shot grandfathers and great-grandfathers of modern anti-civilian citizens. Unfortunately, the modern entertainment and leisure industry offers children and adults a wide variety of forms of participation on the side of the troops of the Third Reich and its allies. For at least a quarter of a century ...
I appeal to all who read these lines. Returning home, pay attention to what your relatives and friends are doing, especially children, friends and acquaintances.
If you notice the diligent sticking on the models of the Nazi swastika military equipment, the fascist cross, try to convince them that they are not doing the right thing. And never, and do not give this kind of gifts to anyone.
As for the most military equipment of the Second World War, the best shelter for her and the use, in my opinion, purely as a museum exhibits.
Village Kolezhma (Karelia). Mass grave of Soviet pilots (Karelian Front), who died during the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945.
Fifthly, the propaganda of fascism, hidden in electronic games, is especially malicious, world-wisely destructive harm.
Millions of copies around the world, including Russia, are selling electronic games. In them, users are invited to carry out alternative military operations during the Second World War, both on behalf of the countries of the anti-Hitler coalition, and on the side of the Third Reich or its satellite states.
Moreover, toy developers offer gamers bonuses in the form of Nazi awards for every successful battle against Moscow, Washington, London or Paris. Won the mission - get the Nazi breast badge "For a tank attack." Passed another - the rank of lieutenant, the medal "For participation in the campaign on the Eastern Front 1941 – 1942". Further - higher military ranks, up to the general's epaulettes, awarding the Iron Cross, other fascist orders, and so - until the end of the game - the victory of the Third Reich over the motivators. So the world history, not loving the subjunctive mood, is virtually changed. But the decisions of the Nuremberg Tribunal 65 years ago firmly determined the winners and losers!
It is striking why law enforcement agencies and the courts of those countries of the world where such goods are sold — model equipment of fascist technology, soldiers, computer games — are not embarrassed that in both cases there is a massive spread of at least Nazi symbols.
Imagine: a certain young man, not burdened with high culture, drew a Nazi swastika on the wall of the house. In the event of detention for such an unseemly occupation, he or his parents (guardians) will be subjected, according to part 1 of article 20.3. Administrative Code of Russia (Propaganda and public demonstration of Nazi paraphernalia or symbols), administrative punishment. The young man will be subjected to fair criticism at the place of study or work, put on record in the internal affairs bodies, which ultimately, under certain conditions, may end with the subject being marginalized.
On the contrary, the owner of the enterprise, engaged in mass production (hundreds of thousands and millions of copies!) Of military equipment models and military personnel (soldiers) of the Third Reich and its satellites, as well as the multimedia products indicated above, pays income to the state taxes, and ultimately becomes entree to the higher strata of society ...
At a previously mentioned conference held in the Russian Academy of Sciences, a representative of the General Prosecutor’s Office of the Russian Federation cited an indicative fact. During the Nuremberg process, the Soviet side received a proposal to bring to justice those who financed the Third Reich and produced weapons. Unfortunately, this initiative has not found understanding among other states of the anti-Hitler coalition. Nowadays, it seems, the old Nazi practice of material support for their own interests is being revived, still in the multimedia version and in the form of the release of reduced models of copies of military equipment.
The current situation is also illogical because of the gross violation of the requirements of part 2, article XXUMX (Fighting fascism) of Federal Law No. 6-FZ of 19.05.1995 “On perpetuation of the victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War of 80 – 1941”. This norm says: "In any form Nazi symbols are prohibited in the Russian Federation as insulting the multinational people and the memory of the victims suffered in the Great Patriotic War" (see: Collected Legislation of the Russian Federation. 1945. No 1995. S. 21.).
In this regard, the author unwillingly formed another sentence. If the states where such propaganda products are produced and sold do not impede the process of making a profit from the phenomenon of fascism,
then why would the public not make a civil protest - stop buying these products, stop enriching those who promote fascism?
More than five years ago, State Duma Deputy AI Gurov raised this topic. 18 April 2006 of the year at a round table held by the State Duma Security Committee on the theme “The origins of violence and cruelty in society, measures of their legislative warning,” he said, I quote: “... in Russia, only those games should be sold where fascists are beaten , extremists are beating, terrorists are being beaten, xenophobes are being beaten! They are being beaten without any other option! " Alas, all to no avail. Lobbyists of the considered branch of commodity production objected to him: the game on the side of the Nazis and their satellites is permissible, this, they say, is only a truthful reconstruction of history.
And indeed, sixthly, the movement of so-called "reenactors" is growing all over the world, engaged in reconstructing fascist uniforms, weapons, awards, etc.
Reluctantly, the author will probably not oppose the reconstruction of uniforms and weapons of Napoleon’s army, even if he occupied Moscow. It will not be against the reconstruction of the appearance of the Swedish army, the Polish gentry, other aggressors with whom Russia had to fight. Why? Because they, so to say, violating the rules and customs of war, did not pursue the goal set by the Axis states - the total destruction of people living in the territories seized by the fascists and the Japanese militarists. To reconstruct the appearance of these people - the successive bearers of the genocide - is to be the spiritual successors of crimes against humanity.
President of Ukraine Viktor Yushchenko with the Latvian "reenactors" of the events of the Second World War
Seventh, there is no doubt the rise of the release of films, television and radio programs, theater plays, exhibitions, where the idea is being expressed openly or covertly that Hitler, Mussolini, Franco, and other fascist leaders are people too! With all their weaknesses and virtues. For example, the opening of an exhibition dedicated to Adolf Hitler in the Berlin Historical Museum without a tough parallel presentation of at least photographs or dummies of the corpses of German soldiers frozen at Stalingrad without mock-ups of concentration camps - this is political pharisaism, this is open, already fearless propaganda of fascism!
The exhibition, the first in post-war Germany, is open from October 15 2010 to February 2011. The exhibition - about 600 items, 400 photos and posters. Among the exhibits: photos of Hitler, Goebbels, Goering and other leaders of National Socialism. The director of the Museum, Hans Otto Meier, said in an interview with the BBC that the exhibition is only of a scientific nature and does not glorify the Nazi leader. Meanwhile, experts note that the opening of the exhibition coincided with the publication of the results of the general German poll, according to which every tenth resident of the Federal Republic of Germany would like to see a “strong national leader” come to power.
Against the background of the Berlin exhibition, the results of the analytical work done in 2008 – 2009 by the Institute of Criminological Research in Lower Saxony look contrast. This scientific institution published a report in March 2009, the data of which indicate a sharp increase in neo-Nazism among young people: every twentieth resident of Germany at the age of 15 years belongs to a neo-Nazi group. The report indicates that 5% of German youth is involved in the activities of ultra-right groups, while the number of activists of the political "mainstream" is only 2%. Neo-Nazi paraphernalia, including rock music, stickers and clothing, is not obscured by 10% of adolescents and young people in Germany, although the use of the swastika and other Nazi symbols is officially prohibited. 14% of adolescents surveyed during this study do not see anything terrible in the Holocaust, about as many are convinced that the Jews themselves are to blame for the tragedy that happened to them.
Let such research, and their number increase, remain on the conscience of the organizers of the Berlin exhibition. One such five-month political event can significantly undermine the many years of work to shape the attitude of the Germans to their tragic past, which they still have to endure, to wipe out the anti-fascist propaganda emanating from museums (and they are in every city of Germany), where the evolution of Nazism, built in contrasts, and where schoolchildren are led to tell them about the shameful page in the history of the country ...
Eighth, in Russia, the Nazi symbols "by default" are replicated at the state level. Let's take a closer look at the Russian postmark shown below (figure 2), externally resembling the state emblem of the Third Reich (figure 3).
After all, before this stylized Nazi eagle spread its wings on thousands and thousands of mail envelopes, “walking” in all the subjects of the Russian Federation, delivered to the highest government offices, it was first necessary for the name-name artist to draw a sketch, then approve it in the prescribed manner, and only then this Nordic picture was launched into mass production. Well, no one paid attention to the graphic similarity of this new sample with the fascist single-headed eagle?
And what in this case the customer did not like the traditional double-headed eagle, which became the State Emblem of the Russian Federation?
Ninth, the propaganda of fascism (and it's hard to believe in it!) Got to the Russian school. How to treat the historical naivety of the clerk of the Mayak factory (Penza region), who provided thousands of copies of school notebooks (cover) to the student of the fascist Luftwaffe aces: "The Germans are considered to be the best pilots of the Second World War, and those of the German pilots who fought against We were shot down by our planes on the Eastern Front. And the numbers are breathtaking. If 15 of our best aces were shot down during the war from 41 to 62 of German aircraft, then 15 of German aces - from 203 to 352 of Soviet aircraft "?.
A reduced, but incomplete quote about fascist assahs, taken out of the context of the book Mukhin Yu. N. "Aces and Propaganda: Inflated Luftwaffe Victories": scientific publication / Yu. I. Mukhin. - M .: Yauza: EKSMO, 2004.– 475 c. - (War and we). The author wrote: "... In addition, some German victories look dubious. Downed planes were counted in the Luftwaffe with the help of cinema and photo equipment: if the bullet route got into the plane, it was considered destroyed. In fact, wrecked cars often returned to the airfields. And But only those planes went to the Soviet pilots, the destruction of which was confirmed by other participants in the battle and ground observers. " No less informative is the comment to the inscription on the notebooks of the leading expert of the Penza Museum of Local Lore Gennady Tambovtsev. He explained that the Germans did not score the downed aircraft, but the engines put out of action: "If the Germans shot down a bomber whose engine was 4, then the number of downed engines to the pilot were counted as 4 aircraft downed."
Fortunately, 11 in November 2010, the prosecutor's office of the Penza region seized the entire circulation of school notebooks.
FIFTH TENDENCY: THE LEGAL RATINATION OF INTERNATIONAL ANTIFASHISTIC LEGISLATION
The fifth trend concerns the long absence of anti-fascist international conventions and protocols, the scarcity of a number of similar international treaties and agreements, which proves the frailty of international anti-fascist propaganda in the legal aspect.
(The author, using the operational capabilities of Consultant Plus 3000 (International Legal Acts), investigated the 813 international conventions and the 1492 international protocols; similar work was done on the 380 international treaties and 4254 international agreements).
The analysis of international documents conducted by the author revealed:
there is not a single treaty or agreement between the Russian Federation and other states of the world where the words “fascism” and “Nazism” are used in the context of real forms and methods of fighting fascism and Nazism as historically unacceptable phenomena.
Let's look at a modest list of international treaties and agreements currently in force, where the word "fascism" would be present.
The 1959 Agreement of the year between the USSR and the People’s Republic of Bulgaria on social security; 1959 Agreement of the year between the USSR and the Czechoslovak Republic on social security; as well as the Agreement between the USSR and the Romanian People's Republic on cooperation in the field of social welfare 1960 of the year - related to pension and other payments to veterans of the Great Patriotic War residing in these countries.
The Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance between the USSR and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic of 1970 was morally decrepit, and the concept of "fascism" is declarative in it: "... deeply convinced that the unbreakable friendship between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, sealed in the joint struggle against fascism and received further deepening in the years of the construction of socialism and communism, as well as fraternal mutual assistance and full cooperation between them and based on the teachings of Marxism-Leninism, the unshakable principles of socialist internationalism, meet the basic interests of the peoples of both countries and the entire socialist community. "
A similar picture is observed in international treaties and agreements with the word "Nazism".
This concept is found only in the 1955 State Treaty on the restoration of an independent and democratic Austria. Moreover, the provisions of interest in this document are not fundamentally fulfilled. Proof of this is the presence in the country of the former Anschluss of political movements, in particular, the Austrian Party’s freedom of the deceased now Jorg Haider, recorded contrary to the historical attitudes of Article 9 of the named document. A fragment of the text from this norm should be reproduced: “Austria must also continue its efforts to eradicate all traces of Nazism from the Austrian political, economic and cultural life; it must ensure that the above-mentioned organizations are not revived in any form, and prevent all Nazi and militarist activities and propaganda in Austria. "
Practical matters in countering extremism are somewhat better, although mostly within the framework of cooperation between the member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and more recently between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Serbia, the Republic of South Ossetia and the Republic of Abkhazia .
In a more truncated version, our country cooperates in the field of countering religious extremism with the Republic of India (from 1993 of the year), the Government of Mongolia (from 2004 of the year) and the Government of the Republic of Mali (from 2006 of the year).
Plus to this short list, the Russian Federation participates in the “Additional Protocol to the Convention on Computer Crime Offenses concerning the criminalization of offenses related to racism and xenophobia committed through computer systems” (ETS No 189) (signed in Strasbourg 28.01.2003).
SIXTH TREND: HALF AREAS AND QUASI EFFECT
Finally, the sixth trend demonstrates a quasi-effect from the measures taken in the fight against fascism. Russian practice is expressive here. According to paragraph ten of paragraph 1 of the first part of Article 1 of the Federal Law 25.07.2002 No 114-FZ "On Countering Extremist Activities", "public calls for the implementation of these acts or the mass distribution of extremist materials, as well as their manufacture or storage for mass distribution, are prohibited" . Paragraph 3) of the first part of the same norm explains the concept of extremist materials in the analyzed context: "... including the works of the leaders of the National Socialist Workers Party of Germany, ...".
Accordingly, the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation is obliged to post a Federal list of extremist materials on the departmental Internet site. It is this obedience to the law that leads to a quasi-effect.
By accessing the website of the Ministry of Justice of Russia, users of the world wide web get the opportunity to make an electronic request to Internet search engines for any of the books (films, etc.) listed in this Federal list. The result was not long in coming.
For example, under the 604 number of the Federal List of Extremist Materials, A. Hitler’s book, Mein Kampf, is listed (My Struggle). The search query of this fundamental model of the fascist ideology in the editorial - A. Hitler "Mein Kampf", - for example, in Yandex (Yandex), makes thousands of links available to the 173 user. And in the wording of the request - A. Hitler "My Struggle" - 2 million links! The text of this book, the accompanying photographs and drawings can be viewed visually or copied as a separate file to a computer, USB flash drive, CD / DVD, etc.
This achieves the opposite of what was intended - a quasi-effect.
IT IS NECESSARY TO ASSOCIATE ALL THE FORCES AGAINST THE "BROWN MOLD"
At the opening of the International Conference "A World Without Nazism - A Global Task for All Mankind" Chairman of the Federation Council S.Mironov quoted a very relevant quote from the sci-fi story "Predatory Things of the Century" by Arkady and Boris Strugatsky, first published in 1965. Its authors half a century ago predicted the emergence of new types of drugs and predicted another fiercest battle with the fascists: after a bloody victory over them, unfortunately, a uniform global crisis did not prevail. bschnost people, and any heterogeneous political systems, including similar to the modern theory of the "golden billion". The conditions of life in such a society of material abundance, but spiritual devastation, are described by Soviet science fiction.
Even the compact material presented above allows us to put forward a hypothesis not about disparate excesses in individual countries of the world within this problem, but about the active revival of a very dangerous anti-human phenomenon; moreover, as Academician V.I. Vernadsky would say, on a planetary scale.
I agree with those experts, primarily military experts, who note that in the modern world the fascist movements of 1920 – 1940's are being reproduced again; it is permissible to present them as a competitive project to build a global world.
Whether it is so or not and whether this project is directed again against Russia is a question, the answer to which, apparently, can be received in the near future.
See, for example: V. Litvinenko. The Fascist Project in the System of Global World Project Competition // Observer. 2010. No 7 (246). C. 75 – 89.
Thus, apart from our will (individual civil and public collective), a certain tsunami-like revival of this antisocial phenomenon takes place by combining the individual voices of its carriers into a multilingual crowd of adherents of Italian fascism, German Nazism, including in the version of their English, Hungarian , Romanian, Austrian and other imitators. They are represented by different social strata, including the aristocratic, endowed with authority, participate in political movements. They have access to weapons, the media, they have occupied the Internet, they behave fearlessly, brazenly, and aggressively. Moreover, they find in this direct and indirect support from the powerful of the world, including the power of subregional inter-state unions.
In the context of the tendencies and forms of propaganda outlined above, which characterize modern fascism, I, as a criminologist and lawyer-jurist, would like to especially emphasize the topicality of establishing international cooperation in this area of public relations. In the first place - carrying out large-scale comprehensive scientific research under the auspices of the UN, synchronously organized in those countries of the world, where the brown mold declares itself.
The results of the fundamental work done will allow us to obtain an objective assessment of the phenomenon of modern fascism, to grope its determinants, to formulate an international definition
I would like to finish the article with the words of the President of the Russian Federation D.A.Medvedev about the Great Patriotic War. They fit well into the material presented above: “The question is in our future, what memory we will leave, what our children, our grandchildren will think, what they will know about the war and what will be the lessons of this war ... And, of course, we must to be strong. We have to be prepared for any problems to arise. This is absolutely immutable. No matter how peaceful we are, we must be prepared to defend our country. "
Eternal Flame in memory of 1941-1945 town of Myshkin
FRAGMENT OF DISCUSSION OF THE REPORT
At the meeting of the seminar "Philosophical and methodological studies of global studies" at the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences 22 June 2011.
Questions to the speaker:
Question: What is the exact legal description of the terms: Nazism, Fascism, Militarism? What is their difference?
Answer: In the Soviet literature, these movements were viewed as contradictions of capitalist society. Fascism originated in the 20-ies of XX century. in Italy. In Germany, this movement was called Nazism, as a form of fascism. And in Japan, militarism. There is a common link between them. They are united by the fact that they could not realize their goals except through war. In modern scientific literature there is no intelligible conceptual presentation of these terms.
Question: Fascism and extremism, what is their difference?
Answer: Fascism is a worldview (ideology). Extremism is a tool, a means of realizing such a worldview. The latter concept is broader in scope.
Question: Do you make a distinction between fascist movements in the USA, Germany and Russia?
Answer: If in 20-30-40-s of the last century, the bogey for fascists were mainly Jews, Gypsies and Slavs, then in modern conditions to a certain extent inter-ethnic solidarity is manifested. Some time ago, a fascist organization made up of non-Galahic Jews was discovered in Tel Aviv.
(One of the gang’s members, 21-year-old Eli Bonyatov, writes in one of the neo-Nazi forums that he will never become a father, since his grandfather is half “Jew.” “The main thing is not to produce anyone with at least a drop of Jew blood, "- says a follower of Hitler, not embarrassed that he himself is a quarter Jewish. See: Grishina Maria. Neo-Nazis in Israel // Time News. 2007. - No. 163. - September 10. - C. 5.)
It is argued that if you are a fascist, then do not pay attention to nationality. Inter-ethnic differences in modern fascist organizations seem to be erased. The main thing is to adhere to a single ideology. Although in the USA the fascists hate mainly Latin Americans, blacks, Jews. In Germany - immigrants from Asia and the Jews. And in Russia, fascism sharpened mainly on Caucasians.
Question: You did not use the word anti-Semitism. The confusion turns out. There is anti-Semitism in Russia. There is a formulation that Nazism is, first of all, anti-Semitism. Do you agree with this?
Answer: There is not a single international convention (document) at the UN level where anti-Semitism would be combined with the concept of Nazism and fascism. In the scientific revolution, there are definitions connecting these concepts. This, however, is a private matter of the authors.