Stalin. Annual price reduction

Stalin. Annual price reduction Under Stalin, for the first time in stories, was created crisis-free economy of a huge country.

In 1948, the volume of industrial production in the USSR not only reached the pre-war level, but also surpassed it. The industry has been restored to exceptionally short lines. After the Civil War, it took the country six years to rebuild the economy. Huge losses in the Great Patriotic War are not comparable with anything. However now The restoration of industry was carried out in almost two and a half years.


As a result of the heroic labor of the workers and the tireless organizational activity of the party, the plan of the fourth five-year plan in industry was completed in four years and three months. Over the years, more than six thousand industrial enterprises have been restored, built and put into operation, that is, almost as many as in the first and second five-year plans taken together. The gross industrial output in 1950 exceeded the pre-war level by 73 percent, while the plan was for 48 to exceed by percent. The pre-war level of pig iron production was exceeded by 29 percent, steel by 49 percent, coal mining by 57 percent, and oil by 22 percent. Labor productivity in industry increased by 37 percent. Compared to 1940, in the 1950, the Gross Social Product of the USSR grew by 161%, and the national income generated by 164%. Production of means of production in 1950 increased by 204%, livestock products by 104%, commissioning of fixed assets by 192%, capital investment by 196%, the number of workers and employees by 119%, labor productivity in industry by 145 %, in agriculture - 100%, in railway transport - by 110%, in construction - by 125%. (USSR NK for 60 years. C. 14. M. 1977) The Stalinist economic growth rates continued after Stalin's death.

In the 1949 year, the collective farms, MTS and state farms received tractors and agricultural equipment two and a half times more than in the 1940 year. The electrification of collective and state farms and MTS began. The number of cattle in the western regions was supplemented by the eastern ones.

At the end of 1952, the last work by JV Stalin, The Economic Problems of Socialism in the USSR, was published. In this work, I. V. Stalin, on the basis of the teachings of Marxism-Leninism, revealed the goal of capitalist production: “The goal of capitalist production is to make profits. As for consumption, capitalism needs it only insofar as it provides for the task of making profits. Beyond this, the question of consumption loses meaning for capitalism. A man with his consumption disappears from sight. ” Then he revealed the main questions of the political economy of socialism, which are of great importance for the practical activities of the Soviet state and the Communist Party. Based on the works of Marx, Engels, Lenin, summarizing the experience of world history, the experience of building socialism in the USSR, JV Stalin formulated the Basic Economic Law of Socialism: “Ensuring the maximum satisfaction of the constantly growing material and cultural needs of the whole of society is the AIM of socialist production; the continuous growth and improvement of socialist production on the basis of higher technology is the means of achieving the goal. (JV Stalin. The economic problems of socialism in the USSR. C. 76, 78, M. 1952)

This law became the basis for the activities of all communist parties building socialism and even the governments of some capitalist countries seeking to mitigate the effects of economic crises. This will be discussed further.

The Stalinist annual decline in prices and wage increases is nothing more than an increase in the investment of workers and employees, pensioners and students of the whole huge country in its economy. For example, if a citizen increases the purchasing power, he spends more money on food and, by investing it himself in agriculture, in the food industry, increases their sales and, of course, the profits of these industries. If he has increased incomes, he spends more money on clothes and footwear - it helps out light industry. If he has enough money, he builds himself new or improves existing housing, acquires building materials, makes the industry of building materials and construction organizations more profitable, and so on. If a citizen has the money left from the necessary purchases or there is a need to raise money for a large purchase, he invested money in a savings bank and this developed a savings bank. The depositor received interest, and the bank guaranteed him the safety of money. Such an economy ensured the continuous development of all sectors of the country's economy without crises.

Postwar annual decline in retail prices

Already two and a half years after the end of the Great Patriotic War, in December 1947, a monetary reform was carried out in the USSR, food and industrial goods cards were canceled, unified reduced state retail prices for consumer goods were introduced. At this, the first stage of price reduction, the cheapening of consumer goods in the state retail trade alone amounted to 57 billion rubles during the year. In addition, the prices on the collective and cooperative market were reduced by 29 billion rubles. Total budget losses in 1947 from the decline in retail prices amounted to 86 billion rubles. This amount was a net loss for the state budget, which was covered by the increase in labor productivity, an increase in the production of consumer goods and a decrease in the cost of production.

March 1 1949 completed the second stage of price reduction for consumer goods in state trade in the amount of 48 billion rubles, in addition, in the cooperative and collective farm trade - in the amount of 23 billion rubles.

The Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) indicated that “as a result of the new fall in prices, the purchasing power of the ruble will once again increase and the ruble exchange rate will improve as compared with foreign currencies, the real wages of workers and intellectuals will rise again and expenses will drop significantly farmers for the purchase of industrial goods. "

“In this event, the Bolshevik Party and the Soviet government showed new concern for the working people, their prosperity, growth of wealth and culture” was reported in the editorial of the Pravda newspaper 1 in March 1949.

The aforementioned Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) reduced the prices in the following sizes:
bread, flour and bakery products, cereals and pasta, meat and sausage products, fish and fish products, butter and ghee, woolen and silk fabrics, furs, metal products and electrical goods, cameras and binoculars, and a number of other goods - on 10 %;
coats, suits, dresses and other woolen fabrics - by 12%;
dresses, shirts, blouses and other garments made of silk fabrics, shoes, hats - by 15%;

cheese and cheese, perfumery, hardware and saddlery, individual tailoring, crockery and household appliances made of plastics, motorcycles and bicycles, radio receivers, pianos, accordions, button accordions, gramophone records, jewelry, typewriters - by 20%;
TV sets, vodka - by 25%;
salt, cement, gramophones, watches, hay - by 30%.

The same Resolution reduced prices accordingly: in restaurants, canteens, tea houses and other catering establishments. (Pravda Newspaper, March 1 1949)

Across the country, enterprises held meetings, rallies, at which the Workers' Resolution “On New Price Cuts…” was communicated

The decline in retail prices in the USSR, especially after the Great Patriotic War, during the life of Stalin, was made annually. The first post-war five-year plan for the restoration and development of the national economy of the USSR was fulfilled ahead of time — four years and three months. The production of grain, meat, butter, cotton, flax, and wool has significantly increased. The national income in the last year of the five-year plan grew, by comparison with 1940, by 64%, for the last year - by 12%. The editorial of Pravda newspaper on 1 on April 1952 noted: “Comrade Stalin teaches that the essential features of the basic economic law of socialism are to ensure the maximum satisfaction of the constantly growing material and cultural needs of the whole society through continuous growth and improvement of socialist production based on the highest technology. ” This Stalinist policy provided the development of the USSR economy without crises for many decades.

From 1 on April 1952 of the year, on the basis of a powerful rise in industry and agriculture, the fifth post-war price reduction was made on the total amount of 53 billion rubles, which caused a general rejoicing of the population.

How high the growth rates of industry in the years of the Stalin five-year plans were the following data: “Produced national income in 1950 year, compared with 1913 year increased 8,8 times, all industrial products - 13 times, production of means of production (group A) - 27 times, social labor productivity - 8,4 times. ” (National economy of the USSR in 60 years. C. 12. M. 1977)

The salary of all categories of workers increased annually, the pension and the stipend increased. With a simultaneous increase in production volumes, the decline in prices gave a noticeable increase in the standard of living of the population.

After the death of Stalin, and even after the condemnation of the cult of his personality, the policy of regular salary increase was implemented, prices remained unchanged.

With the cessation of the decline in retail prices, the growth rates of national income also began to decline. In 1980 – 85, it averaged only 3% per year on average. The XXX11 CPSU Congress set the goal of increasing the national income growth rate in 1986 – 90 to 5% on average per year. (Proceedings of the XXU11 Congress of the CPSU. C. 228, M. 1987) Recall that in the Stalinist period, the rate of growth of national income was 9 – 12% per year.
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