Military Review

Theory and practice of engineering operations

8
The article is based on the fieldwork (FM3-34) of the American Army "Engineering Operations"



Marines from the 1 Engineering Battalion use a bulldozer to build a berm around the perimeter of a patrol base in the Afghan province of Gemland. The unit arrived at the construction site at two in the morning and immediately set about

Engineering troops allow combat commanders of the combined units to achieve goals through strategic redeployment and tactical maneuver, providing unique combat, general and geospatial engineering capabilities.

While the nature of the fighting remains constant throughout historyWarfare is constantly changing in response to new concepts, technologies and needs. The doctrine of engineering troops developed over 200 years and continues to support the entire spectrum of hostilities, it emphasizes the simultaneous combination of offensive, defensive operations and operations to ensure stability during all hostilities. Increased attention should also be given to the role and functions of the engineering forces in multinational operations under potentially multinational or inter-agency command and in a variety of team relationships. It remains unchanged that engineering operations continue to rely on a soldier of the engineering troops to obtain the necessary command and flexibility to integrate the capabilities of the engineering forces in combined-arms operations.

Engineering capabilities are a significant factor in increasing combat capabilities in joint operations, facilitating the freedom of action necessary to meet the objectives of a combat mission. Engineering operations modify, maintain, provide insight and protection of the physical space. Acting in a similar vein, they guarantee the mobility of Allied forces; change the mobility of the enemy; improve survivability and allow you to maintain allied forces; promote a better understanding of the physical environment; and provide support to civilians, other nations, and civil authorities and authorities.

Engineers must have the right combination of capabilities to provide timely and relevant engineering support, and this combination will often need to be seriously changed during transition periods. For example, sapper units often constitute a large part of the engineering forces in a theater of military operations (theater of operations) during prolonged combat operations, but they must be reorganized during stabilization operations, as they usually do not have adequate capabilities to perform all the necessary routine engineering tasks. Also, due to the fact that the requirements for EOD support (Explosive Ordnance Disposal - disposal of unexploded ordnance, explosive objects) during transitional operations are often significantly higher than during combat operations, more opportunities are needed in the field of EOD.

Notes on semantics (meaning of a word)
The FM 3-34 FM charter, on which this article is based, introduces some significant changes regarding a number of traditional concepts and expressions used to describe them. In particular, they include:
- Replacing “combat operational systems” with “combat functions” and the subsequent separation of combat operational mobility, countermobility and survivability systems between combat functions “movement and maneuver” and “protection”;
- The elimination of the term “combat space” and the subsequent replacement of the “function of engineering combat space” with simply “engineering functions” of combat, general and geospatial engineering;
- The exclusion of the term “force protection” except the term “conditions for the protection of troops” (FPCON) as part of the antiterrorist element of the combat protection function;
- Formation of the term "guaranteed mobility" to identify the framework of the process, actions and opportunities with the active integration of engineering combat power;
- Exclusion of the terms "combat", "combat support" and "provision of troops in battle" when describing categories for troops, activities and capabilities.
This article clarifies the new semantics, the language and a set of expressions that might sound somewhat unexpected to non-US Army readers.

Engineering planning

The tasks of planning, preparing, executing and continuously evaluating various theaters are numerous and varied. The headquarters of the engineering troops must participate in operations at every level of combat operations: strategic, operational, tactical. The exclusion of engineering work at any level may adversely affect the efficiency of the operation.

Strategic level

Engineering activities at the strategic level include the planning of manpower and equipment, mainly focusing on the means and capabilities to build, establish, maintain and restore the armed forces. In addition, infrastructure development is a critical aspect in engaging and sustaining force deployment and determines the great need for engineering tools. Engineering troops at the strategic level advise on relief and infrastructure, including sea and airport unloading, troop formation, engineering support priorities, communication lines, work at air bases and airfields, planning and locating base camp, joint identification of facilities, foreign humanitarian assistance, consideration of environmental conditions environment, the interaction of engineering forces, the introduction of rules of engagement, the rules for the use of troops and the provision of protection. Environmental issues can be of strategic importance and influence the success of a combat mission, and, moreover, the protection of natural resources can be a key strategic objective really important for the reconstruction of a country.

Operational level

Engineering activity at the operational level focuses on the impact of infrastructure related to geographic conditions and the advancement of troops on the operational plans of the combat commander. The planning bodies of the engineering forces should define the requirements for the commander’s concept of combat, concerning mobilization, deployment, employment and support. Operational planning combines an operational plan (OPLAN) or operational order (OPORD) of the combined forces, prescribed specific engineering tasks and available engineering forces to achieve success. The planning bodies of the engineering forces of the combined forces also need to understand the capabilities and limitations of the engineering troops of each branch of the military.

Most engineering activities conducted for strategic operations are also performed at the operational level. Engineering forces assess the area of ​​operations and the environment and work with intelligence officers to analyze the threat. Engineers conduct integrated planning and plan the construction of the necessary base camps and other facilities, develop geospatial products and services, and make recommendations on the joint fire and survivability of the forces involved. As a link with tactical engineering integration, operational planning ensures that adequate engineering capabilities are provided to meet the requirements of combat engineering support.

Tactical level

Engineering activity at the tactical level focuses on the support, deployment and maneuver of combat elements (relative to each other and to the enemy), which are necessary to perform combat missions. Tactical planning is done by every branch of the army; in the context of engineering operations, this means shifting the main focus to combat engineering tasks and planning within combat formations.

Operational planners determine the conditions for achieving results at the tactical level, assessing needs and ensuring availability of opportunities. Usually tactical engineering planning focuses on support for combat maneuver, survivability, and ongoing support that is not directed by a higher-level commander.

Planning for construction at the tactical level will usually focus on creating security to ensure the combat functions of “protection” and “support”. At the tactical level, engineering planners use engineering tools provided by operational planners to support tactical combat missions prescribed to the combat maneuver units they support.

Tactical tasks are complex and planning should take into account the characteristics of symmetrical and asymmetrical threats. Special considerations include performing a terrain analysis with an understanding of these characteristics of threats. Engineering intelligence (tactical and technical) is a crucial opportunity for a combat commander at the tactical level. Information about the threat must be very specific. The growth in the number of mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) requires engineers to constantly develop new countermeasures. Tactical integration of explosive ordnance disposal capabilities is becoming an increasingly urgent requirement.


The German KODIAK on the LEOPARD 2 chassis is a modern example of combat engineering vehicle.

Engineering functions

Engineering functions are categories of related engineering capabilities and actions, grouped together to help commanders build in, synchronize, and direct engineering operations. The three functions are combat engineering, general engineering, and geospatial engineering.

Theory and practice of engineering operations

British soldiers from the 26 Engineering Division, which is part of the 24 Engineer Regiment, are building a newly built road bridge near the Delhi operational base in Afghanistan. Recovery work is vital to improving the quality of life of the Afghan population, especially work on transport routes that will revive trade and improve accessibility to remote areas of the country.



APOBS (The Anti-Personnel Obstacle Breaching System - anti-personnel system for making passes) is ready for use. APOBS uses a rocket system to deliver 108 series-connected grenades, which detonate over the intended obstacle.

Combat engineering is defined as those engineering capabilities and work that support the maneuver of the ground forces and which require direct support for these troops. Combat engineering consists of three types of capabilities and jobs: mobility, countermobility and survivability (M / CM / S).

Engineering works of a general nature are defined as those engineering capabilities and works other than combat engineering that change, preserve or protect physical space. Examples include the construction, repair, maintenance and maintenance of infrastructure, facilities, communication lines and bases; protection of natural and cultural resources; relief changes and restoration and certain work to neutralize explosive objects.


Reconnaissance of suspected contaminated areas requires special equipment and training.

Geospatial engineering is the art and science of using geospatial information in order to be able to understand the physical space for military operations. Art is the ability to understand METT-TC (mission, enemy, terrain and weather), combat mission, enemy, terrain and weather, available troops and support, time available, consideration of civilian factors and accessible geospatial information, including intended use and limitations in order to assess the military significance of the terrain and create geospatial products for decision making. This science is the ability to use geospatial information, creating spatially accurate products for measurements, mapping, visualization, modeling, and all types of terrain analysis.
Engineering intelligence, although not a separate engineering function, is an important part of each engineering function.

Combat engineering

Combat engineering is an integral part of the ability of combined arms units to maneuver. It focuses on melee support. Combat engineers increase the strength of their troops by creating physical space in order to get the most efficient use of space and time needed to create impact and speed while simultaneously obstructing enemy maneuver. By increasing the unit’s ability to maneuver, combat engineers accelerate the concentration of combat assets, increase the speed and pace of the troops necessary to exploit the enemy’s critical vulnerability. By increasing the natural limitations of physical space, combat engineers limit the enemy’s ability to create tempo and speed. These restrictions increase the response time of the enemy and reduce physically and psychologically the will to fight.

Combat engineering provides engineering support for combat operations (offensive and defensive), stability operations, or assistance to civilians. It may be supplemented from time to time by supporting general engineering work, but it retains its focus on the integrated application of engineering capabilities in order to support the freedom of maneuver of the combined arms unit (mobility and countermobility) and survivability.


MZ ferry transports self-propelled artillery AS90 across the river


Polish army engineers at work on a project to restore a civilian facility in Afghanistan

Mobility

A war of maneuver depends on freedom of movement and seeks to avoid the use of force by the adversary in order to focus on its weaknesses whenever possible. The enemy will use firepower, terrain and man-made obstacles to deprive us of our freedom of maneuver. Their troops, first, will try to circumvent such obstacles; however, this may not always be an option. Difficult tasks limiting maneuver must be overcome. In this context, mobile operations are defined as reducing the effectiveness of barriers by combat and engineering units by reducing or eliminating the impact of existing or reinforced obstacles. The goal is to preserve the freedom of movement of combat units, weapons systems and the most important stocks.

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Mobility operations, the task of general arms units, involves maneuver as an application of combat power. Operations that support mobility include not only engineers. For example, ensuring maneuverability and mobility support the tasks of the military police, which will be carried out to ensure and maintain the freedom of maneuver of the commander and increase the maneuverability of his means in all surrounding conditions. Tasks include the exploration and reconnaissance of routes, the regulation and maintenance of supply routes, the identification of temporary routes, the provision of river crossing, and the control of laggards and refugees. Reconnaissance of routes is another example.

Countermobility

Works on countermobility should impede the freedom of maneuver of the enemy through the use of fortified barriers. Reinforced barriers are a component of the strengthening of the relief, which includes the development of relief using barriers to reduce enemy mobility or increase the survivability of their forces through the construction of combat positions and shelters.

The main objectives of countermobility operations are to slow down or reject the enemy, increase the target detection time and increase weapon effectiveness. Works on countermobility include the construction of entry points and other barriers in order to deprive free access to permanent jobs. The emergence of rapidly installed remotely controlled network equipment allows for efficient counter-mobile operations as part of offensive, defensive and stability operations, as well as during the transition between these operations.

Most of the obstacles have the potential to limit the freedom of the allied forces, along with the forces of the enemy. Therefore, it is important that the engineer clearly understands the possibilities of countermobility and the limitation of the existing engineering troops and carefully weighs the risks of using various types of barriers. The engineer should also plan to clear the barriers when the fighting stops and minimize the impact of the barriers on the civilian population and the environment.


Basic engineering functions and their subgroups

Vitality

Survivability operations are defined as the development and construction of protective positions, such as earthen berms, trenches, fire shelters from above and means for counter-observation, and reducing the effectiveness of the enemy’s weapons.

The concept of survivability in today's combat situation includes all aspects of the protection of personnel, military equipment, stocks and information systems while simultaneously misleading the enemy. Considerations of survivability are applicable to support combat positions, combat escort, advanced operational bases and in many cases to support the host country and other infrastructure component. Building combat and defensive positions by itself cannot eliminate the vulnerability of personnel and resources. But it, however, limits losses and reduces damage from the actions of the enemy.

The two main factors in the development of defensive combat positions are, firstly, the correct choice of location regarding the surrounding terrain and, secondly, the most efficient use of basic weapon systems, such as anti-tank missiles and weapons serviced by calculations. Defensive positions include, but are not limited to, the construction of points of contact and control, critical equipment (including radar), ammunition and supply depots or temporary storage facilities, and other objects that may be exposed primarily to enemy attacks. It may also be necessary to consider the protection of hazardous materials and fuel warehouses, which pose a threat to personnel if storage containers are damaged or destroyed.

The degree of protection actually provided for these elements is based on the availability of time, weapons and resources. Additional considerations are the likelihood or danger of a seizure or attack, as well as the estimated risk for each site and structure. Structures that emit a strong electromagnetic signal or significant thermal or visual signatures may require complete protection against potential enemy attacks. Electronic countermeasures and misinformation measures are an indispensable and integral part of planning for all activities during defense.

General engineering

General engineering can be performed in support of combat operations, which can cause uncertainty in the distinction between purely combat engineering and general engineering tasks at the tactical level.

General engineering capabilities will not normally be associated with melee combat. Excellent at the operational level, general engineering capabilities are used to establish and maintain the infrastructure necessary to support combat operations in theaters. At times, a military operation can be expanded by supporting general engineering in order to restore structures, energy systems and life support systems within the infrastructure of the area of ​​operations or to create the technical potential of the host country.

General engineering is the most diverse of the three engineering functions and usually accounts for the largest share of all engineering support provided for the operation. In addition, conducted throughout the combat area, at all levels and performed during all types of military operations, it can occupy all the specialties available in the engineering regiment. General engineering tasks may include construction and repair of existing procurement facilities, communication lines and other supply routes (including construction of bridges and roads), airfields, ports, water wells, power plants and distribution substations, fuel and water pipelines and base camps and camps recreation. Fire extinguishing and underwater operations are two aspects that can be crucial elements for these tasks. General engineering can also be accomplished through a combination of joint engineering units, civilian contractors, and armed forces of the host country or multinational engineering forces. It may also include disaster preparedness planning, response and mitigation.

General engineering tasks usually require a large amount of building materials that must be planned and delivered in a timely manner.

Geospatial engineering

Geospatial engineering is engaged in the development, management, analysis and distribution of accurate information about the terrain, which is associated to some extent with the earth's surface. This activity provides combat-related data, decision-making assistance, and visualization products that define the nature of the area for the combat commander. Key aspects of a geospatial engineering task are databases, analysis, digital products, visualization, and printed maps. Both regular and additional geospatial engineering capabilities at the theater, corps, division and brigade levels are responsible for geospatial engineering.

Geospatial engineering allows the commander and personnel to visualize the combat space by collecting and processing geospatial information and imaging. In addition, geospatial engineering provides fundamental information that allows you to develop more efficient and functional solutions with a more rapid understanding of the overall combat space at all echelons, which thereby saves an important resource of time.

The capabilities of geospatial engineering have received significant improvements based on experience as a result of organizational changes, updating of the doctrine, technological progress and necessary practices. Geospatial engineering has the highest temporal and spatial resolutions from additional sensitive elements (sensors) and platforms, which allows to increase the amount of information and obtain more complex data. New methods and technologies provide additional functionality and the ability to work effectively in a broad coalition of partners and allies.


The new SPARK demining system of the US Army has three rollers to completely cover the entire width of the vehicle.


Engineering equipment instructor from the 326 engineering battalion trains Iraqi engineers to work with the D7 armored bulldozer

Engineering intelligence

Responsibility for conducting exploration does not fall only on specially organized units. Each unit has a prescribed task to report information about the relief, civil activity, its own and enemy dispositions, despite its location in the combat area and the main function.

Despite this, and although reconnaissance is mainly based on human resources rather than on technical means, the situation may require gathering technical information of a higher level than that of non-specialized units. For example, an area with suspected contamination by chemical-bacteriological substances of toxic industrial materials should be designated for exploration by units equipped to determine the type and level of the presence of harmful substances. Providing units (for example, engineering, chemical, demining and military police) have special capabilities for collecting technical information that complements the overall intelligence work of the troops. This is a collection of necessary tactical and technical information that determines the range of engineering reconnaissance capabilities.

Most of the capabilities of tactical engineering intelligence allows the collection of technical information to ensure the function of combat engineering. Reconnaissance in support of mobile, countermobile and stability operations is carried out mainly by an engineering intelligence group consisting of combat engineers and focused on gathering tactical and technical information to ensure the freedom of maneuver and survivability of allied forces and assets. Some of the specific tasks of engineering intelligence include, but are not limited to:

- Exploration of obstacles focused on bypassing or passing obstacles to create information about obstacles;
- Route exploration focused on route cleaning operations;
- Exploration of the area, focused on explosive objects, such as mines, and unexploded ordnance, requiring cleaning of the area;
- Exploration of ferry sites, focused on identifying requirements to overcome obstacles;
- Route exploration, focused on determining the combat routes;
- Exploration of obstacles, including the destruction of obstacles, focused on the formulation of their obstacles combined with fire.


Fighting engineers and bridge builders of the US Marine Corps are building a girder bridge in the Afghan province of Helmand

Engineering operations
Guaranteed mobility

Guaranteed mobility is the basis of processes, actions and capabilities that guarantee the ability of the combined forces to deploy and maneuver where and when it is necessary without interruptions or delays in order to solve a combat mission. Guaranteed mobility focuses on proactive mobility and countermobility activities and integrates all engineering functions for its implementation. Guaranteed mobility can be applied at the strategic level (ports, railway and roads), at the operational level (permanent routes and support aerodromes), and at the tactical level (freedom of maneuver of the commander). While the engineer plays a major role in guaranteed mobility, other units and weapons ensure its integration and perform important tasks.

The main principles of guaranteed mobility are prediction, detection, prevention, avoidance, neutralization and protection. These principles support the implementation of the concept of guaranteed mobility.

Forecast - Engineers and other planners must accurately predict the obstacles of their own mobility, analyzing the techniques, methods and techniques, capabilities and development. Forecasting requires a constantly updated understanding of the combat situation.

To determine - Using the means of reconnaissance, observation and reconnaissance, engineers and other planning services determine the location of natural and artificial obstacles, preparations for the creation and placement of obstacles, and possible means of creating them. They identify actual and potential obstacles and offer options and alternative courses of action to minimize or eliminate their possible impact.

Obstruct - Engineers and other planning authorities apply these principles in order to eliminate the enemy’s ability to influence mobility. This is complemented by proactively acting forces before the barriers are installed and operated. This may include aggressive actions to destroy the resources and capabilities of the enemy, before they can be used to create barriers.

To avoid - If the obstruction fails, the commander will redeploy to avoid interfering with mobility if this scheme is viable as part of the maneuver.

Neutralize - Engineers and other planners plan to neutralize, weaken or overcome barriers and obstacles in the shortest possible time to create unlimited maneuvering for the armed forces.

Protect - Engineers and other elements plan and embody vitality and other measures of protection that will deprive the enemy of the ability to cause damage, while their own forces make a maneuver. This may include countermobility tasks in order to deprive the enemy of maneuver and provide protection to his troops.


Site preparation by US Marine Corps combat engineers

Engineers in battle

Combat engineers are in the forefront because they are fighting alongside maneuverable units with a focus on melee combat. When conducting combat operations, they must be ready to fight and apply their combat experience, using fire and maneuver to complete their engineering mission. On the modern battlefield, the enemy can quickly identify and destroy engineers, regardless of their location. As a result, all combat engineers are organized, trained and equipped to fight and destroy the enemy in addition to their main duties in the martial engineering art. This may affect melee engineers, organized to fight as engineers, and organized to fight as infantry.

Conducting a battle as engineers

Combat engineers engage in close combat in order to complete their combat missions and:
- Provide movement for coming into contact or attack as part of the maneuver of the troop formation in order to accomplish the combat mission of this formation
- To fight as a force for making passes during such operations combined arms;
- Promote a supported organization to repel a surprise attack;
- To protect an important object, prepared for the undermining, through which you can pass as long as your troops are able to withdraw;
- Maintain safety at the site;
- Protect yourself in the gathering area or on the march.

The engineering units of general and geospatial engineering are predominantly armed with small arms and have a limited number of weapon systems serviced by calculations. They are not organized to move within the combined arms formations or to use fire and maneuver, but they are able to participate in close combat with fire and maneuver, mainly in a defensive role.

During combat operations, combat engineer units are task oriented with maneuverable units and integrated into general military units. The engineering division was created to ensure the destruction, making passes and the rapid overcoming of obstacles for combined-arms forces. The engineering unit can also use weapons systems for direct fire shooting, contributing to the destruction and passage of obstacles. Regardless of the combat mission, armored engineering vehicles are combat vehicles and thus provide a significant distribution of the combat power of the entire military unit.

When participating in the assault, engineers will fight dismounted at the target site. However, they will focus on making passages in nearby security barriers, as well as on the tasks of destroying positions and entrenched machines. Demolition charges have a significant impact on the defenders and destroy important positions, military equipment and combat vehicles.

Combat engineers engaged in the destruction of reserve objects in defense mainly carry out the technical procedures necessary to guarantee the destruction of the object. However, the blast engineering team responds to contact with the enemy. It helps in organizing the protection of the object to ensure its destruction. Engineering troops can assist in the defense of objects by installing anti-tank and self-destructing anti-personnel mines [the United States has not signed an international treaty banning anti-personnel mines] to create a defensive plan.

Military engineering units involved in the installation of barriers ensure their own local security. As part of their capabilities, they use the principles of close combat against attackers to ensure the completion of the creation of a barrier. General and geospatial engineering organizations also provide their own security, but may require support from combat units depending on the area of ​​combat operations they are in. They are involved when necessary in the defense of the main objects. They install local security barriers and fight off defensive positions around the perimeter. They also form response forces that can repel or destroy enemy forces trying to break through the main military formation.

Battle as infantry

When considering the history of the engineering troops, we see that the conduct of the battle as an infantry was a secondary task, usually this was done in conjunction with other combat units. To organizational shortcomings can be attributed to the lack of support for full-time fire, communication equipment and medical personnel. If the engineering battalion was destined to fight as an infantry unit (maneuverable subunit), then it needs the same support and it is possible to integrate other combat elements (for example, support by fire and armored vehicles) into its structure to perform the combat mission.

Any commander, commander of combat engineers, has the authority to use them as infantry, unless otherwise provided. However, the commander must carefully weigh in this case the receipt of infantry force against the loss of engineering support. Engineers have much greater combat power in their main combat mission than when they are formed as infantry. The halt of engineering work can reduce the combat power of all the combat forces of the commander. The reorganization of engineering units as infantry requires careful consideration and usually must be assigned to the command level of the operational level.


Engineers of the Royal Army of Great Britain are preparing a site for the construction of the Ebola Center for the treatment of patients with Ebola


The British Army’s new AVRE TROJAN engineering vehicle is carrying fascines in the picture. TROJAN is based on the chassis tank CHALLENGER, it is designed to clear barriers and make passages on the battlefield. A bulldozer for earthworks, a full-size mine plow can be installed on it, it can also transport fascines and throw them in trenches


A new CAT forklift of British engineering forces was procured under an urgent operational need (UOR) program for use in Afghanistan.

Engineers in attack

Engineering operations that provide offensive operations include the simultaneous use of combat, general and geospatial engineering capabilities through synchronized combat functions and throughout the depth of the combat area. Operations of combat engineers in the near support of the maneuverable forces primarily focus on offensive operations; however, to a certain extent all three functions are applied simultaneously. The main focus will be to ensure that it helps maneuver and advance.

Combat engineers are preparing to combine their engineering assets with their supported headquarters, focused on the performance of the combat mission. Engineering units in advance create a connection with the maneuverable units that they support. When a combat engineer unit is ready for offensive operations, they focus on inspection and training of combined-arms forces. In order to conduct training of assault forces, combined-arms units are organized to overcome obstacles and obstacles.

The building of assault and tactical bridges moves to areas of regrouping and, if possible, reconnaissance of forcing sites is carried out. Training may include the creation of combat routes or advanced transportation areas. If work on clearing a route is expected, then groups on clearing are organized and they concentrate on checks and trainings of combined arms forces. Training of combat engineers takes place in close cooperation and contact with the preparatory work of the maneuverable forces.



BOZANA 4 - the newest machine for mine clearance from Way Industries


Training of Iraqi Army soldiers in mine clearance of explosive items

With significant amounts of work, preparatory work may require more technical and engineering intelligence to facilitate appropriate project planning, including the supply of building materials if necessary. Special engineering tools may also be required to perform certain tasks.

At the operational level, general engineering operations cannot be carried out as part of a combined-arms combat mission but, nevertheless, must be fully coordinated with the combat commander responsible for the combat area. These general engineering operations are conducted primarily to ensure ongoing support for combat units, but may be important in the preparation of an offensive operation.

During offensive operations, the development of combat and protected positions is minimal for combat vehicles and weapon systems, while the focus is on troop mobility. With defense and attack (although rather with defense), protected positions for artillery, anti-missile defense and logistic positions may be required. Stationary command and control facilities require protection for themselves in order to reduce their vulnerability. During halts, while the use of terrain will provide protection, units must create as many protected positions as possible for the main weapon systems, command posts and critical supplies, based on the level of threat and the vulnerability of the unit. For example, the corresponding excavations or parapets are placed in such a way as to make the best use of the existing relief. During the early planning stages, relief analysis groups can provide information on the condition of the soil, vegetable shelters and terrain folds along routes to increase the survivability of troops. In the scheme of each position from the very beginning, camouflage should be taken into account and methods for misleading the enemy to the extent possible to allow the situation and time to be developed.

When performing offensive operations, the maneuverable forces will try to avoid encountering obstacles along the offensive paths. Maneuvering forces can actively avoid barriers by opposing the installation of counter-mobile devices or passively by identifying, marking and circumventing them. This assessment allows you to begin to carry out your decisions in order to pass or bypass the barricades. When possible, workarounds are preferred, they can be transferred to subsequent engineering parts to further improve them. Similarly, the guidance of assault bridges should be replaced, if possible, with the corresponding guidance of tactical bridges or communication lines, while maintaining the possibility of targeting future assault bridges. In the shortest possible time, the maximum amount of technical level assessments is made in order to determine possible and appropriate to improve communications lines.


The marines together with the engineering battalion install the rocket into a new vehicle for making passes (modified by ABRAMS chassis). The rocket is used to deploy elongated charges with explosive C4, which, detonating, undermine all mines and IEDs

Engineers in defense

Engineering operations that provide a defensive position include the simultaneous use of the capabilities of combat, general and geospatial engineering through synchronized combat functions and throughout the depth of the combat area. The operations of combat engineers with the direct support of maneuverable forces are the main focus in defense operations; however, all three functions are used to some extent simultaneously.

In all three types of defensive operations (air defense, mobile defense and retreat), the main focus for combat engineers is to activate the integration of combined-arms barriers (countermobility) and guarantee the mobility of their counterattacking or position-changing forces.

The works include the construction of positions to increase the survivability of command posts, artillery, air defense systems and weapons and reserves as well as the preparation of individual and serviced combat positions and shelters and positions using terrain features for combat vehicles. It is necessary to use engineering graphics and make extensive use of equipment for earthworks. Over this period, countermobility efforts will compete with resources and means of survivability. Therefore, it is important that maneuverable commanders provide a clear guide to the resources and priorities of the work.

General engineering support performs tasks that exceed the capabilities of the combat engineering forces, and also provides broader support for the mobility of counter-attacking forces. Examples of proposed combat missions include: building and integrating barriers and barriers; preparation of combat positions and positions that increase survivability in depth; construction and repair of routes that facilitate the redeployment of forces throughout the combat area. Designated combat engineers integrate and provide mobile support for reserve or mobile shock forces. Means of information gathering, reconnaissance and reconnaissance determine the capabilities of the enemy’s engineering forces (primarily means of creating aisles, overcoming obstacles and countermobility) in order to offer them to the list of objects before attacking the target and ensure their timely destruction. At the operational level, general engineering operations to strengthen and prepare protected positions for structures and military bases will be carried out continuously. Operational level barriers and barriers may also be needed as part of countermobility.


Fighters from the topographic group of the 94-th engineering battalion of the American army are shooting at the operational base in Iraq. The data collected by the group will be used in military and civilian maps.



The Finnish army bought nine wheeled bridge bridges with LEGUAN bridges on SISU E15TP chassis 10x10

Engineers in stabilization operations

Stabilization operations include both coercive and constructive hostilities. They are designed to create a safe and secure space and facilitate interaction between local and regional opponents.

Engineering support for stability operations includes the simultaneous use of the capabilities of combat, general and geospatial engineering through synchronized combat functions and throughout the depth of the combat area. General engineering operations for the restoration of basic services and infrastructure development are the main engineering business in stabilization operations; however, all three functions can be used simultaneously to a certain extent.

Often, stabilization operations are necessary to meet the basic needs of the population. Engineering forces can be an important tool for providing essential services as long as the host government or other organizations can perform the same functions. Engineering tasks are mainly focused on the reconstruction or creation of infrastructure for the creation of basic services that provide the population. This work is usually carried out in cooperation with civil organizations and in addition to the rest of the engineering support of its own forces. Provision for infrastructure development can be expanded to help the host country in development.

The main services in terms of engineering forces include food and water, emergency shelter and basic sanitation (debris and sewage disposal). Perhaps engineering tasks are similar to those tasks that are necessary with the assistance of civilian authorities (see below), the only difference is that they are carried out abroad.


The sophisticated modular clearance machine developed by Nexter for the French army is based on a remote-controlled clearance machine based on the AMX-30 tank chassis. Three of these machines are controlled remotely from the control station in the VAB command vehicle.

Engineers in Civil Assistance Operations

Civil support includes operations aimed at natural or man-made disasters, incidents, and events. Armed forces conduct operations to assist civilian authorities when the size and extent of a disaster exceeds the capabilities and potential of local civilian authorities. Military operations to assist civilian authorities consist of three main tasks: providing support after a disaster; support for civil law enforcement; and providing other assistance if necessary.

General engineering support for the restoration of basic services is the main goal of civilian assistance engineers. Engineering support may also be required for the ground forces providing command and control, stability and protection of government organizations at all levels until they can function normally. The main engineering activities associated with support include rescue work, food and water, emergency shelter, basic sanitation (garbage disposal and sewage) and minimal access to the affected areas. Combat and general engineering capabilities can be used to restore basic services. Engineering equipment is also well suited for cleaning the area from stones and debris in hazardous areas.

Engineers and explosive ordnance disposal

Several allied countries (for example, Britain, France, Canada, and Australia) are teaching Explosive Ordnance Disposal EOD disposal techniques in addition to training combat engineers; The American army rather sees engineers and the disposal of explosive objects as two different services and organizations. The role of each is unique, but similar and requires close coordination when working in a modern combat space.

Engineers are responsible for ensuring the mobility of combat forces, the detection and neutralization of mines by three methods: mine detection, detonation neutralization and “gross neutralization”. Detection technologies focus on identifying metal parts of mines. In explosive neutralization, for example, elongated charges are used to demine it to detonate mines. In "rough" neutralization, plows and rollers are used to push the mines to the sides or detonate them due to pressure. All of these methods require sources of intelligence information and reconnaissance to detect mines, and then use the appropriate combination of charges or means of "direct influence" to neutralize and make passes in ordinary minefields. Explosives and coarse neutralization cannot be used in some operations, such as urban areas.

The personnel of EOD units can be organized directly into maneuverable units to neutralize booby traps, unexploded ordnance and IEDs. Mine-traps have increased their “intelligence” in recent years and may have electronic circuits, including light, motion and detonation sensors on command.

Materials used:
www.monch.com
FM3-34 "ENGINEER OPERATIONS"
www.globalsecurity.org
www.way.sk
www.fas.org
en.wikipedia.org
www.goarmy.com
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  1. Hairy Siberian
    Hairy Siberian 11 December 2014 11: 14 New
    +1
    Interesting article.
    BMR-3M Vepr is a Russian armored mine clearance vehicle based on the T-90 MBT.
    The machine is capable of making 2 tracks with a width of 800. 870 mm in anti-track minefields, between the tracks there is an unmined space with a width of 1620 mm. In the anti-bottom minefields, the BMR-3M creates a continuous passage, the width of which is 3,2 m for mines with a contact fuse and up to 6..7 m for mines with a magnetic fuse.
    Crew - 2 people: driver and commander. There are 3 places for transporting troops from the engineer units.
    When carrying out demining, the BMR-3M can use special trawling equipment. The KMT-3 or KMT-7 gauge mine trawl is used as a trawl on the BMR-8M.
    KMT-7 consists of a chain device installed in front of the machine and two frames with roller sections, on which there are cutters on the outside of the frames. There are also attachments for trawling anti-tank mines with a non-contact fuse, trawling anti-bottom mines, as well as an interference transmitter PR 377 IV.
    In addition to weapons, it is possible to install an air conditioner and a dry closet. smile
  2. Throw
    Throw 11 December 2014 12: 03 New
    +1
    Great review, +!
  3. 31rus
    31rus 11 December 2014 13: 13 New
    0
    Excellent and instructive article. Thank you to the author all on the “shelves”. There are Alex suggestions, continue to please educate us further about the medical army, chem. protection, repair bats and other services
  4. Signaller
    Signaller 11 December 2014 16: 24 New
    +1
    Actually, all this is interesting. Just one question. Why all this???? Type for self-education ??? Well, we get it. And now it’s clear why Ukraine is digging a ditch on its border. Type impregnable fortress ???? So Ishmael was also impregnable, And Count Suvorov decided otherwise and it turned out after all ..
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 11 December 2014 20: 40 New
      0
      Quote: Signaller
      just one question. Why all this????

      But why did the Soviet, and now the Russian state, spend and spend money on Foreign Military Review?

      If you look exclusively at the pictures ... They have an effective system to combat landmines and landmines - KMT for wheeled vehicles, MRAP with a manipulator and Husky with ground penetrating radar. We have no such line of equipment, but it would be necessary.

      Or what about protection ... Our "urki" have bulletproof reservations, with the Americans they are made on the basis of "Abrams", and even add. plow have to extract disadvantages. But the British are even cooler: a vehicle based on a tank, and tons of explosives are not pulled over the hump, but behind the stern in a trailer. Which is clearly much safer.
      1. lubesky
        lubesky 12 December 2014 00: 44 New
        0
        Well, why are you escalating. The military doctrine of the USSR implied a large-scale land conflict and our equipment is designed for mass production. We could stamp the same lesson with thousands on the basis of MTLB. They now have everything for mobile warfare with a local limited contingent. At the moment, it makes sense to estimate what is the concept of the General Staff? Do we need ur-2014 or do ur-77.
  5. tchoni
    tchoni 11 December 2014 17: 52 New
    +2
    Cool article. We like to pamper about guns, about mobility and crap. And here is a very complex and not romantic job.
  6. tchoni
    tchoni 11 December 2014 21: 50 New
    0
    I did not have time to finish the comments. I continue: And without this work, there will be nothing. Not swift throws (no matter how mobile the technique is), nor river crossing (no matter how many amphibious armored vehicles there are in the army). not stable defense (no matter how brave the soldiers would be), not safe logistic operations (as you do not block the columns, but you will not save from a mine or a destroyed bridge).
    The headquarters of the engineering troops must participate in operations at each level of hostilities: strategic, operational, tactical. The exclusion of engineering work at any level can adversely affect the efficiency of the operation.
    But we can forget about it, although we had engineering special forces ....
  7. lubesky
    lubesky 12 December 2014 00: 07 New
    +2
    For remote passage of passages in minefields with long "sausages" of plastid on missiles - this is our UR-77 MTLB-based mine clearance system. He served on such, but the real use of combat was only once. And so he spent the entire service on his stomach in the fields and mountains as a simple sapper, occasionally visiting his ur-77 in the park))
  8. Beiderlei
    Beiderlei 7 January 2015 15: 52 New
    0
    Also needed, and even very much!