The Future Management Center (CPOF) is an executive decision support system that provides situational awareness and provides collaborative tools for tactical decision making, planning, training, and task management.
Combat control is “the art and science of understanding, visualizing, describing, directing, directing, and evaluating the armed forces in operations against a cruel, thinking, and adapting enemy.” In Combat Control, the command chain principle is used to transform solutions into actions by synchronizing forces and combat functions in time and space in order to accomplish a combat task.
Battle management information systems are equipment and tools that collect, process, store, display and distribute information. They include computers, hardware, software and communications, as well as methods and procedures for their use.
LandWarNet consists of global, interconnected, cross-cutting, army combat capabilities, an appropriate process and personnel necessary to collect, process, store, distribute and manage information on request with a view to providing it to military, high-ranking politicians and support staff. It uses the capabilities of the Office of the Fight. Focusing on commanders and soldiers, LandWarNet combines command and control capabilities to engage operations defined by commanders.
Principles of modernization
The modernization of the army battle management system will be deployed into an integrated information technology and will create the advantage of combat assets through the integrated creation of a network of informed, geographically dispersed and modular forces. This integrated Combat Management combined with the corresponding changes in DOTMLPF (doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel and facilities - doctrine, organization, training, material part, leadership and education, personnel and technical means) will allow future American ground forces maintain an advantage in the entire spectrum of hostilities.
General Architecture of Army Combat Management Systems (ABCS)
The 1 (Increment 1) part of the Army Tactical Communication System is currently deployed in US units in Iraq and Afghanistan
In the national military strategy 2009 and the annual defense review 2011 of the year, it is indicated to all military branches to become more “mobile” (quickly deployable, highly mobile, independent and effective across the spectrum) and “fully networked” (based on information and integrated through combined forces). In addition, the Department of Defense required the Global Information Coordinating Network (GIG) to become the main technical core to support the Network-centric Combat Operations / Network-Centric Operations. According to this line, all advanced combat platforms, sensor systems and control centers will ultimately be connected by a GIG network. This represents a fundamental transition from developing individual systems to new or improved capabilities of the “super system” integration approach due to huge integration efforts. The following four basic principles will be used:
- Reliable network power improves information distribution;
- The distribution of information improves its quality and joint situational awareness;
- Joint situational awareness makes it possible to work together and self-synchronize and increases the combat stability and speed of command;
- The effectiveness of the combat mission, thus, increases dramatically.
Modernization of the army control of the battle will include these principles at all echelons up to the individual soldier when the army passes to its so-called Combat Command of the Future Forces.
The US Armed Forces (AF) are facing an adapting enemy using a wide range of traditional and asymmetric tactics in a complex space. This problem highlights the critical need for rapid improvement of vertical and horizontal integration and the distribution of the capabilities of the Combat Command, both within the army and between the branches of service in a united space and between organizations and countries in interdepartmental and multinational spaces. It is no longer acceptable to have the armed forces of each service arm operating independently in the same geographical area. Interaction is the ability of systems, divisions or forces to provide data, information, material component and services, and to accept all the same from other systems, divisions or forces and to use all this for the purpose of joint effective work.
Network integration kit NIK during tests. The system integrates the data from the sensors into a general operational picture displayed on the screen of the FBCB2 system.
Network of future forces
The network of the future forces of the American Army consists of five levels (standard, transport, services, applications, sensors and platforms) which, when integrated, ensure the seamless delivery of data and messages. Integration of all five levels is necessary to ensure greater situational awareness, data of various data from sensors and network firing, and, thus, transformation of ground forces capabilities in order to dominate them in ground combat. Integrated key systems include:
- Common standards and protocols, such as network-centricity, waveforms, IP, common hardware between the modular forces of the army and the combined forces;
- Network transport systems, such as WIN-T (Warfighter Information Network-Tactical - Army Tactical Communication System), JTRS (Joint Tactical Radio Systems - reprogrammable radio stations using a single communication architecture) and high-power communications. This could also include the Transformation Satellite Program (TSAT), which, however, was closed and replaced by the purchase of two additional high-frequency satellites (AEHF);
- Network services will be provided with common operational space of the global system (formerly FCS), network-centric services, Win-T and network management services;
- Future applications include command and control, networking command capabilities and a distributed common ground army system;
- The most diverse sensors on uninhabited ground platforms, UAVs and manned platforms are connected and networked, which is very important for improving situational awareness.
And again, the integration of all these levels is the key to providing LandWarNet from a dismounted soldier to mobile control points and support bases.
The army supports the Ministry of Defense’s network-centric approach with the ultimate goal of improving the ability of various systems to work together. I must say that another way is to reduce the number of "seams" between systems and organizations.
The army’s vision is to develop reliable network solutions that allow commanders at various levels and soldiers to access important data and information anywhere, anytime, and create a global space where soldiers and commanders have the same perception when accessing information from from home station for accurate deployment. This is accomplished through the migration of existing systems, where possible, and the development of new, network-ready programs to meet the unique tasks of a highly specialized network and control ground forces in motion. In this transition, the initial stages will be completed by deploying new combat control capabilities for existing forces.
A key element of the army’s overall strategy for combat control systems is the movement beyond the era of new vertical capabilities and the merging of the army’s multifunctional, basic communication systems. On the lower tier, strategy requires the fusion of complex and diverse tactical radio stations into the JTRS family of radio stations. This merger will be based on a number of factors, including the JTRS issue, the cost of the radio station, the possibility of funding C4I (command, control, communications, information gathering and computers) and the architecture that seamlessly integrates the radio stations in JTRS in 2015-2020.
For networks operating out of direct line of sight, the proliferation of special incompatible communication systems on the battlefield creates special problems for supporting and integrating organizations. The document on the capabilities of the future networks of the WIN-T stage Increment 3 included Trojan Spirit’s intelligence programs as well as the VSAT (Combat Service Support Very-Small Aperture Satellite) ground communications satellite program.
While solving these problems is an urgent task for the army, other specialized systems, such as Mobile Battle Command On the Move (MBCOTM), global broadcast service GBS (Global Broadcast Service) and others, represent the potential for merging systems in WIN-T; thereby simplifying the tasks of ensuring, integrating and moving the army to truly network-centric capabilities. Specific details of the program are given in the following sections.
Basic combat control programs
GCCS / NECC
Global Command and Control System (GCCS) is a strategic, operational and tactical management system that provides seamless flow of operational information and data from a strategic level down to all elements of the theater of operations (theater of operations). The system provides an interface between the Joint / Joint Forces (Joint GCCS) and the tactical army battle control systems ABCS (Tactical Army Battle Command Systems). GCCS-Army is an integrated component of the GCCS-FoS program and provides reliable and seamless operational control capabilities for senior officers and decision makers.
Network management capabilities (NECC) should replace GCCS-A and are the main management capabilities of the Ministry of Defense, which will be available in a network-centric environment and focus on providing the commander with the data and information necessary to make timely, effective and informed decisions. NECC was created by experts in the field of operational management with the aim of developing the current and integrating new management capabilities into a fully reciprocal common solution for all combat arms. Fighters can quickly adapt to the changing requirements of a combat mission, defining and adjusting their information space and relying on opportunities that allow them to effectively and timely manage their own forces and firing.
BCCS (Battle Command Common Services) common battle management services are a set of standardized and configured service servers that provide tactical infrastructure of server and service capabilities that extend the space of NECC and NCES to tactical echelons from the battalion to army command. This infrastructure enables the interoperability of tactical army battle management systems and data management, supports modularity, and provides for so-called enterprise services. Enterprise services consist of commercial products that are integrated and standardized to provide the current tactical infrastructure; they will migrate to become a key component of the network-centric space.
BCCS also provides ongoing work on convergence (convergence) with the Marine Corps by providing a data exchange gateway that allows direct exchange of common operational data between the combat arms.
Mobile Combat Management System MBCOTM (Mounted Battle Command on the Move) is a set of equipment for command, control, communications and computers integrated with the BRADLEY command vehicle (ODS, M2A3, M3A3) or an easy STRYKER tactical machine for use by commanders and special staff staff. The focus of the MBCOTM system is to facilitate team-centric operations. MBCOTM provides battle management by delivering situational awareness to the commander in the form of a general digital operational picture, which allows the commander to be aware of the situation during his movement during physical separation from stationary control points. MBCOTM will provide the integration necessary to enable tactical and operational battle management in motion.
The MCS Combat Control System (Maneuver Control System) is an operational control system that allows commanders and their headquarters to visualize combat space and synchronize elements of combat power for successful combat operations. The MCS provides software tools that transform the commander’s modus operandi from battalion to corps; it jointly creates and manages critical information, including the location of its forces, enemy units, goals, plans and orders, as well as operational graphic data. MCS is used to improve and speed up decision-making time, improve scheduling operations, and monitor operations. MCS provides tools and displays that collect and process information from various sources when necessary for a combat commander and various combat headquarters.
The MCS system is the heart of the army battle management system, the “supersystem” for battle management. Using formats and templates that are familiar to users, the MCS system can quickly develop and distribute combat plans and orders. Its automated components provide commanders with the capabilities they need to hold joint meetings, regardless of location, in order to carry out a combat plan and coordinate forces to strike accurately.
The MCS as part of the ABCS is an all-arms commander tool for visualizing combat space. In this regard, the MCS receives important combat information and data from each ABCS system of a combat area and provides this information to the operational display when it is needed by the commanders and their headquarters. The MCS also, if necessary, provides important operational information for each combat region in order to facilitate the performance of the combat mission. These exchanges of information and data are carried out directly through military communications, data exchange, e-mail, client applications, or not directly using ABCS publishing and subscription services and web services.
MCS also provides enterprise services necessary to support the functions of combat command and seamless operation throughout the combat space and seamless integration with ABCS, other systems, Net Centric Enterprise Services (network centric enterprise services) and Global Information Grid (global information network). The MCS system uses constant services of enterprises to integrate information into the combat space and at the expense of NCES, transferring information from the higher echelons directly to the squad leader.
CPOF (command post of the future)
The command post of the future CPOF (Command Post of the Future) is an executive command decision-making system that provides situational awareness and collaborative tools for making decisions at the tactical level, planning, working out and managing execution from the command of the branch of arms to the battalion. CPOF supports visualization, analysis of information and cooperation in a single, integrated space.
Through the technological insertion of the CPOF into the MCS program, commanders and key staff officers have the opportunity to make decisions at the executive level with improved real-time collective tools. These capabilities provide an important contribution to the combat capabilities of the commander by improving his situational awareness and supporting the combat command process, which is focused on the performance of the combat mission.
CPOF operators work interactively, exchanging thoughts, workspace and plans for analyzing information and evaluating the course of action with a real-time response for an immediate and comprehensive view of the battlefield. The CPOF creates a commander-oriented software environment that can be tailored to fit a particular visualization. This special visualization supports distributed and joint operations that allow the commander to act anywhere on the battlefield. The CPOF point is created to obtain a deep thought process between the commander and his headquarters. Users can selectively and dynamically generate and transmit their developed analyzes, plans and execution. CPOF is the total available space since system startup. The user simply needs to drag and drop the visualization product into the zone of “shared (common) products” and instantly share it with all registered users.
The MBCOTM operational control system (Mounted Battle Command On The Move - mobile battle management in motion) is installed on the BRADLEY, HMMWV and STRYKER control vehicles.
The Standardized Integrated Command Post System, a standardized integrated command post, is basically a non-evolutionary system consisting of integrating approved and already deployed and installed on the platforms of the command and control systems of other information and computer systems that support the operational needs of the battalion and higher, up to the corps . SICPS consists of various systems, in particular a communication system, an intercom system, a command center system and a support system transported on a trailer.
Representation of the combat space of the MCS combat control system
The command and control system of the XXI century for the brigade level and below FBCB2 (Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below) is a general-purpose digital information system. FBCB2 is designed to provide dismounted and transportable combat components in real time, it combines operational control and situational awareness. FBCB2 improves the ability of combat commanders to better synchronize their forces, achieve mobility and understand the essence of combat space due to better situational awareness and a better understanding of the combat situation while doing all this in constant motion. FBCB2 is a key component of ABCS.
The FBCB2 system operates in terrestrial communication networks and satellite networks. The system consists of a hardened computer with a touch screen and a keyboard. On the screen, the soldier sees either a digital map or a satellite image on which icons are placed representing the location of the machines, other machines with the FBCB2 system and the friend or foe system (BFT), known enemy units and objects such as minefields and bridges .
FBCB2 / BFT was quickly deployed in small numbers in each army command, army rear command and direct alert unit, as well as in the US marines and British units involved in the Iraqi Freedom and Permanent Freedom operations. In these theaters, the BFT system was installed on the 50% armored HMWW and 100% ASV vehicles, and by now the army has installed the BFT on 100% MRAP machines.
FBCB2 is currently being funded to develop improvements in the network operations center architecture, synchronize software releases, create satellite architecture, and improve communication protocols (to reduce latency caused by increased system requirements), Type 1 encryption, and logistic products and Internet protocol development v6.
ISYSCON (V4) / TIMS
ISYSCON (V4) / TIMS (Tactical Internet Management System - Tactical Internet Management System) is a software system that belongs to the FBCB2 system, located in the S6 / G6 sections of the digital architecture of the armed forces. It uses FBCB2 software as a basis, as well as experienced and commercial software for planning, configuration, initialization and monitoring of the tactical Internet.
BFT based on COBRA
MTX is a modern, friend or foe identification (BFT) system that uses existing national space infrastructure facilities and national technical controls (NTM). These devices give commanders the ability to track and receive location information and short abbreviated codes in near real-time from their forces, which requires an extremely safe, low-probability detection (LPI / LPD) control channel. These systems generally improve security and reliability by using the LPI / LPD COBRA waveform (Collection Of Broadcasts from Remote Assets), encryption certified by the national security agency, and military GPS.
Because of the security advantages, the special forces used BFT systems based on COBRA in Afghanistan and Iraq, while the main formations of the coalition forces used FBCB2. Approximately 6000 of the MTX systems were produced and delivered to units of the US command of special operations forces (for example, each aircraft of the special operations forces of the US Air Force and ground forces in Afghanistan and Iraq had MTX), other government agencies (OGA), and all other branches of the military, having special needs for secure BFT systems. MTX and MMC were developed and deployed as a result of additional allocations and budgetary surcharges, but have since been adopted as critical and necessary support systems. The National Intelligence Agency has also invested heavily in the modernization and expansion of the COBRA architecture to make it ready for the tasks according to the needs of the ministry and other agencies.
Training US Army personnel on how to work with the FBCB2 system
The so-called Bridge to the Future (BFN) networks are an army strategy for introducing improved network-centric capabilities into today's aircraft, followed by an initial transition to WIN-T. Improved performance in the BFN army strategy is enhanced voice data and video services, ready for networking and maintaining the modular structure of the army. BFN provides modern aircraft with a commercial, modern basic network (high speed and large capacity), which will allow them to exchange information (voice, data and video) down to the tactical corps and on an ongoing basis.
The information tactical network of the fighter WIN-T (Warfighter Information Network-Tactical) was created as a backbone of the tactical network, it is designed for continuous data transmission in motion (users and network infrastructure) at all echelons, providing general and coalition voice services and data services at all control points, flexible and dynamic possibility of reorganizing tasks and greater survivability and getting less complex network. A single integrated network WIN-T provides multi-level secret, integrated and coalition voice services and data services at all control points.
WIN-T is an important element in the transition of the army to operations based on a reliable network. It provides key opportunities for data transmission in motion due to the three-tier architecture (earth, air, space) that will allow you to have a reliable permanent network connection. The ground level will equip the soldier, sensors, platforms, control points, and access points (signal shelters) with integrated transmission systems (radios) with routing and switching capabilities that will serve as physical entry points to WIN-T. The “air layer” will serve as an access node and a repeater when placing transmission, routing and switching devices on aircraft. The “space layer” will serve as an access point and a repeater using transmission, switching and routing devices installed on satellites.
WIN-T network diagram
Mobile tactical center of the US National Guard
The battalion center for combat operations (TOC) during the verification of network interaction
The Army restructured the WIN-T program to include the former Joint Network Node Network (JNN). The restructured program will consist of four parts (Increment):
- Part of 1: Creating a fixed network
- Part 1a / 1b: Extended fixed network (formerly JNN program)
- Part 2: The initial construction of the mobile network
- Part of 3: Integrated Mobile Network
- Part 4: Secure Mobile Satellite Communication (SATCOM).
WIN-T Part of 1 was deployed at one time in army units in Iraq and Afghanistan. In October, an 2008 initial operational test was conducted at Fort Lewis to demonstrate operational efficiency, compliance and survivability of the 1a phase to create a full-scale production. The limited testing of the Part 1b was then carried out in March 2009 of the year at Fort Sewart and Fort Horodon, and operational tests in May of the year 2010. Limited Testing at Customer Parts 2, conducted in December 2008 of the year in Fort Lewis, led to initial operational testing in July 2010 of the year. At the end of 2012, the deployment began in the first divisions. A critical review of the 3 Part Project has now been carried out.
JNMS (Joint Network Management Systems) provides a common, automated management and planning tool that will support combat commanders and their deployment. It consists mainly of commercial software modules / capabilities to perform a combat mission.
JNMS includes the following features:
High-level planning to enable the creation / editing and / or loading of databases; detailed planning and design; monitoring to include data sets from equipment and networks, data analysis, database updates and the development and distribution of messages; management and reconfiguration to enable network device configuration, processing incoming data, generating and evaluating alternative responses and implementing an appropriate response; spectral planning and management; and security.
Standardized integrated command post SICPS (Standardized Integrated Command Post Systems) is fully deployed with its shelters, cars and trailers.
Network integration kit
After the abolition of the FCS program, the army continued to develop and deploy a gradually increasing ground tactical network in all army brigade (tactical) groups (BCT). This network is a level system of interconnected computers and software (software), radio stations and sensors in these groups of BCT. The network is important in terms of utilizing the capabilities of the Combat Command and will be delivered to army brigade groups with constantly improving characteristics. At the 1 Stage (Part of 1), development and operational tests are currently being completed, it will be delivered to infantry brigades in the form of network integration kits (B-kits).
Soldiers in each echelon from the brigade to the separation will receive data from the relevant sensors and radio relay stations in order to guarantee the appropriate situational awareness on the battlefield. The network is being tested and evaluated in a unified operational space to ensure that communications systems can be integrated with combined arms agencies and with American allies.
The Network Integration Kit (NIK) is an integrated set of equipment on a HMMWV jeep that provides connectivity and has software for integrating and merging sensory data into the overall operational picture displayed in the FBCB2 system. NIK consists of an integrated computer system, including combat command and general operating space software of the “super system”, JTRS GMR radio stations with the aim of providing an interface with sensors and automatic systems, as well as communication systems for the exchange of speech and data with other machines and soldiers.
Soldiers will be able to exchange information with the battalion center of combat operations, sending reports about the enemy, his activity and location, using the NIK kit and the network to make tactical decisions separated in time.
Weapon Systems Handbook 2013