Military Review

Chinese airplanes Awarded

16



In the 50-60s aviation The United States and the Kuomintang of Taiwan repeatedly violated the air border of China. Chinese fighters repeatedly climbed to intercept violators. There was a real air war over the Taiwan Strait.

In this situation, China desperately needed a long-range radar aircraft (DRLO), which could detect intruders entering the airspace of the country, taking advantage of the presence of high mountain ranges on the southeastern coast of China, which interfered with the operation of ground-based radar stations.

In the middle of the 60-x in the USSR, the DRLO Tu-126 aircraft equipped with a powerful Liana radar with a rotating mushroom antenna radome located on the top of the fuselage was launched into mass production. At the time, it was a revolutionary technical solution that allows for a circular view regardless of the position of the aircraft relative to the observed target. Subsequently, this antenna location was implemented on other DRLO aircraft.


DRLO Tu-126 aircraft


The Tu-126 was created on the basis of the Tu-114 airliner, its "ancestor", in turn, was the strategic bomber Tu-95, numerous modifications of which for a long time became the basis of long-range aviation of the USSR.

Naturally, with the relations between the Soviet Union and China that escalated in 60-e, there was no question of supplying Tu-114 to China, and even more so Tu-95.

As a result, Chinese experts decided to build their “flying radar” on the basis of the Tu-4 long-range bomber, which, in turn, was copied from the B-29 American “Super Fortress” bomber.
In the 1953 year, the 25 Tu-4 aircraft were transferred to the PRC, where they were operated before the 90-s, having survived much the same aircraft in the USSR and the USA.

Radar with an antenna diameter of 7 m and a mass of 5 t mounted on the fuselage of the aircraft. The power of four piston engines for an aircraft with a large antenna, which increased the aerodynamic drag by 30%, was not enough. It was decided to equip the aircraft with powerful turboprop engines Ivchenko AI-20K.

AI-20 engines were used in the PRC on military transport aircraft Y-8, which was a licensed copy of the Soviet An-12. Mastering the mass production of An-12 in China began immediately before breaking off relations with the USSR. In parallel with the release of the aircraft in China, the production of AI-20 engines, which received the Chinese designation WJ6, as well as propellers, was mastered.

New engines had a great length and stretched forward on the 2,3 m, which affected the stability of the aircraft and its handling. Engineers solved this problem by increasing the area of ​​the horizontal stabilizer on 2 square. m and span on 400 mm. Chinese engineers completely reworked the aircraft's bomb bay to accommodate radar operators and avionics.

10 June 1971, the prototype of the DRLO aircraft, designated KJ-1, went to flight tests.

Chinese airplanes Awarded

The first Chinese aircraft ARLO KJ-1


The aircraft was built in the shortest possible time. The Chinese have spent the entire 1 year and 7 months to create a prototype of the DRLO aircraft. The screws of the former piston engines rotated to the right (all the Tu-4 aerodynamics were designed for such a moment of work of the power plant), the new TVD had left-hand rotation screws. There was a heeling moment, and the Chinese engineers decided to equip the aircraft with take-off rocket boosters to neutralize the unwanted yaw of the aircraft. There was also a vibration caused by the impact of the antenna on the keel of the aircraft, as a result of which the aircraft was so violently shaken in the air that the crew was very exhausting during the flight. However, this problem was also solved soon.



During the test flight KJ-1 flew a few hundred hours. It was found that the radar could detect a target such as an H-6 bomber (Tu-16) at a distance of 300-350 km, transport planes at a distance of 250 km. In one of the experiments, the surface target was detected at a distance of 300 km. But China’s lag in the radio element base did not allow at that time to create a truly efficient DRLO aircraft with satisfactory reliability characteristics of the radar equipment and crew protection from microwave radiation.


Currently, the first Chinese aircraft AWAC KJ-1 is in the Beijing Aviation Museum


The next time in the People's Republic of China they returned to the subject of creating an ARLO aircraft at the end of the 80. More than 15 years have passed since the beginning of work in this direction until the practical implementation of healthy samples of radar stations.
Work on long-range radar detection aircraft is concentrated at the CETC Corporation's 38 Research Institute, located in Hefei City. This research institute is a major center for the development of electronics and radar technology leading development in the interests of the armed forces.

In 1998, the Y-8J (AEW) naval patrol aircraft made its first flight, focusing on the tasks of early warning radar. It was created on the basis of the Y-8С serial transport aircraft, and, unlike its predecessor, its glazed nose was replaced with a radome radome.


Marine patrol aircraft Y-8J


The aircraft is mainly designed to control the maritime situation. At the same time, it can track 32 sea surface targets, including even such as a submarine periscope. In Chinese sources it was reported that there are opportunities for detecting air targets and targeting fighters.

Radar aircraft Y-8J created on the basis of the British radar Skymaster. Six to eight such systems were sold to the PRC by the British company Racal under a contract valued at 66 million.

Skymaster radar is a pulse-Doppler radar operating in the I-band. It has a target detection range of 5 square. m 85 km in the review mode of the lower hemisphere, 110 km top and 230 km surface target.

Totally aware of the use of four Y-8J aircraft. Apparently, they are a temporary solution for the PLA Navy.

Due to the complexity of creating a full-fledged complex of equipment for an ARLO aircraft and the lack of practical experience and a suitable platform, the PRC leadership decided to play it safe and involve foreign developers to this topic.

As a result of negotiations held in Russia, Israel and the People’s Republic of China in 1997, a contract was concluded for the joint development, construction, and subsequent delivery of airborne early warning and control systems to China. It was assumed that the Russian TANTK them. Gm Beriev will create on the basis of the serial A-50 aircraft for installation on it of an Israeli-made radio engineering complex with the EL / M-205 “Falcon” radar (PHALCON). The new radio engineering complex (RTC) was intended for radar detection of enemy aircraft, control of the airspace, and also for control of its combat aircraft. In addition, the Chinese DRLO aircraft was supposed to be equipped with radio intelligence equipment capable of intercepting radio communications and monitoring the radio-electronic situation in the combat area.

The basis of the complex was a multifunctional pulse-Doppler radar EL / M-205 developed by the Israeli company Elta. It consists of three active phased antenna arrays, forming a triangle and located above the fuselage in a fixed mushroom fairing with a diameter of 11,5 m (more than the E-3 and A-50). According to the developers of the station, the rather low carrier frequency of the decimeter-band radar (1,2-1,4 GHz), in combination with high-speed computing equipment and special noise reduction devices, provides the potential for detecting cruise missiles and airplanes developed using stealth technology.

For two years from 1997 to 1999, the year in Taganrog, there was a re-equipment of one of the serial A-50 from the Russian Air Force with a tail number 44. After that, the plane flew to Israel to install the Falcon radio engineering complex. The works were generally completed by July 2000. For the PLA Air Force, a total of four aircraft were to be delivered.

But under the strongest pressure of the United States, Israel had to suspend the execution of the contract in the summer of 2000, and subsequently officially inform the Chinese authorities of its refusal to participate in the project. Radio complex was dismantled from the aircraft, and he returned to China. After leaving the program of Israel, the PRC leadership decided to continue work on the program independently, equipping the aircraft it received with a radio engineering complex with AFAR, means of communication and data transmission of national development. Since China did not have any other suitable for the role of the carrier of the DRLO radio engineering complex, it was decided to build the subsequent production radar patrol aircraft on the basis of a part of the Il-90MD transport set in China for the 76-s.


KJ-2000


His first flight of the aircraft, which received the designation KJ-2000 ("Kun Jing", can be translated as "Heavenly Eye"), made in November 2003 of the year. Just one year after the start of flight tests of the first experienced KJ-2000, the plant in Xi'an began manufacturing serial DRLO complexes.

At the end of 2007, four serial DRLO KJ-2000 aircraft were officially put into service. Reliable data on the characteristics of the radio complex in open sources is not available. It is known that the flight crew of the KJ-2000 consists of five people and 10-15 operators. The aircraft can patrol at altitudes of 5-10 km. The maximum flight distance is 5000 km, the flight duration is 7 h 40 min. Externally, the serial KJ-2000 differ little from the prototype, however, the absence of a rod for refueling in the air is striking.


Satellite image Google earth: airplanes AWAC KJ-2000


The adoption of the KJ-2000 aircraft undoubtedly made it possible to significantly increase the capabilities of the PLA Air Force for detecting air targets, including low-flying and subtle. As for the prospects, one detachment of DRLO airplanes consisting of five (including the prototype) KJ-2000 is clearly not enough for China. It is likely that the next aircraft of this class will be built on the basis of IL-76 aircraft purchased in Russia. In 2011, a contract was entered into under which in 2013-2015. will be delivered ten IL-76TD from the presence of the Russian Air Force. In addition, China is developing its own heavy transporter Y-20.


Chinese military transport aircraft Y-20


26 January 2013, the Chinese media reported that the first prototype of a heavy Y-20 military transport aircraft took off from the airfield of the XAC aircraft building company, located in Yanlan.

The next Chinese AWACS aircraft to take off for the first time in 2001 was the KJ-200 (Y-8W). The Y-8 F-200 military transport aircraft became the platform for it. The aircraft is equipped with a radar similar to the Swedish Ericsson Erieye AESA with a target detection range of 300 to 450 km. The new aircraft are powered by Pratt & Whitney turboprop engines and feature new highly efficient six-bladed JL-4 propellers, which have increased flight range and reduced noise levels.


KJ-200


It is worth noting that the Chinese engineers, after they managed to solve problems related to electromagnetic compatibility, cooling equipment and radiation protection on an aircraft KJ-2000, successfully applied the experience to create later models.



The first serial KJ-200 took off 14 on January 2005 of the year. In June 2006, he was lost in a crash. At the same time, testers and development engineers of the radio-technical complex were among the dead, which, according to experts, complicated the implementation of the program for the creation of Chinese DRLO complexes. Nevertheless, the Chinese specialists managed to complete the KJ-200 tests in a fairly short time, and complexes of this type began to enter into service with the PLA Air Force.



According to foreign experts, at least six aircraft are currently in service.


Satellite image Google Earth: airplanes AWAC KJ-200


The development of the KJ-200 was the ZDK-03 Karakoram Eagle, created on the order of the Pakistan Air Force. In 2011, China handed over to Pakistan the first long-range radar detection aircraft.


ZDK-03 Karakoram Eagle


The aircraft is built on the basis of the transport aircraft Y-8F-400. Unlike the KJ-200, a mushroom-shaped antenna, more familiar to DRLO planes, is installed on a Pakistani aircraft. According to the Pakistani military, such an arrangement of the RTK antenna system in a “classic” rotating disc fairing over the fuselage more meets the requirements of the Pakistani Air Force.

Three ZDK-03 airplanes delivered to Pakistan were the first Chinese ARLO complexes to be exported. Production of all key components of the radar complex, including AFAR receiving and transmitting modules, is localized in China. Processors used for high-speed data processing are also developed and manufactured in the PRC.


Satellite image of Google earth: aircraft ARLO ZDK-03 at the airport Masrour


According to experts, the DRLO ZDK-03 aircraft is close in its capabilities to the American deck-based E-2C “Hokai” aircraft. A permanent aerodrome based on ZDK-03 in Pakistan has defined an airfield Masrour in the vicinity of Karachi.

In 2011, there were reports about the development in China of a prototype of the DRLO plane of deck-based aircraft. Moreover, the prototypes were built in two versions, significantly different from each other by the layout of the RTK antenna.

The base model for the new DRLO aircraft that received the designation JZY-01 was the Y-7 transport, which, in turn, is a copy of the An-26.


On the first modification of the aircraft JZY-01, the radar antenna was made similar to KJ-200




The second modification, the tests of which, apparently, progressed further, had a classical antenna in a mushroom fairing. However, according to some experts, it was made not rotating, but motionless, and inside it, like on a larger Chinese DRLO KJ-2000 aircraft, a triangle accommodates three active phased antenna arrays, thereby providing a circular view.

Major changes compared with the original Y-7 has undergone the power plant. The standard WJ-5A turboprop (development of the Soviet AI-24) is likely to be replaced by more powerful WJ-6C engines with six-blade JL-4 propellers — such as those used on the new Y-9 Chinese military transport aircraft and the DRLO airplanes KJ-200 and ZDK-03.



At the same time, the aircraft does not have a landing hook necessary for any deck aircraft. In addition, the Chinese prototype does not have a specially modified landing gear, characteristic of deck aircraft. On the wings there is no folding mechanism. The aircraft depicted in the photographs is most likely the prototype for testing the aerodynamic characteristics of the deck flying radar.


Satellite image of Google Earth: JZY-01 DRLO aircraft at Xian factory airfield


And the very possibility of basing the carrier-based aircraft built on the An-26 base on the not too large Chinese aircraft carrier Liaonin (in the past life of the Varyag) with a displacement of 60000 is doubtful. The scope of work to change the design of the JZY-01 will be no less than when developing a new special deck-based aircraft. Currently, the aircraft with a round antenna RTK is located at the factory airfield in Xi'an.

In the PRC, the creation of new modifications of DRLO planes with higher radar characteristics continues. The Chinese industry in the field of aviation radar has made a breakthrough from the radar with mechanical scanning to systems with active phased antenna array. Specialists of CETC Corporation have created a three-coordinate early warning radar with AFAR, i.e. radar providing electronic scanning in height and azimuth.



In the middle of 2014, there were reports of the adoption of a new version of the "medium aircraft" of AWACS with the KJ-500 index based on the Y-8F-400 transporter. Unlike the KJ-200 version with a log-like radar, the new aircraft has a circular radar antenna on the mast.


KJ-500


KJ-500 is similar to the ZDK-03, which were supplied by the Pakistan Air Force, but equipped with a new radar, a distinctive feature of which is the presence of a "blister" on the top of the antenna.


Satellite image of Google Earth: airplanes DRLO KJ-500 at the airport Hanzhong


The Chinese industry has already produced several aircraft of this type, which entered the combat part of the PLA Air Force. Currently, these machines are based on the Hanzhong airfield.


Satellite image of Google Earth: airplanes DRLO KJ-500, JZY-01, KJ-200 at the factory airfield Xi'an


Construction, repair and modernization of all Chinese airplanes DRLO is carried out at the enterprise of the Xian Aviation Industrial Corporation (located in the provincial capital of Shaanxi - Xi'an).

The great achievement of the Chinese radio-electronic industry is the localization of the production of all the components of electronic equipment for DRLO airplanes in the PRC. On-board data processing systems use computers developed and manufactured in China, which increases information security. A number of communication and information systems and software for them are unified for all Chinese DRLO airplanes; this, of course, reduces the cost of production and facilitates maintenance.

Based on:
http://www.globalsecurity.org
http://www.noticierodigital.com
Satellite images courtesy of Google Earth.
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  1. corporal
    corporal 1 December 2014 08: 30
    0
    I have a question for the experts: do these "logs" only "look" on the sides, or round?
    1. Bongo
      1 December 2014 08: 52
      12
      Quote: Corporal
      I have a question for the experts: do these "logs" only "look" on the sides, or round?

      The advantages of such an arrangement are the lower weight and relative simplicity of the fixed antenna design. Besides the PRC, aircraft with a "log" antenna are being built in Sweden and Brazil. But perhaps the most unusual AWACS aircraft are the Israeli "Eitams" based on the Gulfstream G550. The once elegant car was adorned with huge fairings along the sides, in which the antennas of the EL / W-2085 complex were hidden. Additional antennas are located in the nose and tail fairings, which gives the radar a full all-round view.
      1. Nayhas
        Nayhas 1 December 2014 08: 57
        +6
        Quote: Bongo
        But, perhaps, the most unusual AWACS aircraft are Israeli “Aitams” based on the Gulfstream G550

        An ideal solution for an aircraft AWACS. Least of all affects the aerodynamic characteristics of the machine ...
      2. insafufa
        insafufa 1 December 2014 10: 30
        +1
        I apologize not for the topic, but soon Antonov will close
        The famous Antonov Aviation Concern ceases to exist. According to sources, the contracts were broken (including a multi-billion dollar for 80 aircraft with the participation of Venezuela and Russia), the Director General and at the same time the chief designer Dmitry Kiva was fired, salaries are not paid.
  2. A1L9E4K9S
    A1L9E4K9S 1 December 2014 08: 32
    +5
    A good, informative review, China is leaps and bounds rushing into the future.
    1. Starover_Z
      Starover_Z 1 December 2014 16: 03
      +3
      With full localization of production in China! We must catch up with us!
  3. Lissyara
    Lissyara 1 December 2014 08: 54
    +1
    360 review. And vertically 180.
  4. Teberii
    Teberii 1 December 2014 19: 34
    +3
    Well done. And with the electronic industry that the whole world brought to them, America will soon overtake everyone.
  5. Denis
    Denis 1 December 2014 21: 37
    +2
    They are somehow silent about the equipment
    Naturally, with the relations between the Soviet Union and China that escalated in 60-e, there was no question of supplying Tu-114 to China, and even more so Tu-95.
    As a result, Chinese experts decided to build their “flying radar” on the basis of the Tu-4 long-range bomber, which, in turn, was copied from the B-29 American “Super Fortress” bomber.
    An airplane, of course, is an important matter, but it is just a carrier of equipment. No one specially designed airplanes for this business, they adapted those that were
    During the test flight KJ-1 flew a few hundred hours. It was found that the radar could detect a target such as an H-6 bomber (Tu-16) at a distance of 300-350 km, transport planes at a distance of 250 km. In one of the experiments, the surface target was detected at a distance of 300 km. But China’s lag in the radio element base did not allow at that time to create a truly efficient DRLO aircraft with satisfactory reliability characteristics of the radar equipment and crew protection from microwave radiation.
    But it’s still shown what they created themselves, though in other sources:
    The development was called the “926 Project”. The only radio equipment available to the PRC was the Soviet Liana-M, which was already used on the Tu-126. Several options were considered as a carrier aircraft, but in the end it was decided to stay on a Tu-4 bomber with dismantled weapons.
    China is like China ...
    1. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 2 December 2014 07: 18
      +5
      Quote: Denis
      The development was called the “926 Project”. The only radio equipment available to the PRC was the Soviet Liana-M, which was already used on the Tu-126.

      It is doubtful that the Soviet Union would have handed over to the Chinese a working model and documentation for the Liana. This equipment was undoubtedly Soviet secret at that time and belonged to the breakthrough models of the Soviet radio-electronic industry.
      The adoption of the USSR and the start of mass production of the Tu-126 just coincided with the period of greatest aggravation in relations between the two countries.
  6. ma_shlomha
    ma_shlomha 1 December 2014 22: 22
    +1
    Especially for this case no one designed airplanes, adapted those that were


    Many AWACS manufacturers use existing platforms.
    1. Denis
      Denis 2 December 2014 06: 08
      +2
      Quote: ma_shlomha
      Especially for this case no one designed airplanes, adapted those that were

      Many AWACS manufacturers use existing platforms.

      So it will be more correct, edited +
    2. Nayhas
      Nayhas 2 December 2014 08: 02
      +1
      Quote: ma_shlomha

      Many AWACS manufacturers use existing platforms.

      It is important which platform is used. In the USSR, having taken the right first step, they went the wrong way. Starting with the basic passenger Tu-114 (hence the comfortable accommodation for operators, the availability of a relaxation room), we switched to a transport IL-76 which is much more expensive than a passenger car under absolutely inhuman operating conditions for operators ...
      For comparison:
      A-50

      Boeing 737 AEW & C

      E-3 Sentry
      1. Bongo
        2 December 2014 08: 09
        +5
        Quote: Nayhas
        Starting with the basic passenger Tu-114 (hence the comfortable accommodation for operators, the availability of a relaxation room), we switched to the transport Il-76, which is much more expensive than a passenger car under absolutely inhuman operating conditions for operators ...


        Dear Eugene, why did you get the idea that the Tu-126 had comfortable conditions for the operators, only because this aircraft was built on the basis of the passenger Tu-114? what In preparing this publication, I shoveled a ton of material and responsibly declares that this is far from the case. The conditions for the operators on the Tu-126 were difficult.
        1. Nayhas
          Nayhas 2 December 2014 08: 28
          0
          Quote: Bongo
          The conditions for the operators on the Tu-126 were difficult.

          Due to radiation that was not shielded. Wow ...
          But they had a rest room, a heated interior, which they don’t even dream about on the A-50 ... after all, only on the A-50U there was a normal toilet, not a bucket ...
          1. Bongo
            2 December 2014 08: 35
            +4
            Quote: Nayhas
            But they had a lounge, a heated lounge


            Rest room, this room could be called a stretch.
            The cabin was heated only during the flight, the operators in the winter (all Tu-126 were deployed in the Baltic, and there it wasn’t very hot in the winter), they got into frozen seats, so rheumatism, prostatitis, etc. most operators were provided. In addition to microwave radiation, statics very strongly reached, touching any metal object on board was accompanied by a sensitive electric shock.
      2. Bobik012
        Bobik012 13 June 2017 00: 16
        0
        But at least they shot me, I did not see the difference. And the IL-76 was probably just more suitable than the passenger. And hardly more expensive
  7. ROMANO
    ROMANO 2 December 2014 02: 57
    0
    In a hurry to arm themselves, as if they were going to fight. But just with whom, I wonder?
  8. Kruglov
    Kruglov 2 December 2014 05: 59
    +3
    Quote: insafufa
    The famous Antonov Aviation Concern ceases to exist. According to sources, the contracts were broken (including a multi-billion dollar for 80 aircraft with the participation of Venezuela and Russia), the Director General and at the same time the chief designer Dmitry Kiva was fired, salaries are not paid.


    Throwing shit on the fan. Recently Kivu was restored according to the court. So Antonov is still breathing. Maybe a pity. The faster they run wild, the easier and calmer it will be for us. Alas, the time is so ...