Military Review

The famous explorer of the North. Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin

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Ivan Papanin was born in the city of Sevastopol 26 November 1894 of the year. His father was a port sailor. He earned very little, and the Papanins' large family endured need. They lived in a makeshift shack in Apollo Beam, located on the ship's side of the city. Ivan Dmitrievich recalled his childhood as follows: “Chekhov has a bitter phrase:“ I had no childhood as a child. ” Here I have the same thing. " Each of the children of Papanins from their youth tried to earn at least some penny on their own, helping their parents.

At school, Ivan studied excellently, but due to his difficult financial situation, after graduating from the fourth grade in 1906, he left school and got a job at the Sevastopol plant as an apprentice turner. The intelligent boy quickly mastered this profession and soon was considered a skilled worker. By the age of sixteen he could independently disassemble and assemble a motor of any complexity. At 1912, Ivan, among other capable and promising workers, was recruited to the shipyard of the Revel city (now Tallinn). At the new site, the young man studied a number of new specialties, which later became very useful to him.

At the beginning of 1915, Ivan Dmitrievich was called to serve. On the Black Sea Fleet, he got a technician. Two years later, a revolution occurred, and Ivan Dmitrievich, who by that time was twenty-three years old, did not hesitate to join the Red Army. After a short time, he was appointed head of the armor workshops of the 58 Army. In the difficult summer of 1919, Ivan Dmitrievich was engaged in repairing damaged armored trains. At the abandoned railway station, he managed to organize a large workshop. After that, the young man worked as a commissar of the headquarters of the river and sea forces of the South-Western Front.

The famous explorer of the North. Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin


After the main forces of the White Guards retreated to the Crimea, Papanin, among others, was sent by the leadership of the front to organize a partisan movement in the rear of the enemy. The assembled Rebel Army caused Wrangel considerable harm. In the end, the White Guards had to withdraw part of the troops from the front. The forest where the partisans were hiding was surrounded, but with incredible efforts they managed to break through the cordon and go into the mountains. After that, the Commander of the Rebel Army, Alexei Mokrousov, decided to send a proven and reliable person to the headquarters of the Southern Front in order to inform the situation and coordinate further actions. This man became Ivan Papanin.

It was possible to get to Russia in the current situation through the Turkish city of Trebizond (now Trabzon). Papanin was able to negotiate with local smugglers to ship him across the Black Sea. In a flour bag, he safely passed the customs post. The trip to Trebizond was unsafe and long. Already in the city, Papanin managed to meet the Soviet consul, who on the first night sent him to Novorossiysk on a transport vessel. Twelve days later, Papanin managed to get to Kharkov and appear before Mikhail Frunze. The commander of the Southern Front listened to him and promised to provide the necessary help to the partisans. After this, Ivan Dmitrievich set off on the way back. In the city of Novorossiysk, the future famous writer-playwright Vsevolod Vishnevsky joined him. On a boat with ammunition, they reached the Crimean coast, after which Papanin returned to the partisans.

For organizing the actions of partisan detachments behind enemy lines, Ivan Dmitrievich was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. After the defeat of the Wrangel army and the end of the Civil War, Papanin worked as commandant of the Crimean Extraordinary Commission. In the course of the work, gratitude was declared to him for the preservation of confiscated values. Over the next four years, Ivan Dmitrievich literally could not find a place for himself. In Kharkov, he served as military commandant of the Ukrainian Central Executive Committee, then by the will of fate was appointed secretary of the revolutionary military council of the Black Sea fleet, and in the spring of 1922 he was transferred to Moscow to replace the commissar of the Administrative Department of the Main Marine Technical and Economic Administration.

Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to trace the change in the worldview of Ivan Dmitrievich during these terrible years, during which he went through all conceivable and inconceivable difficulties. Undoubtedly, the bloody events left a lot of scar on his heart. Being by nature a kindly, humane and conscientious person, Papanin, in the end, made an unexpected decision to engage in science. It can be said that from that moment on he began the “second half” of life, which turned out to be much longer — almost sixty-five years. Ivan Dmitrievich was demobilized in 1923, moving to the post of chief of security of the People's Commissariat of Communications. When the People's Commissariat of 1925 decided to establish the first stationary radio station in the Aldan gold mines in Yakutia, Papanin asked him to send him for construction. He was appointed deputy chief of supply issues.

To get to the city of Aldan I had to through the deaf taiga, Papanin himself wrote about this: “We traveled to Irkutsk by train, then again by train to the village of Nevers. And after another thousand kilometers on horseback. Our small squad secured weaponsHe moved without loss, despite the fact that the time was turbulent - and they almost drowned in the river, and had to shoot from the bandits. We got to the place barely alive, there were severe frosts, and we were pretty much hungry. ” The station was built in one year instead of the planned two, and Papanin himself said: “During the year of work in Yakutia, I turned from a resident of the south into a staunch northerner. This is a very special country that takes a person without a trace. ”

Returning to the capital, Ivan Dmitrievich, with only four classes of elementary school, he entered the Planning Academy. However, the full course of the academy was never completed - at 1931, Germany appealed to the Soviet Union for permission to visit the Soviet part of the Arctic on the huge airship Graf Tsepellin. The official goal was to clarify the location of the islands and archipelagoes and study the distribution of ice cover. The USSR agreed only on the condition that Russian scientists take part in this expedition, and copies of the data obtained at the end of the journey will be transferred to the Soviet Union. The world press has raised a lot of noise around the flight. The Arctic Institute organized a trip to the Franz Josef Land of the Malygin icebreaking steamer, which is to meet in the Tikhaya Bay with a German airship and exchange mail with it. A novice polar explorer, Papanin, as an employee of the People's Commissar-General, headed the post office at Malygin.



Tikhaya Bay, where the Soviet station was stationed, Malygin reached 25 in July 1931. Members of the expedition were greeted by the first shift of polar explorers, who lived here for a year. And for lunch the next day, the airship "Graf Zeppelin" flew here, landing on the surface of the bay. Papanin wrote: “The airship — a huge waving heap — lay on the water, reacting to any, even a very weak wind. The mail transfer process was brief. The Germans dropped their correspondence in our boat, we gave them ours. As soon as the mail was delivered to the Malygin, we dismantled it and distributed it to the passengers, the rest of the messages remained to wait for the Great Land. ”

After bidding farewell to the airship, Malygin visited several more islands of Franz Josef Land. Ivan Dmitrievich gladly took part in all coastal landings. This is how a flight participant, writer Nikolai Pinegin, recalled Papanin: “I first met this person in 1931 in the mail cabin of Malygin. It seemed to me that he has some gift to put people together in friendly teams. For example, they didn’t have time yet to express their suggestions, as Ivan Dmitrievich had already built people in a line, leveled, distributed weapons, cartridges and announced the rules of collective hunting, as if all his life he had done that he had shot polar bears ... "

North Papanin liked, and in the end he decided to stay here. He wrote: “Isn't it too late to restart life at thirty-seven? No, no and NO! Favorite thing to start is never too late. And the fact that the work here will be loved, I did not doubt at all, I felt that for me it was. I was not afraid of difficulties, I had to endure enough of them. Before my eyes there was the blue of the sky and the white expanses, that special silence that could not be compared was recalled. That was how my polar explorer began ... ”



While still in Quiet Papanin Bay, having carefully examined the polar station, I came to the conclusion that it should be expanded. He shared his thoughts with the head of the expedition, the famous polar explorer Vladimir Wise, while offering his services. After returning from the expedition, Wise recommended Ivan Dmitrievich as director of the Arctic Institute Rudolf Samoilovich, which resulted in Papanin being appointed head of the station in Tikhaya Bay. It should be noted that this station was given great importance in connection with the scientific event held in 1932-1933, which was called the second International Polar Year, designed to unite the efforts of the leading powers in the study of the polar regions. The station in Tikhaya Bay was planned to be turned into a large observatory with a large spectrum of research.

In January, 1932 Ivan Dmitrievich moved to St. Petersburg and was accepted into the staff of the Arctic Institute. He spent the whole day in warehouses of Arktiksnab, choosing the necessary equipment and looking at the "frames". A total of thirty-two people were selected for work, including twelve research associates. It is curious that Papanin took his wife with him for the winter, which was rare for those times. In order to deliver everything necessary to the Silent Bay, Malygin had to make two flights from Arkhangelsk. The team of builders, arrived on the first flight, immediately set to work. At the station, before their arrival, there was one apartment house and a magnetic pavilion, but soon another house, a mechanic, a radio station, a power station, and a weather station appeared next to them. In addition, a new house was built on Rudolph Island, thus creating a branch of the observatory. Nikolai Pinegin, who had gone to look at the construction, wrote: “Everything was done solidly, prudently, economically ... The work was well organized and went about extraordinarily. The new chief picked up an amazingly well-coordinated team. ”

After stationary observations were debugged, scientists began to observe observations in distant points of the archipelago. To do this, in the first half of 1933, dog sledding trips were undertaken. The result was the determination of several astronomical sites, the refinement of the outlines of the straits and the coast, the discovery near the Rudolf Island of placers of small islands, known as Oktyabryat. The outstanding polar explorer, astronomer and geophysicist Yevgeny Fyodorov recalled: “Ivan Dmitrievich’s motto:“ Science should not suffer, ”was resolutely put into practice. He did not have any systematic education, however, visiting all laboratories, regularly talking with each of us, quickly figured out the main tasks, in the sense of the research. He did not seek to go into details, however, by nature, being an astute and intelligent man, he wanted to know - how highly each scientist is qualified, loves his work, is devoted to him. After making sure that all the specialists are trying to do their job as best they can, he no longer found it necessary to intervene, drawing all the attention to helping them. ”



The second shift of the station in Tikhaya Bay was transported by the Taimyr icebreaking steamer in August 1933. Having reported to the Arctic Institute about the work done, Papanin went on vacation, and then reappeared in the Visa office. During the conversation, Vladimir Yulievich informed him about the new appointment - the head of the tiny polar station located on Cape Chelyuskin. For four months, Ivan Dmitrievich managed to pick up a team of thirty-four people and deliver scientific pavilions, prefabricated houses, a windmill, a hangar, a radio station, all-terrain vehicles and many other equipment to the city of Arkhangelsk. It is curious that, together with Papanin, he did not hesitate, the majority of his wintering colleagues went to Tikhaya Bay.

The travelers set off in the summer of 1934 aboard the Sibiryakov icebreaker. At Cape Chelyuskin there was a solid coastal fast ice that allowed the polar explorers to perform unloading right on the ice. The total weight of the cargo reached 900 tons, and all of it to the last kilogram had to be dragged three kilometers to the shore. This work took two weeks. During this period, the ice-cutter Litke, the tug Partizan Schetinkin, the icebreaker Yermak together with the steamer Baikal approached the cape. The crews of these vessels Papanin also managed to attract to carry. Simultaneously with the delivery of things and materials, the team of builders took up the construction of scientific pavilions, warehouses, houses and a wind turbine. Everything, except furnaces, was ready at the end of September. In this regard, in order not to delay the icebreaker, Ivan Dmitrievich, leaving the stove-setter for the winter, released the rest of the workers. Throughout the winter, researchers were engaged in observations, making one-day sleigh trips. In the spring, one group of dog-sledding scientists went on a long hike to Taimyr, while the other, together with Papanin, moved along the Vilkitsky Strait.

In early August, ice began to move in the strait, and the Sibiryakov left Dixon with a new group of winterers. Ivan Dmitrievich was pleased with the work done - a radio center and a modern observatory were created, and scientists accumulated valuable material. Coziness and cleanliness reigned in the pavilions and residential building, which was due to the wives of Fedorov and Papanin. By the way, Anna Kirillovna Fedorova performed the duties of geophysics and culture, and Galina Kirillovna Papanina, a meteorologist and librarian. Soon the icebreaker steamer brought a new shift and, having unloaded the products, headed east to other stations. Take Papanintsev he was on the way back. It was unreasonable to dangle at one station for two shifts, many sought home to their families, and Ivan Dmitrievich, taking advantage of the passage past the cape of the steamer Anadyr, persuaded the captain to take his squad with him.



After returning from the expedition, Papanin began to use among the polar explorers a well-deserved authority, but the next expedition of Ivan Dmitrievich forever inscribed his name in history development of the Arctic spaces. For the USSR, the discovery of constant navigation of ships along the Northern Sea Route was of great importance. For this, a special department was established - the Main Directorate of the Northern Sea Route or Glavsevmorput. However, for the exploitation of the Arctic lines, it was necessary to conduct a series of multifaceted scientific research - to study the routes of ice drift, periods of their melting, to explore underwater currents and much more. It was decided to organize a unique and risky scientific expedition, consisting in the continuous work of people right on the floating ice.

The head of the expedition was appointed Papanin. He was entrusted not only with the preparation of equipment, equipment and food, but also with the construction aviation base on the island of Rudolph. With his characteristic determination, Ivan Dmitrievich also wedged himself into the selection of the station's team. However, from his old companions, he managed to defend only Evgeny Fedorov. In addition to him, the composition included: radio operator Ernst Krenkel and hydrobiologist Peter Shirshov.

For a whole year the team of the drifting station was getting ready for work. An exception was made only for Krenkel, wintering at that time on Severnaya Zemlya.

Papanin boldly set about rebuilding the existing equipment and designing new ones. He wrote: “Without lighting - nowhere. It is difficult to take batteries, besides, they are unreliable in frost. Fuel oil and gasoline - how much will it need! All over, you need a wind turbine. He is unpretentious, not afraid of frost, rarely breaks. The only negative is heavy. The lightest weighs almost a kilogram of 200, and we have a hundred, it is necessary to remove half from the materials and construction even from this hundred. I went to Leningrad and Kharkov. Reported there: "The maximum weight of the windmill - 50 kilograms." They looked at me with regret - he began to move, they say. ... And yet, the Leningrad masters set a record - according to a design project from Kharkov, they created a windmill with a weight of 54 kilograms ”.



The Institute of Food Engineers invented for the expedition special sets of freeze-dried high-calorie fortified foods. All products were sealed in special tin cans weighing 44 a kilogram each, on the basis of one can for four people for ten days. In addition, powerful compact radio stations were assembled especially for the participants and a unique tent designed to withstand fifty degrees of frost was designed. Her lightweight aluminum frame was “dressed” with a canvas, and then with a cover including two layers of eiderdown. On top was a tarpaulin layer and a black silk case. The height of the "house" was 2 meters, width - 2,5, length - 3,7. Inside was a folding table and two bunk beds. Outside, a vestibule was attached to the tent, which at the time of opening the door "kept" warm. The floor in the tent was inflatable, thick centimeters 15. Weighing the 160 “house” kilogram, so that four men could lift it and move it. The tent was not heated, the only source of heat was a kerosene lamp.

The starting point for departure to the pole was Rudolf Island, which was only 900 kilometers from the target. However, there was only a small house for three people. For the air expedition, it was necessary to build the main and reserve airfields, equipment depots, a garage for tractors, accommodation and deliver hundreds of barrels of fuel. Papanin, along with the head of the future airbase Jacob Libin and the team of builders with the necessary goods went to the island in 1936 year. Making sure that work there is in full swing, Ivan Dmitrievich returned to the mainland. The final rehearsal of the work of the future drifting station was successfully held in February 1937. Fifteen kilometers from the capital, a tent was set up in which the Papanins lived for several days. Nobody came to them, and they maintained contacts with the outside world on the radio.

21 May 1937 near the North Pole a large group of polar explorers was landed on an ice floe. It took people two weeks to equip the station, and then four people were left at it. The fifth living creature on the ice was a dog named Merry. The drift of the legendary SP-1 station (North Pole-1) lasted for the 274 of the day. During this time, the ice float sailed over two and a half thousand kilometers. The expedition participants made many scientific discoveries, in particular, they discovered a submarine ridge crossing the Arctic Ocean. It also turned out that the polar regions are densely populated by various animals - seals, seals, and bears. The whole world was closely following the epic of Russian polar explorers; not a single event that happened between the two world wars attracted so much attention of the masses.

Papanin, not being a scientific expert, often worked "in the wings" - in the studio and in the kitchen. There was nothing offensive about this; without the help of Ivan Dmitrievich, two young scientists could not carry out an extensive scientific program. In addition, Papanin created the atmosphere of the team. Here is how Fedorov wrote about him: “Dmitrich did not only help us, he directed and literally cherished what is called the team spirit - the willingness to help a friend, friendliness, restraint regarding an unsuccessful act and the superfluous word of a neighbor. As a leader, he perfectly understood the need to maintain and strengthen the compatibility of the members of the expedition, giving all spiritual strength to this side of life. ”

Every day, Ivan Dmitrievich contacted the mainland and talked about the progress of the drift. One of the last radiograms was especially alarming: “As a result of a storm that lasted six days, at eight o'clock in the morning, around the 1 station, the field was ripped apart by cracks from half a kilometer to five. We are on a debris 200 width and 300 length meters. A technical warehouse was cut off, as well as two bases ... There was a crack under the living tent, we were moving to a snow hut. The coordinates will be reported today, please do not worry if the connection is broken. ” The management decided to evacuate polar explorers. With enormous difficulties 19 in February 1938 off the coast of Greenland, the “Papanins” were removed from the ice with the help of the approached icebreakers “Taimyr” and “Murman”. Thus ended, according to the outstanding Soviet scientist Otto Schmidt, the most significant geographical study of the twentieth century.

All members of the expedition turned into national heroes, becoming symbols of everything Soviet, progressive and heroic. Polar explorers were awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union and received major service promotions. Shirshov became the director of the Arctic Institute, Fedorov was his deputy, Krenkel headed the Arctic Department, Ivan Dmitrievich became the deputy head of the Main Northern Sea Route Otto Schmidt. Six months later (at 1939) Otto Yulievich went to work at the Academy of Sciences, and Papanin headed Glavsevmorput. Of course, both in character and in the style of work, Ivan Dmitrievich was the complete opposite of the former leader. However, in those years, the new organization needed just such a person - with tremendous energy, life experience, penetrating ability. It was here that the organizing gift of Papanin truly unfolded. He gave a lot of effort to the development of the North, the organization of life and work of people who worked in the vast territory of the Soviet Arctic.

In the 1939 year, Papanin aboard the icebreaker "Stalin" took part in navigation on the Northern Sea Route. “Stalin”, having traveled the whole route to the Ugolny Bay, returned to Murmansk, for the first time in the history of Arctic voyages having made a double pass-through voyage. Papanin wrote: “In two months, the icebreaker traveled twelve thousand kilometers, including work in the ice to escort ships. We visited the main Arctic ports and a number of polar stations, and I got the opportunity to see their condition, to get acquainted with the staff. This flight turned out to be truly invaluable for me - from now on I knew not from papers and not from hearsay the state of affairs and received complete information about navigation in the Arctic. ”

After graduating from the navigation 1939, Papanin went to rest south, but was soon called to Moscow in connection with the start of work to rescue the crew of the icebreaker "George Sedov" drifting in the ice. The government decided to send the Stalin flagship icebreaker to help, which also had the additional task of rescuing the Sedov icebreaking ship itself. After the urgent completion of the repair of "Stalin" 15 December 1939 left the port of Murmansk. 4 January 1940 in 25 kilometers from the "Sedov" icebreaker landed in heavy ice. The pressure of the ice was so strong that the frames cracked. However, after a week the compression stopped, and “Stalin”, taking advantage of the cracks-holes, on January 12 approached the emergency steamer. A special commission recognized the Sedov as navigable, and after the hard work of clearing the ship from the ice, the icebreaker, taking the steamer in tow, pulled back. February 1 expedition members were on their native land. The title of Hero of the Soviet Union was awarded to all fifteen participants of the drift and the captain of "Stalin" Belousov. Ivan Dmitrievich became twice Hero.

During the years of World War II, Papanin with indomitable energy led the transportation in the North of the country. He was also entrusted with the organization of uninterrupted delivery to the front of military equipment and equipment coming from England and America through Lend-Lease. In addition, he made a huge contribution to the reorganization of the port of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. And at the end of 1942 she went to the front tank a column called "Soviet polar explorer", created at the expense of polar explorers. In 1943, Ivan Dmitrievich was awarded the title of Rear Admiral. The People's Commissar of the Navy Alexander Afanasyev wrote about him: “A short, cast Papanin always came in with a sharp joke and a smile. He will get around everyone in the reception room, shake hands with everyone and release a pun or say warm words, and then first, he will easily enter the cabinet of the government. ... Reporting on shipments, he will certainly take care of port workers, sailors and soldiers, ask for replacement clothing, increase food, and put forward a proposal to reward Far North workers for completing assignments. ”
Meanwhile, the years reminded Papanin of themselves. Remaining vigorous and not knowing fatigue in the eyes of colleagues, Ivan Dmitrievich began to feel more and more failures in his body. During the Arctic navigation 1946, Papanin collapsed with attacks of angina pectoris. Doctors insisted on long-term treatment, and, realistically assessing their capabilities, the famous polar explorer resigned from his post as head of the Main Sea Route.

The next two years Papanin considered the most boring in his life. The big holidays for him were visits to his comrades in the drifting station - Fedorov, Krenkel and Shirshov. In the autumn of 1948, Peter Shirshov, who is the director of the Institute of Oceanology of the USSR Academy of Sciences, suggested that Ivan Dmitrievich become his deputy in the direction of expeditionary activity. So in the life of Papanin a new stage began. His tasks included ordering and controlling the construction of research ships, the formation of expedition teams, providing them with equipment and scientific equipment.

The energy and effectiveness of the work of Papanin were noticed. At 1951, he was invited to the Academy of Sciences for the position of head of the marine expedition department. The task of the department was to ensure the work of the ships of the Academy of Sciences, of which there were no more than a dozen for navigation in coastal waters and one for long-distance travel research. However, several years later, ocean vessels began to appear in the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and then at research institutes of the Hydrometeorological Service, designed specifically for scientific research. Without any exaggeration, Papanin was the initiator and organizer of the founding of the world's largest research fleet. In addition, the famous polar explorer organized a separate research center on the Volga River, and a biological station on the Kuibyshev Reservoir, which later turned into the Institute of Ecology of the Volga Basin of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

It should be noted, and the activities of Ivan Dmitrievich in the village Borok. Once he, who loved to hunt in the Yaroslavl region, was at the same time asked to inspect the local biological station. It arose at the site of the former manor house and breathed its last, but in connection with the construction of the Rybinsk reservoir, they were going to revive it. Papanin returned to the capital with a double impression - on the one hand, the station was a great place for scientific research, on the other, it was a pair of dilapidated wooden houses with a dozen bored employees. Arriving at the beginning of 1952 in Borok, Papanin, who headed the station "concurrently", launched an active activity. The authority in the economic and scientific circles allowed the polar explorer to “knock out” scarce equipment and materials, barges with metal, planks, bricks began to arrive one by one to the station berth.

Dwelling houses, laboratory buildings, utility services were built, a research fleet appeared. On the initiative and with the direct participation of Ivan Dmitrievich, the Institute of Reservoir Biology (now the Papanin Institute of Biology of Inland Waters) and the Borok Geophysical Observatory were established in the village. Ivan Dmitrievich invited many young specialists to this place, supporting them with housing. However, his main achievement was the appearance in Borok of a group of eminent scientists - biologists and geneticists, most of whom had stayed out and could not return to Moscow. Here they got the opportunity to complete creative activity. I ignored Papanin and Khrushchev's instructions to send people to retire when they reach the 60 age.

Thanks to the efforts of Ivan Dmitrievich, the village was settled by educated and cultured people. Everything in this place was buried in flowers, on the initiative of Papanin, a special group of landscaping was organized, which carried out a number of large-scale veterinarious plantings, which made it possible to acclimatize imported southern plants. Of particular interest was the moral climate of the village - they did not hear about the theft here and never locked the doors to the apartments. And in the train to Moscow passing near the village, Papanin "knocked out" a permanent reservation for the institute's employees for eight compartments.



Strenuous activity in the venerable years affected Papanin's health. Increasingly, he was ill, lay in hospitals. His first wife, Galina Kirillovna, died on 1973. They lived in harmony for almost fifty years, wintering together at Cape Chelyuskin and in Tikhaya Bay. Being a woman of reason and calm, she perfectly balanced her husband, “let her down from heaven” in the years of honors and glory. The second time, Ivan Dmitrievich married in 1982 the editor of his memoirs, Raisa Vasilyevna. The legendary polar explorer died four years after that - 30 in January 1986 - and was buried in the Novodevichy cemetery, where all his comrades in the famous drift had found peace.

Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Yuri Israel said: “Papanin was a great man with a kind heart and iron will.” During his long life, Ivan Dmitrievich wrote over two hundred articles and two autobiographical books - “Life on the Ice” and “Ice and Fire”. He was twice honored with the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, he was a knight of nine Orders of Lenin, was awarded many orders and medals, both Soviet and foreign. Ivan Dmitrievich was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Geographical Sciences, became an honorary citizen of Arkhangelsk, Murmansk, Lipetsk, Sevastopol and the entire Yaroslavl region. An island in the Azov Sea, a cape on the Taimyr Peninsula, an underwater mountain in the Pacific Ocean and mountains in Antarctica were named after him.

According to the materials of the book Yu.K. Burlakova "Papaninsky four. Ups and downs "and the site http://odnarodyna.com.ua.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 28 November 2014 08: 08
    +12
    Thank you, good article, but still:In January 1932, Ivan Dmitrievich moved to St. Petersburg ... Let's call things by the city in their own names- In January 1932, Ivan Dmitrievich moved to Leningrad ...
    1. popandopulo
      popandopulo 28 November 2014 11: 47
      +10
      very correct comment. in 1932 there were no St. Petersburg goals in the Soviet Union.
      no need to politically correct. Today St. Petersburg is 1932, and tomorrow is the Battle of Volgograd?
  2. moskowit
    moskowit 28 November 2014 08: 33
    +5
    What a powerful impetus the change of social formation gives to the development of personality. Who would have been Ivan Dmitrievich under the "old regime"? At best, a third mechanic in the military or civilian fleets. A social elevator for everyone works from the same level. The most energetic and at first unprincipled people rise above all. But then, with the strengthening of statehood, everything is put in its place. Kosygin, Ustinov, Zverev, Tevosyan, Rokossovsky, Zhukov, Budyonny, Korolev, Yakovlev, Myasishchev and thousands, thousands of others, whom the new state gave to show their talents and unique organizational capabilities in various fields of their activities.
  3. moskowit
    moskowit 28 November 2014 08: 58
    +2
    What efforts did the country make for the development of the "north". They knew very well that this was an inexhaustible storehouse of the Russian, Russian state. From the 16th to 17th centuries, the discovery and development of Siberia and the Northern Territories were purposefully pursued. What national forces and resources were invested! But the "talented" guys from the Yeltsin camarilla came, which gives immediate profit, "grabbed", and what requires long-term investments and development was covered with a "copper basin". But now ... You watch the news and you are amazed! New Earth, as if discovered yesterday !!! Everyone is so surprised. "we need to develop the northern shelf." "Siberia, the power of Russia is growing!" ... Fairy tales, and what are interesting for the current generation, which without a compass and will not determine where it is? NORTH then?
  4. _my opinion
    _my opinion 28 November 2014 13: 11
    +3
    If anyone is interested in the polar theme, I can recommend paying attention to the books of V.M. Sanin. They show a lot of humor, showing the relationship of people working in the extremely harsh conditions of the Arctic and Antarctic (I myself am now reading "Newbie in Antarctica") ... There are films based on his books - the Antarctic tale, Seventy-two degrees below zero ...
  5. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 28 November 2014 18: 44
    0
    In January 1932 Ivan Dmitrievich moved to St. Petersburg
    If in 1932, then to Leningrad. wink
  6. lankrus
    lankrus 28 November 2014 20: 25
    -5
    There is a story connected with Papanov. When, after wintering, they returned to Leningrad by boat. Papanov sat down as usual to clean his Mauser. I must say that during the expedition he was unloaded, except for conducting party meetings, and all his activity was reduced to cleaning weapons. Krenkel, joked. When Papanov was recalled, he planted a similar detail. One must imagine the amazement of Papanov when he assembled the Mauser and discovered an extra detail. The whole team came to look at his torment, for more than an hour he disassembled and collected the device, trying to fix the thing. Then, when they still told him he was rushing about the vessel, trying to find Krenkel to shoot.
    I must say that Krenkel’s expedition route was ordered after that.
    1. Panikovsky
      Panikovsky 28 November 2014 22: 47
      +1
      Thank you, but this joke smells of mothballs, Mr. Weller pulled it in his legends of Nevsky Prospect 20 years ago.