Military Review

Cossack conquistador

29
Cossack conquistador
History Ataman Stadukhina

Mystery of origin


The personality and deeds of the Cossack ataman Mikhail Stadukhin in Russian history have traditionally been in the shadow of another Cossack pioneer Semyon Dezhnev. However, the contribution of the Cossack Mikhail Vasilyevich Stadukhin to the development by Russia of the lands of Eastern Siberia does not need to be exalted. Over the 12 years he passed over land and on the Cossack kots (northern type of Zaporozhye boat) over 13 thousands of kilometers - more than any other explorer of the seventeenth century. The total length of the northern shores of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk alone, for the first time in the history of European nations, passed by an ethnic Cossack, was about two thousand kilometers.

Despite such phenomenal achievements in joining the Russian state of the “Kolyma land”, the biography of Mikhail Stadukhin has been studied very superficially, there are many white spots and obviously mysterious circumstances. “The personality of this outstanding person,” writes the well-known contemporary historian A. A. Burykin, “the tireless and fearless pioneer of uncharted lands in Northeast Asia, who during his lifetime became part of the Russian state, still remains in the shadows”.

Still remains a mystery to researchers the origin of Mikhail Stadukhin. According to the official version, he was born in the Arkhangelsk north — either in Pinega, or somewhere else in the “land of the coast”. On this basis, it is concluded that the distinguished Cossack pioneer was an ethnic maritime.

At the end of the 19th century, this version was attempted by the Cossack encyclopedic historian Fyodor Shcherbina, who, on the basis of archival materials, came to the conclusion that Zaporozhian Cossack Vasily Stodukh was the father of Mikhail Stadukhin. Being the captain of one of the Zaporozhye hundreds in the Polish army of the Russian Time of Troubles (1601 — 1613), the Cossack Stodukh was captured by Muscovites, and among other prisoners of the Zaporozhian Cossacks was exiled to the eternal settlement in Pinega.


Indigirka river in winter. Photo: Mark Redkin / RIA News


“The wild, indomitable blood of the Zaporozhyan centurion,” writes Fyodor Shcherbina, “leapt again into his son Michael, who was born on the edge of the White Sea ice. He did not return to his father’s homeland — to the Zaporizhian Sich, since far-off Asiatic Siberia became his destiny. ”

The version of the Zaporozhye origin of Mikhail Stadukhin seems quite convincing. In the Great-Russian ethnic environment with its primordial "Akanem", the generic name Stodukh could easily have turned into Stadukh, and then acquired the Russian ending "in." So from the Zaporozhye “nickname” Stodukh, the “Pomeranian” last name was Stadukhin.

The name of his brother Taras, very common among the Zaporizhzhya and Lower Don Cossacks and practically unknown in the Great Russian environment of the 17th — 18th centuries, also testifies to the version about the Cossack origin of the pioneer.

Battles on Indigirka and Kolyma

Mikhail Vasilyevich Stadukhin first appeared on the Lena River in the Yakutsk prison around 1633 of the year. Together with him were the brothers Taras and Gerasim, as well as the son of Jacob. It is possible that Stadukhin was in Yakutsk a little earlier than 1633 of the year, it was just that year that he led the first military expedition to the Vilyui River and, accordingly, this date fell into the historical chronicle.

In 1643, a large, almost three-year-old military expedition of Stadukhin to Kolyma took place. A detachment of the Cossack ataman passed along the route Yakutsk - the Oimyakon River - the Indigirka River - the Alazeya River - the Kolyma River.

The lands along the Oymyakon River (Stadukhin wrote in his notes - Emolcon) during that historical period were a true terra incognita. Coming out on horseback from the Yakut jail up the Lena, the Cossacks passed by a mountain pass through the northern part of the Suntar-Khayat ridge and descended into the Indigirka basin. At the mouth of the river Oymyakon Stadukhin gathered a large yasak (tribute) from local Yakuts.

Having made Cossack kochi, Stadukhin with his twin brothers floated down Indigirka towards them. Stopping at the mouth of the river Moma, he explored the surrounding river valleys and again took from the Aboriginal people yasak. Apparently, somewhere near the mouth of Moma, the Stadukhin detachment was winterized.

In the spring of 1643, the Cossack military expedition continued its raid. Descending on the cochs at the mouth of the Indigirka, Stadukhin again investigated and described the navigable channel of this river and entered the East Siberian Sea. In the summer of 1643, having traveled eastward along the coast of the Kolyma Bay over 500 kilometers, Kochi Mikhail Stadukhin entered the mouth of the Kolyma River. “The Kolyma is a great river, there is a Lena,” the Cossack chieftain later wrote.

It is curious that while sailing along the coast of the Arctic Ocean, in front of the mouth of the Alazeya River, Stadukhin saw "huge land" in the north rumba in the ocean. Thus was born the legend of the existence of a huge island in the western water area of ​​the East Siberian Sea, which later became known as Sannikov Land. More than a hundred years after the raid of ataman Stadukhin, Russian industrialists, who were fishing for sea animals on the coast and islands of the Arctic Ocean, hoped that the mysterious Sannikov Land would still be found. They hoped that they would find there valuable “soft junk” (arctic fox fur), “overseas bone” (mammoth tusks), “writhing” (braids) with large rookeries of sea animals, especially the walrus, valued by their “fish tooth” (canines). Up to the period of the First World War, scientific expeditions were also looking for Sannikov Land - in vain.


Mammoth tusk in the river. Photo: Biosphoto / Sylvain Cordier / AFP / East News


What did Mikhail Stadukhin and his Cossack sisters see on the northern Rumba opposite the mouth of the Alazei? At present, the shallow sea in these latitudes has been thoroughly studied by hydrologists - no signs of a large island have been found. Perhaps it was an optical illusion - a mirage, quite often occurring in high latitudes? Or did Stadukhina fail the compass imperfection? This device in arctic latitudes, due to magnetic storms, is often prone to failures. Then, perhaps, the Cossack chieftain described a real-life land - the Bear Islands archipelago. These rather large islands are indeed located in the East Siberian Sea, but not to the north from the mouth of the Alazei, but to the east.

After seeing the mouth of the Kolyma River, Stadukhin climbed up to the middle course and here he founded a kind of trading post - a collection point for yasak. After wintering, when the severe Kolyma frost passed, the ataman descended again to the lower reaches of the river and laid the Lower Kolyma burg, the first Russian settlement on the coast of the eastern part of the East Siberian Sea, at the mouth.

“The Kolyma River goes into the sea under the same wind, east and north,” Stadukhin later wrote, “if you sail along the Kolyma, then there will be an island on your left hand; it lies in plain sight, so that the paddy, the mountains of snow, and the brooks are notable for everything. This island is long, and in winter the Chukchi people move to it by deer in one day. ”

The entire journey of the ataman Stadukhin to Kolyma was accompanied by military clashes with the northern aborigines, primarily with the Yakuts and Tunguses. In the lower reaches of the Oimyakon, for example, the Cossacks fought for two days with the militant "obscure Lamuck Tungus". A small detachment of fourteen Cossacks was attacked around the 500 Tungus, and although in the final battle the aborigines were forced to retreat, the Cossacks won the victory at a high price - “almost all were shot out [injured. “N. L.] and there was a great loss in horses.”

It should be noted that the military struggle against the aborigines was in many cases provoked by the actions of Mikhail Stadukhin himself. Being by nature a very tough, extremely imperious person, the Cossack chieftain was sometimes unjustifiably abrupt in his relations with “foreigners”: picking up a yasak often turned into blatant robbery, in controversial cases, whip was immediately used. The warlike native hunters, of course, did not remain in debt, and therefore the advancement of the Stadukhin military expedition along the Indigirka and Kolyma coast was more like a raid by the conquistadors. Not a trade exchange and Christian brotherly love, but a sharp sword and well-aimed shots from the squeaking pave the way for the Cossacks.

Raid on the river Pohycha

During the two years of his stay in Kolyma, the ataman Stadukhin gathered a large “sovereign yasachny collection” - 320 sables. In November, 1645, he brought the "soft junk" - the main "currency" of the then Muscovy - in the Yakut ostrog. In addition to the rich yasak, the Yakut administration of Muscovy received a detailed “reply” by Stadukhin, which not only summarized the landscape and navigation conditions of the Kolyma coast, but also gave practical recommendations on how best to get to these places, “where the beast did not flutter and the bird did not fly” . It seemed that the chieftain deserved a reward from the state. However, Stadukhin did not demand it: he himself rewarded himself for the laborer’s labors, collecting “four forty sables” as his personal property.

However, in a small Yakutsk, it was impossible to conceal information about a significant “sable junk” that fell into the chests of a successful ataman — and the competent “sovereign people” soon followed the Stadukhin. By order of the Yakut voevoda, instead of gratitude and payment for the service, "four forty sables" - the whole earnings of Stadukhin for several years of incredible hardship and heavy fighting - were withdrawn in favor of the treasury without any compensation.

Subsequently, Stadukhin somehow managed to find mutual understanding with the governor of Yakutsk. This was probably facilitated by the report of the ataman about mammoth tusks that melted from the permafrost, which literally formed “overseas bones” to the east of the mouth of the Kolyma. “And there are overseas bones, al fish teeth [a lot. “N. L.] on the shore, which could load several vessels,” so in his “reply” the ataman tried to interest the greedy Yakut governor.

Further in his report, Stadukhin pointed out that according to information received from local reindeer herders, “the Anadyr River is not so far away, but according to it there is also the Pohycha or Kovich river.” This river, further emphasizing the Cossack chieftain, is exceptionally rich in fur and bone, and that “if it is indicated will multiply people and send them to Anadyr and Pogychu, then we can expect from there to the treasury of great profits”.

The expectation of the next rich yasak turned out to be a decisive argument in favor of organizing the new military expedition of Mikhail Stadukhin to the east. In June 1647, Stadukhin received from the authorities of Yakutsk a detachment of Cossack volunteers he needed, as well as the order “to go to the Pohycha river, build a winter quarters, bring the local peoples to a yasash payment and see the island presented [t. E. On the Land of Sannikov. - N.L.]. Without wasting a single day, the ataman immediately went to the northeast.

The way there was not long. Before the winter of 1648, Stadukhin with the Cossacks managed to get only to the Yana River, where he spent the winter. In early spring, 1648, already on reindeer sledding, he reached the Indigirka River and, having built a small Koch, descended on it to the East Siberian Sea and swam to the mouth of the Kolyma River.


Semyon Dezhnev. Photo: RIA News


Here, on the Kolyma coast, the Cossacks decided to make two large coaches, so that “without fear of adversity, walk the sea to explore the river Pogychi”. When the ships were built, a group of Stadukhin sailed along the coast to the east.

This raid was unsuccessful. “I ran on seven-day sails,” Stadukhin wrote later in his report to the Order of Muscovy Stadukhin, “only he did not see any river; for the sake of stopping, he sent people to bring in tongues; but these rivers have not been announced; but on the coast there was a large stone, it was impossible to fish, and for this reason there was not enough supplies, and was forced to go back to the Kolyma River ”.

On the inhospitable Kolyma coast, Mikhail Stadukhin, unlike many other polar explorers, felt at home. He was completely free to sail across the East Siberian Sea on cocks, inspecting reindeer valleys of the northern rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean with reindeer. Apparently, this inner freedom, the eschatological community of the indomitable spirit of the Cossack ataman and the harsh nature of the Polar region, explains the phenomenon of the exceptional research effectiveness of Stadukhin.

“Mikhail Stadukhin’s indisputable priority,” writes A. A. Burykin, “is determined by the fact that during the Stadukhin’s voyage, the Arctic Ocean was first surveyed at a great distance east of the mouth of the Kolyma River. Neither Dezhnev, the first sea-going along the entire Arctic coast of Asia, nor those who sailed this route later, for example, Ivan Rubets, in the 60-ies of the seventeenth century, did not mention any of the geographical objects that are located on the East Coast. -Siberian and Chukchi seas. And only in the documents that recorded the results of Mikhail Stadukhin’s 1649 voyage of the year, we find clear names and descriptions of objects on the sea coast. ”

Meeting with Ataman Semen Motor

Returning to the mouth of the Kolyma, the ataman Stadukhin soon learned from the local Yukaghirs that it is much closer and faster to the valley of the Anadyr river you can pass through the mainland - by dry. Having attached to his squad an additional detachment of Cossacks, sent by the governor of the Yakutsk fortress, Stadukhin in the fall of 1649 of the year goes to his new, now land raid.

By the middle of winter, the Stadukhin detachment, having successfully covered almost 700 kilometers, entered the basin of the Anadyr River. What a surprise the chieftain was when he learned from local Chukchi reindeer herders that “Cossack people” had already lived on the river for a long time and successfully collected “sovereign yasak”. The meeting in the northern Chukchi wilderness of two Cossack detachments did not bring joy. The problem that seemed to Staudukhina to be unsolvable was the status of the chief commander of the Kolyma Territory, which was simultaneously claimed by atamans of both detachments.

All the people of the Anadyr detachment, which was headed by a Cossack centurion, a Cossack semen Motor, were well known to Stadukhin. Here were Semyon Dezhnev and Yuri Silvestrov - Stadukhin's former comrades in the military expedition of 1643 — 1645 to the Kolyma basin. The highly experienced Semyon Motor, who passed through the harsh life and military school during the uprising of Jacob Ostryanin (1637) in Ukraine, was in no way eager to recognize Mikhail Stadukhin as the chief ataman on the Anadyr river. In this capacity, he saw himself, and not without reason. The Zaporozhye centurion had a credential from the voivode of the Bratsk prison, who was in official position substantially higher than the Yakut voivode.

In general, with the arrogance of the Cossacks, Atamans of Motor and Stadukhin began to fight for the Bunchyuk of the High Ataman of the Anadyr Territory — verbal altercations began, dragging from one to another the Yasak Chukchi, finally, it came to fist fights.

Semyon Dezhnev, who knew from his past experience the unyielding, very hard character of Stadukhin, advised the Zaporizhian centurion to leave the Anadyr basin to the not so far, but significantly richer sable river Penzhin. “And we, servicemen and industrial people of Semyon Motor and Yaz, Semyon Dezhnev, with comrades,” Dezhnev later wrote, “run and hide from him, Mikhailov, banish, we went in the fall, along the forward path, to the beautiful Pyanjin [Penzhin. - N.L.] for the mines and drive under the sovereign the royal hand again uncangable people. "

The march on Penzhin in the harsh conditions of the beginning of the winter was for the Motors and Dezhnev detachment a difficult ordeal. Unable to find a conductor, the Cossacks spent three weeks in a mountainous deserted area on the watershed between the Anadyr basin and the upper reaches of the Penzhin. Unable to find a descent into the valley of Penzhina, they turned back. As a result, I had to admit the Supreme Atamanism of Stadukhin.

Fiercely fighting for the peace of mind of the “first” chieftain in peacetime, the Cossacks were able to quickly find a common language in a situation of military challenge from the “non-peaceful aliens”.

In the autumn of 1650, the warriors of the Chukchi Anaul tribe killed nine Cossacks from the Stadukhin detachment. The warring chieftains, having learned of such a call, immediately joined forces and marched against the rebels of the Chukchi. “And we went to them, to the anauls, down the Anadyr River, and found where they made an ostrozhek, and we called them out of that order, so that they would bring the tsar to the tsar and give the tsar's ruler from themselves. But they, anauli, have become a Dratz with us, ”this was subsequently described by this raid by Simon Dezhnev.

The siege of the Chukchi ferry lasted for several days. Resisting courageously, the Chukchi killed Cossack foreman Suhanko Prokopyev and three more Cossacks who were trying to break through the wall of the fortress. Several Cossacks were seriously injured, and one of the wounded, receiving a blow with an ax to the head, as Dezhnev writes, "was duke infirm throughout the winter."

The outcome of the assault was decided by the indomitable rage of Stadukhin. Having thrown off the deer from the shoulders of the park, left in one shirt of a blood-red cuber, with a saber in his right hand and with an ax in his left - the supreme ataman of the Cossacks of Anadyr personally rushed to the storm of the fortress. As on the wings, he flew up the ladder to the wall of the Chukchi fortress - and the brightly red band of enemy blood lay along its tracks. The Cossacks unanimously rushed forward for their chieftain and, in less than an hour, the main stronghold of the Chukchi-Anaules on Anadyr was destroyed. After the battle on the body of Stadukhin, the twin brothers counted seventeen wounds, fortunately, they were all amenable to treatment.

As a result of his Anadyr-Ohotsk odyssey, as the sources narrate, the ataman Stadukhin reconciled with many Cossacks from the Seed Motors squad, including Semyon Dezhnev. An archival instruction was preserved that during Semen Dezhnev’s trip to Moscow (with a report in the discharge order), Stadukhin sent his son Jacob with him “for experience and study”. On such a difficult, long journey with a long-time personal enemy, the Cossack, of course, would not let go of his son.

The path to the eternal distance

The next year after the war with the Chukchi-Anauls, a detachment of Mikhail Stadukhin through mountain passes successfully passed to the Penzhin River. At the mouth of this river, the Cossacks built Kochi and the Sea of ​​Okhotsk passed to the mouth of the Gizhiga river. In the summer of 1652, ataman Stadukhin and his sister-in-law headed by sea to the south-west, along the high coast of the Gizhiginskaya Bay, and further along Shelikhov Bay. By the fall, they arrived at the mouth of the River Taui, where they built a new jail and successfully hunted sable for several years.

In the summer of 1657, Mikhail Stadukhin and the Cossacks of his squad reached the mouth of the Okhota River on a coch. Here they again made a significant stop, engaging in the harvesting of the fur-bearing animal and collecting yasak.


Cossacks collect tribute (tribute) on the shores of the ocean. Image: enoth.org


In the middle of 1659, through Oimyakon and Aldan (i.e., through the “cold pole” of Eurasia established by modern science), ataman Stadukhin and his companions returned to Yakutsk, closing a giant ring route across Northeast Asia more than seven thousand kilometers long.

In 1663, Ataman Stadukhin was summoned to Tobolsk, and then to Moscow - to report on his military expeditions. In the Order of Muscovy, Stadukhin brought not only the richest “sable treasury”, but also a detailed description of his way along the rivers and mountains of Yakutia and Chukotka, as well as a drawing of the Cossacks of the Kochay sailing off the shores of the East Siberian and Okhotsk seas.

There are a number of objective historical information that suggest that the Cossack Stadukhin is the first European! - Kamchatka "Cape Horn" - Cape Lopatka, which is extremely inhospitable by climatic conditions, went around from west to east. It is also possible that he climbed on his coves along the eastern coast of Kamchatka far to the north - right up to the Bering Strait. Only in this sense can we interpret some of the observations from Stadukhin's travel notes, which could not have been done by a person who had not personally visited the absolutely wild jungles of the Pacific ecumene then.

For example, he narrates about such a place on the mountains of Kamchatka, from which, in clear weather, one can clearly see in the west - the coast of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, and in the east - the Bering Sea. Such a place on the Sredinny ridge of Kamchatka is to the west of the village Ivashka, which was ruined during the period of perestroika, in the upper reaches of the river of the same name. Without personally visiting the Ivashkinsky Pass of the Sredinny Ridge, it is impossible to know about this geographical phenomenon described in detail by the Stadukhin.

Ataman Stadukhin did not stay long in Moscow - immediately after receiving the discharge order, in the same 1663 year, he returned to Siberia, at Indigirka, as a clerk lost in the foothills of the Anazey wintery. He died in the winter of 1666 of the year, courageously fighting the Lamut Evens on the Janek ridge pass. In this battle against two hundred Lamouth warriors armed to the teeth, the Cossack "conquistador" could not win - there were only six Cossacks with him.
Author:
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http://rusplt.ru/society/kazatskiy-konkistador-14131.html
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  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 27 November 2014 07: 42
    +4
    Indeed, Semyon Dezhnev is well known.
    And how many more such Stadukhin did a great job in the development of Russian lands!
    1. 225chay
      225chay 27 November 2014 08: 05
      -1
      Quote: aszzz888
      And how many more such Stadukhin did a great job in the development of Russian lands!


      Yeah,
      No wonder Sta-spirit! One hundred spirits ...
    2. Geronimo
      Geronimo 27 November 2014 10: 26
      0
      mastering or conquering, let’s get garlic ....
    3. Geronimo
      Geronimo 27 November 2014 10: 26
      0
      mastering or conquering, let’s get garlic ....
  2. Gray-haired Siberian
    Gray-haired Siberian 27 November 2014 08: 01
    +10
    Interesting article plus. Only one request to the author: please do not divide the Russian people into ethnic Cossacks and ethnic Pomors - as we know, this ends badly! You can simply say: by origin - Cossack or by origin - Pomor. And ethnicity - it somehow relates more to nationality.
    1. avt
      avt 27 November 2014 17: 11
      0
      Quote: Gray-haired Siberian
      . Only one request to the author: please do not divide the Russian people into ethnic Cossacks and ethnic Pomors - as we know, this ends badly!

      ,, What are you? Yes, for this it was written! "-" Election Day " laughing
    2. Siberian
      Siberian 27 November 2014 19: 33
      +3
      Cossacks - this is not ethnicity, but the estate!
  3. reality
    reality 27 November 2014 08: 34
    +2
    I would love to read everything, but I don’t understand why such an emphasis is placed on the ethnicity of the protagonist. Thank you bye.
    1. avt
      avt 27 November 2014 09: 32
      +5
      Quote: reality
      I would love to read everything, but I don’t understand why such an emphasis is placed on the ethnicity of the protagonist. Thank you bye.

      Yes, the author svidomo stoned, which is not clear here then !? ,, he went overland and on the Cossack koch (northern type of Zaporozhye boat) "------- laughing laughing I would also write about Columbus that his caravels are the western type of Cossack kochs, which are the northern type of Zaporizhzhya boat laughing “The version about the Zaporozhye origin of Mikhail Stadukhin seems quite convincing. In the Great Russian ethnic milieu with its original "Akan", the family name Stodukh could well have turned into Stadukh, and then acquired the Russian ending "in". So from the Zaporozhye "nickname" Stodukh, the "Pomor" surname Stadukhin turned out. "------- Well, I would write right away without bothering - yes there was a great, ancient people of ykrov and Adam and Eve went from him and then everything on the list ...
      Quote: parusnik
      ..but half of the article on ethnic origin, what is the division of the people .. into ethnic groups .. Why?

      I beg you! laughing And cheat is not clear then? laughing Ile did not know that the academician and creator of the Russian Academy - Lomonosov was ethnic ykr? This is the late German Frederick, well, after she was called Ekaterina in Russia, she began to take revenge on everyone and renamed Lomonosenoko into Lomonosov! wassat And he did not come from any such Arkhangelogorod territories! Kholmogory in general-mounds in the Ukrainian ..... Oh! - Ykr steppe! Yes, this is generally the ancient name of the Carpathian mountains!
      1. BlackJack
        BlackJack 27 November 2014 13: 05
        0
        The author is a doctor of historical sciences, a regular author of The Russian Planet.
        so most likely you are the daughter of an officer, incapable of constructive discussion.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 27 November 2014 09: 07
    +3
    An interesting article .. but half of the article on ethnic origin, what is the division of the people .. on ethnic groups .. Why?
    1. BlackJack
      BlackJack 27 November 2014 12: 12
      0
      Yes, to hell with these scientists generally understand. Ethnography is such a stupid and unnecessary science. Would forbid her or something. (sarcasm)
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 27 November 2014 12: 37
        0
        (sarcasm) Appreciated .. smile
  5. Denis
    Denis 27 November 2014 10: 03
    +4
    “The violent, indomitable blood of the Zaporizhzhya centurion,” writes Fyodor Shcherbina, “re-leapt into his son Mikhail, who was born in the land of White Sea ice. He did not return to his father’s homeland - to the Zaporizhzhya Sich, because his fate was the distant Asian Siberia "
    Stinks Svidomo!
    Wretched when politics enters science
    so what now?
    1. BlackJack
      BlackJack 27 November 2014 11: 49
      -1
      "At the end of the XNUMXth century, Cossack historian-encyclopedist Fyodor Shcherbina tried to refute this version, who came to the conclusion on the basis of archival materials"
      it stinks because in so much time anything goes bad
      judging by today's standards what was long ago is irrational
  6. Heimdall48
    Heimdall48 27 November 2014 10: 34
    +2
    Yeah that's
    ..and on Cossack kochs (northern type of Zaporizhzhya boat)
    bullshit of course
    1. BlackJack
      BlackJack 27 November 2014 12: 05
      -5
      Tady Cossack gull (Zaporizhzhya and Don) - the southern subspecies of Siberian koch! so your grace will like it? kosher?
      or bullshit too? because koch is a Baltic type of ship from the 12 century (if I’m not mistaken)
      1. Heimdall48
        Heimdall48 27 November 2014 12: 48
        +2
        What did you rely on when you made this conclusion? Why, for example, doesn’t bring the koch from a North German or Scandinavian ship of a similar purpose?

        The Seagull is a formless flat-bottomed shuttle of Zaporizhzhya Cossacks of the XNUMXth – XNUMXth centuries. in the form of a huge hollowed deck, on the sides sheathed with boards ... The mast and sail were set only with a favorable wind


        Koch - a seaworthy sailing vessel of northern and Siberian industrialists; wooden, single-mast, single-deck fishing, sailing and rowing of the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries .... It was equipped with a mast, an outboard steering wheel and oars. Double masted vessels are also known ...
        hull was egg-shaped


        I don’t see any common features from these descriptions. Both vessels are purely utilitarian structures, generated by the requirements of the relevant conditions of navigation, and in general they had only what they sailed. It is not clear just what the Cossacks were dragged into. I am not against the Cossacks, but the article feels a bad desire to plug all the cracks with them ..
        1. avt
          avt 27 November 2014 13: 58
          +1
          Quote: Heimdall48
          I don’t see any common features from these descriptions.

          One trait, you just get to the club
          Quote: BlackJack
          so most likely you are the daughter of an officer, incapable of constructive discussion.
          Yes and no
          Quote: BlackJack
          l Cossack historian-encyclopedist

          You, like the sinful Az, proceed from the fact that the locals made their ships in accordance with the climatic conditions of their habitation, in particular in connection with the ice situation. But you don’t take into account the latest findings of y-history - the evil Muscovites captured the poor Cossacks-ykrov and forced their descendants to live in a new way. And this also began the Finno-Ugric prince Rurik, who captured Kiev and gave them the coat of arms - a diving falcon, from which they then made a fork , then the baton was continued by the descendants from Kiev out of sight and deprived of the right to inherit the Kiev table from the descendants of Vladimir and Yaroslav, also by the force of Novgorod - Finno-Ugric sat on the Kiev table, and so on to this day.wassat
          Quote: BlackJack
          ? because koch is a Baltic type of ship from the 12th century (if I’m not mistaken)

          Quote: Denis
          You are mistaken, for:

          And do not care! That lodges, that koch, that plow, all one kozatska, Zaporizhzhya seagull. wassat
          Quote: alebor
          Somewhat surprised why the author of the article constantly calls Russia some foreign word - Muscovy? Usually this word was called Russia by foreigners in the West, but in Russia itself it was not used.

          Isn't it surprising that moskolyaku on gilyaku? The author is a specific stubborn svidomo, which means a descendant of the great ykrov, who do not want to have anything to do with the Russians and will constantly isolate, according to the behest of their spiritual teachers, different new ones from the Russian people - ykrov, Cossacks, Cossacks, Siberians, etc. Well, since ykr himself is naturally European, he calls in the manner of writing reports of Western ambassadors - Muscovites.
          Quote: BlackJack
          there was not yet Peter, there was no Russian Empire,

          laughing I would look for the mother of an officer of the card of those times or something, well, those who were sent by the same ambassadors to the court of their rulers - I would find out a lot of interesting things about the pre-Petrine times.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Denis
        Denis 27 November 2014 13: 01
        +2
        Quote: BlackJack
        Baltic type of ship from the 12 century (if not mistaken)

        You are mistaken, for:
        Koch - nautical sailing vessel of northern and Siberian industrialists (although it’s a shame that it’s not Baltic lol ):; wooden, single mast, single deck fishing, sailing and rowing of the 11th-19th centuries. Kochi was originally built without the use of metals. Equipped with a mast, mounted steering wheel and oars. Double masted vessels are also known.
        The hull of the vessel resisted compression in ice. The name “Koch” is associated with the word “kotsa” - an ice coat, that is, the second ice lining of the vessel. It was distributed in the Russian North and Siberia. Initially, Kochi were built by Pomors. Later, the construction of Kochi began beyond the Urals. In the XVII century, Kochi began to be built in Yeniseisk.
        1. avt
          avt 27 November 2014 17: 21
          -2
          Quote: Denis
          The hull of the vessel resisted compression in ice. The name “Koch” is associated with the word “kotsa” - an ice coat, that is, the second ice lining of the vessel.

          ,, Tyyyy! , You tooooo .... ",, What that!" "Do not misbehave ... huh?" laughing Kakay takay ,, kotsa "ice coat !? wassat Specifically, the Muscovites distorted, as well as in the surname - "Kozatsky", the letters were thrown out - only "kotsa" remained, and from him came "Katz", this is how the Jews appeared, and added to the surname "in". wassat All - "Ostap suffered", I'm tying! laughing
  7. alebor
    alebor 27 November 2014 11: 35
    +1
    The article is interesting.
    In our country, for the most part, people know very little about the development of Siberia. In the USA, there is a whole epic about the conquest of the "Wild West" in the form of countless Western films and novels. The whole world knows the brave and cruel Spanish conquistadors who conquered the New World. The development of Siberia by the Russians, which is not inferior in scale or complexity to the conquest of America, is in the shadows.
    Somewhat surprised why the author of the article constantly calls Russia some foreign word - Muscovy? Usually this word was called Russia by foreigners in the West, but in Russia itself it was not used.
    1. BlackJack
      BlackJack 27 November 2014 11: 59
      -6
      there was not yet Peter, there was no Russian Empire, and therefore Muscovy, therefore it was still used.
  8. chelovektapok
    chelovektapok 27 November 2014 14: 01
    +1
    This article stinks of dill. And not just stinks, but covers an even greater stench with a smell. At the expense of kochey, as a "northern type of Zaporozhye boat", you can neigh. The Russian North was mastered mainly by immigrants from the land of the Lord of Veliky Novgorod. By tradesmen and merchants. The development and construction of chronicles was celebrated 1000 years ago. This was just noted. And it happened even earlier. What are dill cossacks? Dill appeared there in Soviet times in the form of recruits and exiles.
    Well it is. .. This article is from the same textbook as the "exploits" of the relict dill. By digging the Black Sea and embankment of the Caucasus Mountains. And what is characteristic: once again, the insidious Russians pushed Stadukhin this back and did not give free rein to the wide soul! Yes, not "a hundred duchins" he is STYDUKHIN, for he must have been drunk and went crazy. And he died as a result "in one fell swoop - seven kills." But the “calmness” of the tearfully heroic narrative is not able to cover up the main thing: these Durilki, such as the author of the article, Semechkin, an elf with a pussy and the like, are trying to pick the side of the ship Russia below the waterline from Siberia. And this is what it DOES! PSYCHIATR reported to comment on such opuses. This topic is close to me, like anyone else. By clan-tribe I am 1/2 Pomor, 1/2 Cossack clan. I live in Siberia. So I have been interested in the history falsified in this opus for a long time. In the Northern Pomeranian dialect there is not a single word from the ukro-language, not even a single intonation. And the People are receptive when communicating. The Siberian Cossack dialect is closer to the Don and Kuban dialects. So IN THE GARBAGE BRED UKROPSKY! They used to fix the vodka with pepper. But what now, FIG knows. It looks like synthetics!
  9. RoTTor
    RoTTor 27 November 2014 16: 55
    +1
    Why do we need these words borrowed from foreign languages ​​spoken by our enemies? Moreover, the "conquistador" is a bloody colonizer. It would be more appropriate to say "THE PASSENGER","CONQUEROR OF NEW RUSSIAN LANDS". Let's speak in our own way. When the USSR was the greatest world power, the whole world was taught Russian. I am sure it will happen again. Comrade STALIN was right when he criticized inappropriate borrowings from foreign languages ​​when our Russian has its own precise, capacious and beautiful word. ...
  10. RoTTor
    RoTTor 27 November 2014 18: 11
    +3
    The author is not in the subject.
    Koch has never been and could not be a kind of Zaporozhye boat. Firstly, there were no Zaporozhye boats in nature and could not be. "Lodya" is also a purely Russian type of POMORSKY vessel, which appeared three centuries earlier than the Zaporozhye "seagulls".
    There were no relations between Pomerania and the Wild Field, the outskirts of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where fugitive robbers were hiding, at that time.
    Zaporozhye “seagull” is a small flat-bottomed sailing-rowing vessel for swimming in the river or in summer along the Black Sea coast.
    Koch is a purely POMORANIAN Russian type of keeled ship for sailing in the northern seas, which was not crushed by ice, but was replaced by them.

    Arkhangelogorodtsy are probably offended by the author: you do not know, do not write ... nonsense
  11. BlackJack
    BlackJack 27 November 2014 20: 35
    +1
    Yes, you do not care about the technical inaccuracy of the author as a vessel (you can argue for a long time), the mentioned ALTERNATIVE version of the origin of the hero of the story does not give you peace at the very beginning. And not even the author put forward
    “The origin of Mikhail Stadukhin is still a mystery to researchers. According to the official version, he was born in the Arkhangelsk north - either in Pinega, or elsewhere in the“ land of the Pomors. ”On this basis, it is concluded that the outstanding Cossack pioneer was ethnic pomor.

    At the end of the XNUMXth century, Cossack historian-encyclopedist Fyodor Shcherbina tried to refute this version, who, on the basis of archival materials, came to the conclusion that the Zaporozhye Cossack Vasily Stodukh was Mikhail Stadukhin's own father. "
    That's what got you over. Without any substances you are rushing from the word DROP, which seems to be everywhere, already in the 17 century.
    You think that it’s patriotic to pour mud on a stranger, and without reason.
    We have a lot of such chauvinists in Zaporozhye.
    And what did this lead to?
    1. avt
      avt 27 November 2014 21: 29
      -2
      Quote: BlackJack
      Yes, you do not care about the technical inaccuracy of the author by type of vessel

      We just don't give a damn, we are not for an alternative version of the origin of the Black-Russian Sea, which the great ykry dug by pouring earth into the Caucasus Mountains, we just know for sure that up to the 1576th century, the Zaporozhye with the Don Cossacks nightmares the Turks on the Black Sea, 1606 went to Sinop and Trebizond, 70 - Varna, on XNUMX seagulls went and took Kafa. Uncle Gilyay - Gilyarovsky, who described the life of Moscow from Zaporozhye, was without any "alternative" Svidomosty. to drive the blizzard into the ears with a scientific look, and the illiterate singers, who, like exalted girls, fall into the ecstasy of falling in love, too, they don't really like it very much. us Miller, that under Catherine we drew a story, and Svidomo also decided to trample on the clearing, well, you will interrupt.
    2. rexby63
      rexby63 27 November 2014 21: 46
      0
      There are a lot of such chauvinists in Zaporozhye


      For what?
      The youth of Ukraine is one, loves their homeland. Yes, that youth! Ukrainians, regardless of ethnicity, are ready to tear anyone for Ukraine.
  12. BlackJack
    BlackJack 27 November 2014 20: 37
    +1
    It would be interesting if Spodukhov would be a Spaniard or even a black man, would you also be bored?
    1. avt
      avt 27 November 2014 21: 31
      0
      Quote: BlackJack
      It would be interesting if Spodukhov would be a Spaniard or even a black man, would you also be bored?

      And here Pushkin is of African blood, and everything is rushing from his work, and mind you - for his sake we do not declare that the Aryans are dark-haired and dark-eyed, but such authors translate him into MOV, where ... a mermaid on the branches whore. .. "
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Heimdall48
      Heimdall48 27 November 2014 21: 42
      +1
      Yes - it would be the same. Recently, it has become fashionable to invent prominent figures and achievements in Russia of non-Russian origin: Minin - Tatar, Ermak - Tatar, Pushkin - Negro, Pomeranian Koch - from Cossacks (why not from an old Russian boat?), Suvorov from Armenians. Tomorrow they will say that Gagarin is a Dagestan, etc. I understand that self-awareness is growing among small nations, but it is time to stop this tendency, otherwise 50 years later people will ask - what did the Russians do in Russia in general? Judging by this article, the Cossacks joined Siberia, and even if the Cossacks had it, but what about some ethnic group - the Cossacks and Muscovites have one.
  13. BlackJack
    BlackJack 27 November 2014 20: 42
    +1
    I am glad that we do not personally communicate and you do not have weapons in your hands, because you are no better than the Bandera Nazis. Some slogans and slop pour out of your mouth.
    1. avt
      avt 27 November 2014 21: 33
      -1
      Quote: BlackJack
      at. Some slogans and slop pour out of your mouth.

      You pour slops of dear in view of complete ignorance and not knowing the actual material, you got in, but essentially nothing to say other than general phrases about slops, and now you also decided to build a victim from yourself.
  14. Hitrovan07
    Hitrovan07 28 November 2014 18: 07
    0
    We know a bad story. This is not taught at school.