Military Review

Russian samurai. Evfimy V. Putyatin

8
Evfimy V. Putyatin was born in St. Petersburg 20 November 1803, in the family of a naval officer. Vasily Evfimievich sailed for many years under the command of admirals Kartsev and Ushakov in the Mediterranean. He retired under Alexander I in the rank of lieutenant commander. The future diplomat’s mother, Elizaveta Grigorievna, was the daughter of a major general, the civil governor of Kiev and Grodno Grigory Bukharin.


The boy's childhood years were not over yet, as he was opposed to the desire in July 1819 of the year as a midshipman to the Naval Cadet Corps. According to Putyatin’s schoolmates' memories, as a teenager, Evfimy often fell ill and grew frail and devout. It is known that he gave himself a vow in the event of recovery to go to the monastery. However, with age, all the ailments of the young men went, obviously, helped by sailor work, fresh air and sailing on the training courts. Putyatin hesitated for a long time, but then refused to take monastic vows.

It was not easy to finish the naval corps. Pupils at graduation passed exams in two dozen subjects, excluding general education. In order to master all the wisdom of the marine sciences, Euthymius had to show great diligence and hard work. It is worth noting that Putyatin was fluent in English - he acquired this knowledge even before entering the building in the prestigious Gibson boarding house. The marine practice of the students was led by Prince Sergey Shirinsky-Shikhmatov - lieutenant fleet, academician and poet. As a rule, students of the corps only sailed on the spot of the Gulf of Finland, however, midshipman Putyatin was lucky. He was given the opportunity to go on a Phoenix brig to Sweden and Denmark. The midshipmen Dmitry Zavalishin, Pavel Nakhimov, Vladimir Dal and Mikhail Reineke also took part in this campaign.

At the final exam in 1822, Evfimy Putyatin showed the best result. Like most graduates of the Marine Corps, he did not want to stay at the walls of Kronstadt and wanted to see the world, to contribute to the discovery of new lands. Such a case was soon introduced - along with his friends Pavel Nakhimov and Alexander Domashenko, midshipman Putyatin was sent to the cruiser “Cruiser” to serve under the leadership of the famous navigator Mikhail Lazarev. Already on the ship, Evfimy Vasilyevich became firmly friends with the future Decembrist, midshipman Zavalishin.

The expedition, which lasted three years, passed along the route Kronstadt - Rio de Janeiro - Cape of Good Hope - Russian America - Cape Horn - Kronstadt. Navigation under the command of Lazarev, nicknamed by his contemporaries "The First Seaman of Europe", became an excellent school for the young seaman. Steep and powerful boss, long transitions, difficulties and hardships, difficult living conditions on the ship - all this hardened Evfimi Vasilyevich, having taught him to make important decisions quickly and not to lose heart in a dangerous moment.

It is curious that at first, Mikhail Petrovich took a dislike to midshipman Putyatin, believing that he appeared on the ship only thanks to his high protection. Despite the fact that the young sailor carefully performed his duties, during the first months of sailing the independent watch was not trusted by him. And, perhaps, Evfimy Vasilyevich would have been in disgrace for a very long time if Dmitry Zavalishin had not interceded on him, with whom they had astronomical observations in free minutes.

September 3 The Cruiser 1823 anchored in the port of Novo-Arkhangelsk. Here the frigate team received an order from the Chief of the Naval Staff to send Zavalishin to St. Petersburg. While still in London, the midshipman sent Alexander I a letter reflecting on the problems of government in the country. The emperor expressed a desire to personally meet and talk with the author. By order of Lazarev, Dmitry Irinarkhovich handed over his duties to the ship’s business manager to Putyatin.

At the exit from the Sithinsky Gulf the frigate fell into a violent storm. But the Russian sailors held out, in early December, the 1823 Cruiser stopped in San Francisco. Here, Evfimy Vasilyevich had to travel around the neighborhood, buying provisions at an affordable price, both for the crew members and for the residents of the Russian colony in Novo-Arkhangelsk. Excellent knowledge of the English language helped the young officer to bargain with the farmers.

5 August The 1825 frigate Cruiser arrived at the Kronstadt raid. The mariners, who returned from the third round-the-world expedition, became noticeable people in their midst. Mikhail Lazarev was promoted to captain of the first rank. He was awaited by a new appointment - the 74-gun battleship "Azov" was laid in Arkhangelsk. It was necessary to think about the team. Lazarev among the first called Butenev, Nakhimov, Putyatin and Domashenko. The officer corps was also supplemented with young personnel - midshipmen Konstantin Istomin and Vladimir Kornilov, a cadet Vladimir Istomin.

In the middle of the 1827 "Azov" in the Russian squadron moved into the Mediterranean Sea to help the Greek patriots who fought with the Turks. In the Battle of Navarino, Evfimy Vasilyevich commanded three cannons of the lower deck (battery deck). For his bravery, he was promoted to lieutenant and awarded the Order of St. Vladimir of the Fourth Degree with a bow.

Navigation 1830-1832, the young lieutenant sailed in the Baltic. At first he was on the "Narva", and then he was entrusted with the command of the brig "Diomede." In the autumn of 1831, Evfimi Vasilyevich had eighteen naval campaigns behind him, and two orders decorated his chest (St. George of the Fourth degree was added to Vladimir).

In 1832, at the insistence of Lazarev, Putyatin was transferred to the Black Sea ship "Memory of Eustache". Here Evfimy Vasilievich met with his old friends - Vladimir Kornilov and the brothers Istomin. Together they made a number of voyages along the Turkish shores, following descriptions of the Dardanelles and Bosphorus Straits, as well as their fortifications. Lazarev was pleased with the students. Reporting to the Chief of Staff Menshikov, Mikhail Petrovich said: “I am so sure of the authenticity of the fortification maps and fortresses of the Bosporus, compiled by Lieutenant Putyatin, that I didn’t hesitate to begin engraving them now. ... These officers are one of those who, in the assignments they are doing, will always present one truth and neither add anything nor subtract ... ”.

For a detailed inventory, Evfimy Vasilyevich was awarded the Order of St. Stanislav of the third degree. The following year he received the rank of lieutenant commander and was appointed commander of the corvette Iphigenia. It should be noted that Putyatin has always been extremely serious about the training of both officers and lower ranks, being firmly convinced that the success of naval campaigns depends on this. Evfimy Vasilyevich paid special attention to artillery preparation of artillery maids and commanders. And in the light, and at night he spent the exercises, personally watching the sailors treat the guns on different decks. Subsequently, Putyatin created a whole system for the compilation of artillery exercises and ship timetables, which interested Lazarev. Under his order, the manual “Artillery Doctrine” was issued, which became a service instruction for several years, until Putyatin’s associate, Vladimir Kornilov, did not make adjustments to it.

In early February, the 1833 Russian squadron arrived in the Bosphorus in order to protect Istanbul from the Egyptian Megmet Ali pasha. The vigorous actions of the Russian troops, who landed on the Turkish coast, forced the Pasha to make concessions, and on April X he concluded a peace treaty with the Turkish Sultan Mahmoud. Lazarev wrote to Admiral Menshikov: “Putyatin commanded“ Iphigenia ”perfectly. The corvette is contained in the order that is better and impossible to demand ... We do not have frigates in a similar order, as a result of which, despite being young in rank, I decided to introduce Putyatin to the command of Agatopol. I am sure that in a few months he will serve as an example and competition to other commanders. ”

The frigate "Agatopol" under the command of Evfimi Vasilyevich carried the guard service off the coast of the Caucasus and Taman. In the 1838-1839 years Putyatin repeatedly participated in the landing of landing troops to pacify the mountaineers in the townships of Shapsuhu and Tuapse, at Cape Adler. Distinguished during the landing operation in Tuapse in June 1838, Evfimy Vasilyevich was promoted to captain of the second rank. Leading the consolidated fleet battalion during the landing at the Subashi River, the brave sailor in a fight with the mountaineers was seriously wounded in the leg, but did not leave the battle. Lazarev in his reports to St. Petersburg noted “fearlessness and ingenuity” Putyatin, and in the spring of 1839 he was promoted to captain of the first rank, having awarded the Order of St. Anna of the second degree.
After treatment on Caucasian waters in 1841, Evfimy Vasilyevich went to England on the pretext of “improving health and purchasing steamboats”. What specific task did Putyatin perform there, is still a secret behind seven seals. This veil to some extent reveals his appointment after his return by a special assignment officer under the Chief of the Main Naval Staff. This position, as is known, provided for the maintenance of intelligence matters.

The diplomatic career of a sailor began on 1842 when he was sent to Persia on the personal order of Nicholas I with the mission of negotiating the abolition of trade restrictions. On the initiative of a novice diplomat in the Astrabad Gulf, a military base was built to pacify the local Turkmen pirates who had robbed the Caspian Sea. Shortly thereafter, Putyatin managed to convince Mohammed Shah to lift trade restrictions, insisted on the creation of a shipping link between Persia, the Caucasus and the mouth of the Volga, and discussed the delimitation of water spaces for fisheries. Summing up the activities of Evfimi Vasilyevich, a prominent expert on the Middle East, Fyodor Osten-Sacken, said: “In stories Our rule in the Caspian began a new period. Putyatin laid a solid foundation for Russian influence. The procedures instituted by him existed for a quarter of a century, until the time when we finally established ourselves there with the occupation of Krasnovodsk. ”

In 1843, Evfimy Vasilievich suggested organizing an expedition to the eastern maritime borders of Japan and China. However, Nicholas I rejected the proposal because it could damage the Kyakhta trade (border trade with Mongolia and China). In subsequent years, Putiatin successfully completed a number of important assignments related to fleet renewal, and also undertook numerous diplomatic visits. In addition to Persia, he visited the Caucasus, visited the Caspian and Black Seas, the Netherlands and England, Egypt and Turkey.

The sovereign did not stint on awards and ranks, giving them Evfimi Vasilyevich as a reliable and trusted person. In 1849, Yevfimi Vasilyevich was appointed to the retinue of the emperor with the rank of adjutant general, and two years later the rank of vice admiral was granted. At the same time, Putiatin, after asking permission from Nicholas I, married a British subject — the daughter of Admiral Charles Nouls, who was baptized and named Maria Vasilyevna.

In 1852, the Russian government decided to “open relations with Japan”. Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich recalled Putyatin’s old proposal on strengthening Russian positions in the Pacific. The question of who will stand at the head of a diplomatic expedition did not stand, the character of Putyatin fit this role perfectly well - a sailor, when necessary, could be docile, remaining demanding and tough in matters of principle.
In the famous voyage to the shores of the Land of the Rising Sun, Evfimy Vasilyevich was surrounded by wonderful satellites. The frigate “Pallada”, on which travelers left Kronstadt in the first days of October 1852, was commanded by second-rank captain Ivan Unkovsky - the last brilliant student of the late Lazarev, who embodied all the qualities of a brave navigator of the time. Ivan Semenovich managed in a short time to create a disciplined team from the national team, a working crew who masterfully controlled a far from new ship. Putyatin's right hand on the expedition was Konstantin Posiet, with whom they worked with 1843 of the year. A military engineer and gunner, an excellent geographer and hydrograph, a well-educated naturalist, he not only helped Evfimy Vasilyevich in the diplomatic unit, but was also the head of the crew’s scientific party. Also among his companions, Putyatin was a famous portrait painter, Yuri Leman, and the writer Ivan Goncharov, who served as secretary to the head of the mission, who captured the details of this almost round-the-world voyage in his travel notes. A great role in the negotiations with the Japanese was played by the translator Iosif Goshkevich, who served eleven years in the Russian spiritual mission in Beijing. In addition, it is worth noting the sailor of the Warrior Rimsky-Korsakov - the future director of the Marine Corps, who raised the lessons and spirit in this institution to an unprecedented height. After buying the steam schooner "Vostok" in Portsmouth, he was appointed its commander, having completed the entire expedition in this rank, as well as the legendary cruising in the Tatar Strait and the Sea of ​​Okhotsk. Evidence that Evfimy Vasilievich was able to select not only experienced sailors, but also extraordinarily talented people for the expedition is the fact that out of twenty-two midshipmen and Pallas officers ten retired in the admiral ranks, five were in the rank of general adjutants and the three became ministers.

Russian samurai. Evfimy V. Putyatin


Evfimy Vasilyevich himself in the campaign was a loyal companion for senior officers. His authority on the ship was extremely high, and outstanding encyclopedic knowledge and always prudent, friendly advice were always at the service of the needy. In youth, Putyatin supported all sorts of scientific interests, personally observing their studies. In addition, during the voyage, he managed to perfectly learn the Dutch language, necessary for negotiations with the Japanese.

As already mentioned, Putyatin had to make his trip to the shores of Japan on the frigate Pallas. Once the beauty and pride of the Russian Navy, this vessel was no longer suitable for the 1852 year, except for local cruises. However, for unknown reasons, it was him who allocated the Ambassador of the Navy Department. In October 1852, before a long voyage to the East, the frigate entered England for repair. While work was being done on the ship, Evfimy Vasilyevich made a very important acquisition — he bought a screw schooner. In honor of another famous Russian ship, she was named "East". At the beginning of 1853, repair work on the Pallada was completed and on January 6 both ships set off on a long journey.
Although the British shipbuilders and restored partly the former seaworthiness of the frigate, a long-range passage confirmed Putyatin's fears. In his report, he wrote: "The unreliability and weakness of our old ship for long voyages was irrefutably confirmed: it flows in all decks, moreover movement in the connections of the surface part has opened." The living quarters were constantly damp, and the infirmary rarely empty. The frigate itself was repaired in almost every harbor. Repeatedly there was a question about the suitability of the "Pallas" to continue swimming in general. The senior officer of the frigate, Lieutenant Butakov, was sent by Putyatin to St. Petersburg with a request to send a more reliable ship to replace him as soon as possible.

9 August 1853 approached the Nagasaki raid "Pallas" and "Vostok" accompanied by transport and the corvette "Olivuts". The Japanese, already aware of the goals of the arrival of the Russian ships, immediately appeared on board the frigate. However, the conversation did not come out - local officials diligently avoided the questions and requests of the Russians, referring to their superiors. Fortunately, fresh provisions were delivered to the ships without delay, for the entire time of their stay in Nagasaki, Russian sailors did not feel any need for food. But all attempts to persuade the governor of Nagasaki to give Russian sailors a place on the shore for magnetic observations, checking the chronometers and walks of the team were not crowned with success.

Sailing and artillery exercises were held on ships every day. In addition, officers and midshipmen were engaged in the inventory of coastal fortifications and the port, and also improved their skills in managing rowing ships, rolling along the picturesque and extensive bay. In October, the governor of Nagasaki informed Evfimy Vasilyevich about the delivery of his letters to Edo (the old name of Tokyo), and on November 7 a notice arrived on board the frigate that important dignitaries had left the Edo for negotiations with the Russians. Having estimated that the meeting was unlikely to take place earlier than in a month and finding it useless to remain in Nagasaki all this time, Putiatin decided to move to Shanghai. Upon learning of this, the Japanese were worried, representatives of the governor arrived at the Pallada, saying that despite the lack of permits from Edo, they were taking responsibility and giving the Russians a place on the shore. By the evening of the same day, a specific offer was received to occupy Kibach Bay, in which Russian traveler Nikolai Rezanov used to live. Putyatin immediately sent people to inspect the place. The sailors returned disgruntled, reporting that the place was disgusting - only stones and no vegetation. In response, the governor of Nagasaki conveyed that he could not offer any other place. Then the Russian ships were removed from the anchor and went to Shanghai. Before sailing, Putyatin promised the governor that if he returned to Nagasaki if he did not see the commissioners from Edo, he would immediately go there.

In Shanghai, Evfimy Vasilyevich replenished coal and provisions, as well as repaired ships, primarily the Vostok schooner, which returned from the Tatar Strait 3 in November. Repair work was carried out at the local dock with the help of the Pallas artisans. In addition, seafarers, concerned about the impending war, have learned the latest news from Europe. They managed to accomplish everything they had planned for a month, and on December 17, the Russian squadron went back to Nagasaki, where they arrived five days later.

Not seeing the representatives of the capital on return, Putyatin immediately ordered to prepare to sail. When the rowing ships were already on board, the Japanese stopped doubting the seriousness of the Russians' intentions and announced that they were authorized profits. The first meeting that took place on December 31 was very solemn. Despite the fact that only two people took part in the negotiations, the dignitaries were accompanied by a huge retinue, in the opinion of the sailors, “in order to give more importance”. The Japanese tried to insist on bringing the Russians ashore in their boats. One of the eyewitnesses of this wrote: "... the fact that we ourselves are not going, but we are being taken, was done with the aim of showing the people that in Japan others wills do not have." This idea failed. Evfimy Vasilyevich rightly believed that a concession in trifles would give the Japanese a reason to demand concessions in much more serious matters.

The Japanese took Russian sailors in elegant clothes, and the entire first meeting was held in exchange for courtesy. In vain, Putyatin tried to translate conversations on the topics he needed - the Japanese reported that, according to their customs, during the first meeting, the parties confined themselves to personal acquaintance, and put everything off until another time. The governor of Nagasaki received permission from Edo to accept Russian gifts. They were handed to him, to senior officials, as well as to the governor’s subordinates associated with the Russian sailors during their stay in Nagasaki. The Japanese, in turn, handed Putyatin, civilians and officers gifts - porcelain cups and silk fabrics. The team was sent a thousand boxes of soy, a hundred bags of rice and twenty pigs. Such gifts, by the way, were made to all foreigners, but dignitaries from Edo brought Putyatin with a finely dressed saber and a number of lacquered things with gold ornaments. This offering, especially the saber, was an expression of extreme affection. Evfimy Vasilyevich also gave gifts for the presentation of the shogun - pieces of golden brocade, colored carpets and vases, large mirrors, and table clocks in bronze.

After the first two official meetings, negotiations began. Evfimy Vasilievich traveled to the meetings without ceremony, accompanied by the necessary four persons. Japanese dignitaries also did without a large retinue. Negotiations lasted for a month, and in the world at that time there was a smell of gunpowder - the Crimean War began. Although the main theater of operations was far away, Putyatin was convinced that the Far East would not avoid battles. In this regard, during a break in negotiations, he decided to sail to Manila, and then to Korea, exploring along the way the eastern coast of Primorye and looking for places in which the Russian fleet could take shelter if needed.

During this voyage, the Putyatin expedition discovered the bays of Olga and Posiet, as well as the islands of Rimsky-Korsakov. In July, the frigate Diana arrived at 1854 in the Far East, where Putiatin moved to the Japanese shores to continue negotiations that became particularly relevant due to the outbreak of war. The frigate Pallas, towed to the Imperial Harbor, was sunk there in 1856 year.

In October, 1854 Russian sailors arrived in Hakodate. Having learned that the city would become open for trade with foreigners in the near future, Evfimy Vasilyevich decided to familiarize himself with it and, knowing the indecisiveness of local officials, on the very first day he declared his desire to go ashore. In the following days, Russian sailors visited a number of Buddhist temples and gardens, were engaged in inspection of the surroundings and the inventory of the bay. A young artist Yuri Lehman, trying to capture the city in different forms, met a local young man Yokoyama Matsusaburo. This meeting changed the life of the Japanese, who wanted to master the Western technique of painting. In the future, he became a famous artist.

2 December 1854 Putyatin arrived in Shimodu to continue negotiations. They started on December 10 in the largest temple of the city of Gyokusendzi, but the next day they were stopped due to a strong earthquake, accompanied by a tsunami. As a result, the fishing town, numbering twenty churches and about a thousand houses, was virtually completely destroyed. "Diana" also received serious damage. The frigate hull leaked in several places, the drainage pumps could not cope with the pressure of the water entering the hold. Evfimy Vasilyevich asked the Japanese for permission to drag the ship for repair into the neighboring more closed from the wind, Kheda Bay. The frigate was unloaded, and the crew landed on the beach. The towing began in the new 1855 year, but it was not possible to finish it - at midday on January 8 the hurricane wind flowed over the ship and the holds filled with water deprived the frigate of stability. The ship caught in the wind turned sharply, and it was carried to Suruga Bay, where it soon sank. Despite this, Putyatin continued negotiations. They reached an agreement on the division of the Kuril Islands, Japan also opened for the Russian ships three ports - Nagasaki, Hakodate and Shimodu. The only unsolved issue was Sakhalin Island, which was declared "unshared." All this was enshrined in the Shimoda treatise from 26 in January, 1855, which was the first document between the countries on the establishment of friendly relations. In the first paragraph of the agreement were the words: "May thereafter be sincere friendship and permanent peace between Russia and Japan."

It should be noted that immediately after the loss of “Diana”, construction of a new ship started in Head Bay. The construction was attended by one hundred and fifty Japanese handymen and forty ship carpenters. The engineer and inventor Alexander Mozhaisky supervised all the works. The schooner, dubbed "Head", was the first sailing ship of European design, built in Japan. She was ready already three months after the bookmark, in April 1855.

After the signing of the treatise, all participants in the Russian diplomatic mission were divided into three groups. Since the quality and size of the ship were not suitable for sailing in the waters of the Indian and Atlantic oceans, some people, including Putyatin, set out on a schooner to the mouth of the Amur. Another group went there on a hired American ship. The remaining members of the expedition sailed on a chartered English ship "Greta" around Africa.
Going to Petropavlovsk-on-Kamchatka, Evfimy Vasilyevich hoped to find Russian ships there. 26 of April "Head" left the shores of Japan, and already 10 May came to Avacha Bay. However, the port was abandoned by our squadron, gone to the shores of the Russian Primorye. Without stopping, Putyatin left Petropavlovsk, but, coming out of the Strait of La Perouse, the schooner ran into three enemy military sailboats. One of the enemy ships set off after the schooner in pursuit, however, due to the fair wind of the Head, it broke away from the enemy. 8 June the schooner anchored at the Nicholas post.

Returning to St. Petersburg, Putyatin was awarded the title of count and was appointed chief of staff of the Kronstadt military governor. The coat of arms of Evfimi Vasilyevich depicted a Russian officer and a Japanese soldier. In their hands they held a shield, under which the motto was written on the tape: “Not to Us, but to Your Name”. These words express the life credo of Putyatin, who devoted himself without reserve to serving the Fatherland.

In 1856-1857, Evfimy Vasilyevich worked as a naval agent in Paris and London. And in 1857 he was ordered to go to the head of a diplomatic mission to China and achieve the conclusion of a trade agreement there, as well as free entry rights to citizens of the Russian Empire. Preparations were held in strict secrecy and the greatest hurry. On this issue, Foreign Minister Alexander Gorchakov wrote to Nikolai Muravyov: “The purpose of the departure of Putyatin must be kept secretly the greatest, and therefore the following assignments were chosen as the reason for his trip: exploring the shores of Eastern Siberia and searching for places for the new port.”

After a couple of unsuccessful attempts to cross the Chinese border from the sea, and from land Evfimy Vasilyevich managed to get to Beijing as part of an international embassy. However, the situation at that time in the southern Chinese provinces was restless, the local population was opposed to the British, and everything was going to war between the Anglo-French troops and the Chinese people. There was a rumor among the local population that Russia supported the predatory policies of France and England. In such conditions, Putyatin expected that negotiations would fail. So, ultimately, it happened.

In the same year, 1857, Evfimy Vasilievich went to Japan for the second time. In Nagasaki 12 October, they concluded an additional agreement on trade. From now on, the government has pledged not to hinder the conclusion of private trade deals with Japanese merchants. In addition, the Russian people were now free to come themselves and bring their families "for permanent or temporary residence."

Remembering the setbacks in China and not wanting to retreat, Putyatin returned to this country in 1858, and on July 12 was the first of the ambassadors of European powers to conclude a famous trade agreement in Tianjin. Among other things, he secured the borders between the countries and opened up access to the inner regions of China for Russian missionaries. From China, Evfimy Vasilyevich again went to Japan. 7 August 1858 in Edo, he entered into another contract, which retains the effect until 1895 year. According to him, the Japanese government pledged to simplify trade, to open new convenient ports for Russian ships, and also to allow the construction of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Land of the Rising Sun.

The return of 26 in August of the same year to Russia, the diplomat was made admiral and approved the former naval agent in London. Together with this work, the count did a great deal to strengthen Russian-Japanese relations - he supported the study of the Japanese language in our country, financed the living and training of Japanese students, and helped spread Orthodox Christianity in Japan.

On the threshold of the sixties in Russian society there was an active discussion about the systems of training in gymnasiums, real schools and universities. Putyatin, as a man who gave forty years to the Russian fleet, also decided to participate in the discussion. Evfimy Vasilyevich, as the father of six children, expressed his thoughts in the article “Considerations about the organization of marine education in Russia”, and a year later his book “The project of transformations of maritime educational institutions” was published. It seemed to someone at court that the diplomat and navigator had all the makings of a minister of public education, and in July 1861 Evfimy Vasilyevich was appointed to this position. Starting a new activity, the admiral approved for the beginning “matricules” for students (test books). Then “new rules” were introduced, prohibiting all types of student cooperative life, obliging attendance at lectures and, most importantly, assigning tuition fees. This measure closed access to the higher educational institutions of the diverse youth (that is, people from underprivileged classes). Having learned about the Putyatin rules before the beginning of the semester, the students left the audience in protest. Student unrest occurred in Kazan and St. Petersburg, resulting in clashes with the police ... 6 January 1862 Evfimy Vasilievich resigned.
The ministerial post did not bring Putyatin neither glory nor honor. The fleet also did not need it. For the admiral stretched boring and dark years. For his past services, he retained the title of Adjutant General and was left a member of the State Council. He also held honorary, not burdensome positions in various societies and commissions. He was often approached by people of different social classes, for whom he was busy, he wrote petitions and letters.

After the death of his wife in December 1879, Evfimy Vasilievich, already an old and sick man, left Russia and went on his last trip to Europe. In May, 1883 he was awarded the highest Russian award - the Order of St. Andrew the First Called. And 19 of October of the same year, the Kronstadt Bulletin reported: “The sad news came about the demise of Adjutant General, a member of the State Council, Admiral Count Evfimy Vasilyevich Putiatin, who died on October 16 in Paris. His name belongs to the history of Russia and the Russian fleet. " According to his testament, Putyatin was buried with his wife in the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra.

In Japan, the monuments to Evfimy Vasilyevich stand in the cities of Shimoda and Fuji, in the village of Heda. This is largely due to the enormous prestige of the Russian admiral among the Japanese. Even contemporaries of Putyatin wrote: "With just demands, prudent orders and modest, friendly, but at the same time persistent and firm appeal, he acquired the disposition and power of attorney of the Japanese." A year after the admiral's death, his daughter Olga went to Tokyo to work in the Orthodox Church, serving the cause of Christ for three years. She helped not only the Japanese Orthodox Mission. The descendants highly appreciated the contribution of the Countess to the activities of the Palestinian Orthodox Mission. At its expense, in particular, outpatient clinics were built in Beth-Jala and Nazareth.

According to the materials of the book A.A. Khisamutdinova "Russian Japan" and the site http://www.sluzhuotechestvu.info.
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  1. Egor65g
    Egor65g 21 November 2014 10: 40
    +1
    Plusanul. Very interesting and informative article.
  2. aszzz888
    aszzz888 21 November 2014 11: 29
    +1
    Father Putyatin is a very beautiful place!
    1. Silhouette
      Silhouette 21 November 2014 12: 50
      0
      island (he) Putyatin. Chilims are cool there!
      The material is plus.
      1. aszzz888
        aszzz888 21 November 2014 13: 07
        0
        And the lotuses ... !!!
  3. Yellow white
    Yellow white 21 November 2014 11: 31
    +4
    Everything is fine, thanks for the article, I just didn’t swim, but WENT, okay ???
  4. GDP
    GDP 21 November 2014 15: 43
    +3
    Wonderful article and amazing life!

    The Japanese, few Russians ever erected monuments ...
  5. Belisarios
    Belisarios 21 November 2014 16: 04
    +2
    Unlike the commander Perry fetishized by mattresses, Putyatin fulfilled all the tasks assigned to him exclusively by diplomatic methods, not. resorting to threats of the use of force.
  6. Vadim2013
    Vadim2013 21 November 2014 19: 04
    +1
    I read it with interest, I did not know this before. An informative article useful for young people.
  7. Rotmistr
    Rotmistr 30 September 2017 09: 12
    16
    Very interesting information!