At the international naval salon "Euronaval-2014", the analytical center AMI International has published another 20-year global forecast for the development of naval technology (VMT). His data suggests that up to 2032, the BMT market will grow steadily. In particular, 522 is implementing new programs that will have to build over 3800 new ships, submarines and vehicles.
Over the next 20 anniversary, the cost of building hulls for ships and the necessary on-board equipment will reach 838 billions of dollars, which is 12 percent more than the analysis of the BMT market, which AMI gave for the same period in 2011. Moreover, experts believe that the number of new buildings by 22 percent will exceed the number that was predicted earlier.
Asians are catching up with the States
The most rapid pace of the BMT market will develop in the Asia-Pacific Region (APR), approaching in its volume to the American, which is the world leader. Over the next 20 anniversary, 1066 ships or 28 percent of the total market will be delivered to the APR. This number will include over 650 main and auxiliary warships and 166 submarines, the total value of which will exceed 166 billions of dollars.
“A submarine should perform assigned tasks anywhere in the world in a wide range of temperatures and depths, and also have enhanced communication capabilities”
Over 640 ships worth 54,7 billion dollars will be delivered to the region of the Middle East and North Africa. These are patrol vessels, anti-mine defense ships and submarines.
In Latin America, shipbuilding programs aim to grow steadily until 2032. An increasing number of countries in this region are looking for partners to design and build a number of vessels and invest in the industry in the near future. Approximately 60 percent of the projected new buildings in this region will be implemented over the next five years.
With the exception of the United States, many NATO countries continue to restructure their naval forces and are switching to new shipbuilding programs to optimize the structure of the Navy in conditions of limited resources. Future purchases of BMT remain at a stable level, which involves the acquisition of 524 ships and submarines worth 179 billions of dollars to 2032 year.
The American market, despite some recession, remains the world leader - 1042 of the new ship, submarines and apparatus until 2032, for a total of 291 billion dollars.
On the Paris account
In September, the French shipbuilding industry 2014 published its forecast for the TDC market. The global order book is estimated by experts at 150 billions of dollars for military needs and 300 billions of dollars for civil shipbuilding.
More than 2014 companies from 300 countries took part in Evronaval-25.
The European portfolio, excluding Russia, will be 36 billion dollars for warships (24% of global orders) plus 36 billion dollars for civilian orders (12% of world volumes). In sum, it is 72 billion dollars or 16 percent of world total.
France, in particular, will receive 10 billions of dollars in military contracts (6,7% of world and 28% of European orders in this area). In addition, five billion dollars will give civilian orders (1,7% of the world and 14% of European). Thus, analysts predict billions of dollars for France in the field of shipbuilding 15 (3,3% of the global portfolio and 20,8% European).
According to French experts, it can be assumed that the United States will have annual sales of about 10 billion dollars, China - 4 billion, France, Russia and the United Kingdom - approximately 2,5 – 3 billion, Japan, Germany - somewhere around 1,5 billion .
In the structure of the modern global market for naval equipment, submarines play a significant role. A number of countries, such as France, prefer to develop innovative underwater concepts fleetthat were presented at the Euronaval 2014 Salon. Other states, on the contrary, prefer to carry out licensed construction or to acquire nuclear submarines for the needs of the national Navy.
Sweden. For a long time, Sweden has been striving to acquire a new generation of submarines. The next step to this was taken on July 22, when Saab announced the acquisition of the Swedish division of the German company Thyssen-Krupp Marine Systems (Tysms-Krupp Marine Systems - TKMS), a subsidiary of the industrial group Thyssen-Krupp. . Previously, the division belonged to the Swedish company Kokkams (Kockums).
This decision came after Stockholm decided in 2014 on the creation of a national production of submarines in the Saab. Previously, negotiations with TKMS on the acquisition of the new generation A26 “Nasta Generations Unit - NGU” were interrupted.
The acquisition of the Swedish unit TKMS cost Saab 340 million Swedish crowns (49,6 million dollars). This, according to Western experts, will ensure the future development of its own intellectual and industrial base necessary for the creation of submarines. Simultaneously, after 10 years of delays, work began on the delivery program of the national naval forces of new submarines.
“In the long term, the situation with Thyssen-Krupp, the subcontractors of this company and the Swedish government was unacceptable,” said Rear Admiral Andreas Olson, head of the naval equipment department at the Swedish organization FMV, responsible for the procurement of military products . “Sweden was gradually losing its capabilities in the construction of the submarine fleet, and the German company TKMS, which owned the former Kokams, would limit these opportunities. Thus, we had only two options - to find a new submarine contractor in Sweden, or to get Kokams back and modernize this company, Olson added. - After Saab acquired Kokam, I can note our intention to develop the potential of Sweden in the area of the submarine fleet. This also requires the national interests of the country. The control of the underwater space of the Baltic Sea is very important for Sweden. ”
The company "Kokams" before its sale TKMS carried out the development of a new generation of naval subs A26 / NGU. Work was carried out with 2004 year after the unsuccessful completion of the program for the construction of the Viking submarine, which was carried out jointly with other Scandinavian countries. The company "Kokams" managed to develop the appearance of the submarine. It was assumed that by the end of the 2010-th two A26 / NGU submarines would be put into operation. The appearance of these submarines was approved by the Swedish government only in 2007, and two years later it was decided to further develop the appearance and construction of submarines worth one billion Swedish crowns. In February, 2010 was announced a two-year contract for a deeper elaboration of the A26 / NGU image. Participants were identified in 2012 – 2013.
It was assumed that A26NGU will be a submarine, built on a modular principle and capable of taking part in international operations. Special emphasis in the course of development was placed on the tasks of collecting intelligence data and conducting special operations in coastal waters. Kokams specialists believed that the submarine displacement in surface position would be 1990 tons, and in submarine - 2100 tons, length - 65,6 meters. The possibility of installing additional sections was planned, which would increase the displacement to 2500 tons.
It was expected that the main features of the new submarine will be stealth, increased autonomy due to the use of an air-independent power plant (VNEU) based on three Stirling Mk 3 engines (Stirling Mk 3), increased maneuverability, which was controlled by X-shaped steering wheels, adapted to combat mission set of equipment management, control, communications and reconnaissance standard C4ISR.
Greece. The Greek Navy put into operation the first of four submarines ordered from the VNEU Type-214, known as Papanikolis, November 2 2010 of the year. This event was preceded by various delays, which delayed the reception period by about five years. Because of the conflict between the Greek government and the contractor, Hellenic Shipyard (HSY), the supply of the remaining three boats, the Pipinos, Matrozos and Katsonis, was delayed for some time. All three submarines were launched in the middle of the 2009 of the year and for four years remained at the dock together with the only modernized Type-210 / 1200 submarine Okeanos.
These problems were finally resolved in April 2014, after the Greek Parliament adopted an amendment to the law on the implementation of the construction of the Type-214 submarines and the modernization of the Type-209 / 1200 submarines. The Greek Navy intends to commission new submarines in the 2015.
In October 1998, Athens announced a decision to acquire four Type-214 submarines developed by the German company HDW to replace the outdated Type-209 submarines. In February, 2000 signed a contract for the construction of three submarines, the fourth was ordered in 2002 year. The first submarine was built in Kiel, and the other three - on the production facilities of the company HSY.
The displacement of the Type-214 submarine is 1727 tons in surface position and 1829 tons - in submarine, total length - 65 meters. The maximum speed reaches 20 nodes in the surface position and 11 - in the underwater position. Crew - 40 man.
The submarine, whose main task, according to HDW, is to destroy enemy submarines and surface ships, has a reduced acoustic visibility. The use of fuel-powered VNEU provides the use of the submarine in the conditions of active actions by the enemy.
The submarine Papanicolis was laid in February 2001 of the year and launched in April 2004. She was offered to the customer in 2006 year. However, the Greek Navy refused to accept it, arguing that it does not meet the set technical requirements. Work on the construction of the three remaining boats continued, but none of them was accepted until the conflict between the customer and the contractor was resolved. In September, 2009 of the company TKMS (participated in the construction of boats as a subcontractor) and HSY broke off all the contracts signed earlier. The amount of the penalty was determined in 524 million euros (664,8 million dollars).
When the new government was chosen in October 2009, negotiations continued. By September, the 2010 was decided, according to which the Greek Navy would put into operation all four submarines and by the middle of 2019, two more submarines would be received, in the design of which it was planned to use elements acquired earlier for upgrading the Type-209 submarines. These contracts entered into force on October 27 on 2010. After an expert inspection was carried out and the necessary changes were made, the “Papanicolis” naval subsystems were accepted into the Greek Navy under the terms of the agreement. By May 2011, TKMS decided to terminate the contract due to disagreements with the major shareholders of HSY.
The Greek government announced 15 in March of the current year to reach an agreement with HSY, according to which three Type-214 submarines and an upgraded Type-209 / 1200 submarine will be commissioned. Okeanos is the only Greek modernized submarine of the Type-209 project, which is equipped with a VNEU similar to that installed on Type-214 submarines.
In accordance with the agreement, costing 75,4 million euros (95 million dollars), the Greek Navy must complete the tests and commission submarines, as well as work with both HSY and its subcontractors. It is expected that the three Type-214 submarines and the modernized Type-209 / 1200 will be adopted by the Greek naval forces in the 2015 year.
Poland. The Polish weapons inspector has already initiated the Orka program to purchase three submarines to replace the outdated submarines that make up the national naval forces. It is expected that an official tender will be announced by the end of 2014.
At the moment, the Polish Navy includes four Type-207 submarines (Sokol cipher - Sokol), which previously belonged to Norway (one of these submarines is used to train personnel), and one 877E submarine (cipher "Varshavyanka"). It is assumed that the Type-207 submarines will be disabled in 2016 – 2017, and the submarine of the 877 project will continue to serve until 2022.
For the first time, Poland announced its desire to modernize the submarine fleet in the 2009 year and expressed its intention to move to concrete measures in the 2017. These dates have now moved - the Navy expects to receive three new submarines in the 2022 or 2023 years.
It is assumed that in total, nine billion PLN (2,94 billion dollars) will be allocated for the purchase of submarines by this Eastern European country. Annual funding is expected to be at the level of 970 million PLN (320 million dollars). These amounts are budgeted throughout 2013 – 2022.
Spain. In March, 2004 Spain signed a contract with the state-owned shipbuilding company Navantia for the supply of four non-nuclear submarines of the S80A project, equipped with air-independent power plants. The contract value is about 1,7 billion euros (2,14 billion dollars). They were supposed to replace outdated Daphne / Dolphin class submarines (Daphne / Delfin).
The construction of the four S80A submarines began in the 2006 year and continues to this day. The first submarine, which received the S81 tail number and the name Isaac Peral (Isaac Peral), was laid down in December of the 2007. The second NXL S82 Narciso Monturiol (Narciso Monturiol) was laid in 2008 year, the third - S83 Cosme Garcia (Cosme Garcia) - in 2009, the fourth - S84 Mateo Garcia de de Reyes (Mateo Garcia de de de Reyes) - in 2010 year. Initially it was assumed that the S81 “Isaac Peral” submarines would be built by 2011, however, the complexity of the design work and the technical problems associated with them, as well as the need to make a number of changes led to the repeated postponement of the submarines.
The new schedule was adopted in January 2012: S81 was supposed to be delivered in March 2015, S82 - in November 2016, S83 - in March 2017, and S84 - in July 2018. However, in November 2012, problems were discovered in the area of mass and balancing of submarines, which led to significant changes in the project. To this end, the main contractor turned to the American submarine manufacturer General Dynamics Electric Boat (GDEB). In May 2013, it was assumed that the deadlines for the delivery of NNSs would be shifted to the right for up to two years.
Navantia, in July 2013, announced the change of submarine delivery sequence. Representatives of the company explained this problem with the mass of submarines. As a result, the first was supposed to pass the S82 NNB in connection with the possibility of simplifying the design. Since the creation of the first S81 submarine a significant amount of work has already been completed, the necessary upgrades are difficult to make. As a result, it is determined to be the last in the series.
The official representative of Navantia, 30, of September 2014, informed that the company had solved the problems associated with balancing the submarines of the S80A project, and restarted the construction program of these submarines.
“The company managed to overcome technical difficulties that have repeatedly arisen since the launch of the program for the construction of naval submarines of the S80A project. The emergence of such problems during the development and construction of new-generation submarines with the use of innovative technological solutions is logical, said a spokesman for Navantia. - For several months, the company has been resolving issues related to changing the appearance of submarines. As a result, the length of the submarines is increased, the displacement is increased. At the same time, the intended characteristics of the new generation of naval submarines S80 did not deteriorate. It is planned to install VNEU and weapons for the destruction of ground targets, as well as system integration and a high level of automation. ”
Norway. The Norwegian government in 2007 initiated the start of work on the 6346 project, within which it was planned to study the prospects for submarines in the national naval forces. In 2011, the first stage was completed, which consisted in determining the strategic direction of the long-term development of submarines. Then the Ministry of Defense began to consider two alternatives: extend the life of six “Type-210” class “Ulla” submarines (Ula) to the middle or end of the 2030-s or purchase new submarines. The group of the Norwegian Defense Ministry, working together with a number of other organizations, assessed the cost, risks and options for implementing the program to extend the life of Ulla-class submarines. As part of this work, two companies were involved: the developer and builder of the Type-210 submarine TKMS, and BMT Defense Systems (BMT Defense Systems) as an independent party. Both of them were involved in exploring the possibility of ensuring the extension of the service life of NNSs, as well as the feasibility of these actions. The company Konsberg Defense Systems (Konsberg Defense Systems) and a number of other manufacturers and suppliers of equipment installed on the base Ulla-class naval subs have provided information on the submarine obsolescence systems and their maintenance.
The Norwegian Ministry of Defense issued a request for information on the acquisition of new submarines in November 2012. The required technical data was sent by five companies: the French DCNS, the Italian Fincantieri, the Spanish Navantia, the South Korean Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering and TKMS (the requested data was provided by the Swedish and German branches of the company) ... Information was also requested regarding various sensors, weapons, combat information and control systems.
During the program development, among other things, the possibility of attracting Norwegian enterprises to work in the field of the submarine fleet, as well as the potential for international military-technical cooperation, was explored.
The development program for the development of the Norwegian submarine fleet has officially completed 1 on April 2014. Currently, the Norwegian government is considering recommendations that have been developed in the course of its implementation. It is assumed that the selected option will be announced at the end of 2014. This is followed by the development phase of the program and procurement plan for the 6346 project. The final draft financing of this or that option will be presented to the Norwegian legislators before 2017.
Netherlands. The document of the national Ministry of Defense, entitled “Netherlands Interests” and published in 2013, contained information on the government’s intention to make the country's submarine fleet a strategic segment for both the European Union and NATO. "Submarines can operate at a small distance from the coast, remaining undetected," the document says. - They can be used, for example, to collect intelligence data or to enforce an embargo on arms supplies. Moreover, they are an important platform for performing special operations. ”
The Netherlands Navy is armed with four Walrus submarines (Walrus), which were commissioned at the beginning of the 90's. The service life of these NNSs was initially limited to 25 for years. Currently, submarines are undergoing a major modernization and life extension program, called IP-W (Instandhoudingsprogramma Walrusklasse). It is expected that in its result, the Walrus class submarines will be able to remain in service until the 2025 – 2030 years.
The Netherlands Interests clearly expressed the desire to strengthen the capabilities of the submarine fleet of the national naval forces after the decommissioning of the Walrus-class submarines, beginning in the middle of the 2020's. At the same time emphasizes the high cost of the program to update the Netherlands submarines. “Such a program can only be allowed if new submarines are developed, built and applied with the participation of one or more foreign partner countries,” the document says.
Speaking at the UDT Europe-2014 conference (UDT Europe 2014), which took place in Liverpool in June 2014, captain of the 1 rank of the Netherlands Navy, Hugo Ammerlaan, commander of the submarine fleet of the national naval forces, expressed his view on key tactical technical requirements, opportunities and problems that may arise during the implementation of the submarine replacement program. He noted that the minimum number of submarines needed to perform combat missions are four submarines. According to Ammerlaan, the submarine fleet of the Netherlands should fulfill four groups of key tasks: replacing intelligence data, participating in special operations, influencing political decision-making, ensuring superiority at sea by combating various surface and submarine targets.
“The new submarine should have a higher level of autonomy, it should be at sea, independent of the logistics supply, a significant amount of time,” Ammerlaan expressed his point of view. In his opinion, the submarine should be able to perform tasks at any point on the globe in a wide range of temperatures and depths, as well as have increased communication capabilities in comparison with the submarines currently in service.
According to Ammerlaan, the Netherlands Ministry of Defense will provide lawmakers with information on the submarine fleet of the national naval forces this year. At the same time, the defense ministry will develop the concept of operations for promising submarines. “By the middle of 2015, we will send the corresponding formed demands to the parliament,” Ammerlaan informed.
Italy. Like other European countries, the country intends to develop a submarine fleet. At present, work continues on the construction of the Type-212А submarines (code Todaro / Todaro). The company “Fincantieri” launched the third submarine of this class, called “Pietro Venuti” (Pietro Venuti) 6 of October 2014 of the year.
“Pietro Venuti” is the first submarine from the second batch of Type-212А submarines, the contract for which was signed in the middle of 2008. The total cost of the second batch of submarines - 915 million euros (1,15 billion dollars), which are budgeted for the period 2008 – 2016.
The first two Type-212А submarines - Salvatore Todaro and Skire (Scire) were launched, respectively, in March 2006 and February 2007 in accordance with the contract for the construction of submarines of the new project signed with German by HDW and Nordseewerke in April 1996. The displacement of the Italian Type-212А submarines is 1830 tons, the total length is 56 meters. Each submarine is equipped with a MTU 16V 396 diesel engine and a hybrid propulsion system powered by batteries or fuel cells, the design of which is based on the proton-exchange membrane technology developed by Siemens (Siemens). This allows the submarine to reach a maximum speed of up to 20 nodes (37 km / h) in a submerged position. The range is about eight thousand nautical miles (14 800 km) at a speed of eight knots (14,8 km / h).
The main characteristics of the Type-212А submarines of the second batch differ little from those of the first submarines. In the future, the modernization of outdated submarine equipment and the introduction of changes to the command and control system (C2) of the naval submarines are assumed.