The problem arose - will it be solved?


Former sporting rifle with a sliding bolt gradually reach the sniper special forces

The experience of local wars and military conflicts of the last decades leads to the conclusion about the increased role of snipers, especially in battles for settlements and in the city. The need for their actions as part of units responsible for maintaining public order, in particular special forces to combat terrorists, was revealed.


Convincing evidence of the importance of sniper fire are the results of research on the effectiveness of small arms fire. weaponsheld in the USA. Thus, in the course of the Second World War and the Korean War, one person was killed from 30 to 50 thousand (!) Cartridges. Snipers, on the other hand, defeat a target, as a rule, spend one cartridge. Not one type of weapon possesses such efficiency and economy of fire. In addition, the appearance of a sniper in any part of the fighting quickly becomes widely known, causes the enemy fear, a depressing effect on his psyche.

To date, the importance and necessity of using snipers for both the army and the internal troops of the state are undoubted. What is required for the development and existence at the proper level in our country of sniper business? Let us summarize and supplement the answers to this question expressed earlier in the pages of the journal by the authors of articles on sniping and its problems.

The first condition is the availability of a range of weapons at the disposal of snipers — rifles, ammunition, firing and observation devices, which ensure the required accuracy of the shot. The second is a clear training system, organized by the staffing of the relevant units and divisions of the army and internal troops. The third is a sufficient amount of financial resources for the normal functioning of the system.

What kind of sniper weapons can be considered good?

Evaluating the elements of sniping equipment, the authors of the articles expressed contradictory opinions, but they all agreed that the main thing was an accurate combat rifle. But what to take as a measure of accuracy - opinions differed.



SOVIET SCREW DRAGUNOV

“I shot a Dragunov sniper rifle at a distance of 600 m (this is the distance at which the Swiss army snipers are trained, armed with assault rifles with a telescopic sight). Original Soviet live ammunition with steel liner and shell bullet weighing 9,72 g I was able to receive the diameter dispersion 10 shots less 40 cm. Hungarian army ammunition with a brass liner and shell bullet of the same mass 9,72 g had initial velocity 860 m / s, which is nearly 60 m / s more than the Soviet cartridges. Hungarian ammunition rifle fires a little more precisely, the dispersion diameter is about 35 cm.

NATO rules prescribe a maximum dispersion width for sniper rifles at a distance of 600 yards (548,6 m) series in 10 shots 15 inches * (38,1 cm). The Soviet Dragunov sniper rifle confidently meets these requirements. The recoil, despite the relatively powerful ammo, is moderate. Dragunov's rifles are known for being able to function reliably in difficult conditions without careful maintenance. ”

Martin Schober **

* The data provided is outdated. Currently, requirements are increased to 1 MOA.

** Schwelzer Waffen-Magazin. 1989. No.9.



Note that the accuracy of shooting depends not only on the rifle, but also to a very large extent on the used cartridges. Therefore, giving an estimate of the accuracy of the battle, it should be understood that it belongs to the weapon-cartridge complex.

The most common assessment of the accuracy of a sniper weapon is produced by the diameter of the area of ​​the dispersion of bullets when firing the best shots from stable positions in series of 4 - 5 shots. This characteristic is convenient and legitimate, since the dispersion of bullets in the vertical plane is almost circular, that is, the variation in the lateral direction and in height is the same.

In the armies of NATO countries, as J. Hoffman writes in the article “Long shot” (Soldier of Fortune. 1998. No. 6), the sniper weapon’s accuracy is considered sufficient if the dispersion of bullets does not exceed one angular minute, denoted by MOA. ). In the angular values ​​1 MOA = 0,28 thousandth adopted in our shooting practice. At a distance of 100 m, dispersion in 0,28 will give a thousandth circle with a diameter of 2,8.

Our SVD does not respond to such a requirement. Its accuracy is considered normal if, at four shots on 100, the scattering diameter does not exceed 8, see But should SVD be considered unsuitable, as A. Gorlinsky claims in the article “Instrument for Regimental Paganini” (Soldier of Fortune. 1998. No. 7)?

For many years this weapon has been in service with the army in our country and in a number of other countries. Without rejecting the accuracy criterion in 1 MOA for sniper weapons, let us see why the SVD remains an army sniper rifle. The fact is that the evaluation of the weapon on the accuracy of the battle does not always give a definitive answer about its suitability. In addition to accuracy, many characteristics should be taken into account, such as the reliability of the mechanisms in a variety of conditions, size and weight, simplicity and ease of operation, as well as the production cost of the sample.


Special sniper weapons today are readily used not only in specialized, but also in other units of power structures

Taking into account these and other requirements, the specific accuracy of the battle must ensure the performance of the most typical tasks for a specific type of weapon. So, the practice of using SVD confirmed that its capabilities, both fire and maneuverable, basically meet the requirements for an army sniper rifle. But the tasks of the SVI snipers should be set corresponding to her accuracy of battle.

The diameter of the dispersion of bullets from the SVD on 100 m - 8 cm, on 200 m - 16 cm, on 300 m - 24 cm and further to 600 m grows linearly. It follows that from the SVD it is possible to hit with the first shot (with reliability close to one) targets of the “head figure” type at distances up to 300 m - the dispersion width at this distance is 24 cm, not exceeding the dimensions of the target (25XXNNXX cm). Chest figure targets (30x50 cm) are hit with the same reliability by the first shot at ranges up to 50 m (the scattering diameter does not exceed 600x8 = 6 cm).

If the “chest figure” has individual protection - body armor and a helmet, then its vulnerable area will not exceed 20x20, see Lesions from the first shot from the SVD such a goal can be achieved at distances up to 200 m (dispersion diameter 16 cm). Taking this into account, the tasks of the sniper should be defined.

According to the characteristics of the SVD, it significantly exceeds the rest of the platoon weapons, which allows it to remain in service. However, the purpose of the SVD should not be expanded as V. Ryazanov did in the article “Sniping in Russian” (Soldier of Fortune. 1998. # 6): “The SVD is a universal“ sniper ”capable of performing a typical task of destroying enemy manpower. at a distance of 800 m, while at a distance of 500 m - with one or two shots. " SVD can ensure the destruction of a target from the first shot only to those ranges and for such targets when the dispersion diameter does not exceed the size of the target.

The problem arose - will it be solved?

The experience of combat use of SVU-AU revealed a large number of claims to these weapons. But one advantage over the SVD is indisputable - there is almost no unmasking flame when fired, which is especially noticeable at night.

The SVD can successfully solve the problem of hitting targets with several shots at long ranges. Magazine capacity and self-loading make it possible to reliably hit most of the typical targets at ranges up to 800 m in the shortest possible time with the consumption of 4 – 6 cartridges. This property of the rifle is also confirmed by practice.

And of course, it is not competent to compare the SVD on the accuracy of the battle with the sports target rifle MC-13, as did A. Gorlinsky. He writes that the shooter “the magazine’s capacity, the mass and the self-loading of the weapon” are not important, and further: “Any rifle of the MC-13 is much better than any best SVD”. But after all, the author of the article comes from the experience of the athletes-shooters, who bring weapons weighing up to 8 kg to the competition site. Sports rifle cartridges have a lead core and a soft shell, give high accuracy, but do not meet the requirements for live ammunition for striking action.

The desire to have a combat rifle with accuracy close to a sporting weapon at the disposal of army snipers is understandable. Such a rifle, inevitably significant mass - up to 8 kg - with a special combat cartridge, while ensuring accuracy in the 1 MOA could, along with the SVD, be in service for special tasks. If her dispersion width on 100 m is 2,8 cm, then even small targets from the first shot can be achieved at distances up to 800 m. Note that after 600 m, dispersion does not increase linearly, but increases 1,2 – 1,3 times. On 800 m, when scattering in 1 MOA, the width of the bullet spread does not exceed the magnitude (29,12 cm = 2,8x8x1,3).

It is clear that it is even preferable to have a rifle with dispersion in 1 / 2 MOA, as indicated by J. Hoffman. On 100, the diameter of the dispersion of bullets with such accuracy will not exceed 1,4, see. Sport target rifles with such a characteristic are known. If such a rifle has a live cartridge that maintains the accuracy of 1 / 2 MOA, then it could be included in the arsenal of snipers to solve especially important tasks.

The weapons capabilities considered were based on an assessment of the probability of hitting the target. Will it hit with one hit - a separate question. When the target has no means of individual protection, then its defeat is achieved, as a rule, with one hit. The probability of damage in this case is numerically equal to the probability of hitting it.

If the goal is in a bulletproof vest and helmet, then one hit will not always lead to its withdrawal. A lesion will be achieved when it hits the unprotected area, and sometimes with several hits in a row to the means of protection. In the latter case, the known effect of accumulation of the damaging effect due to several hits may work. This is another one of the reasons that gives reason to be armed with self-loading and automatic sniper rifles.


Compared to the Kalashnikov assault rifle, equipped with a device for silent and flameless shooting, the Vintorez is admired

In general, those authors are right who recognize the need for various types of weapons, ammunition, firing devices and surveillance in the arsenal of snipers. Their use should correspond to different types of tasks arising in specific conditions.

In our armed forces, in principle, there are several sniper armament complexes: for solving problems in conditions requiring silent and flameless firing at short distances - VSS Vintorez under 9-mm assault rifle cartridge (with accuracy of 100 in 7,5 cm); for solving problems mainly in the conditions of field operations at ranges up to 800 m - SVD and its modifications for rifle cartridge 7,62x54 mm; To solve problems at long ranges (up to 1000 m for normal purposes and up to 1500 m for large targets), developers from the KBP propose a B-94 rifle for an 12,7-mm cartridge (with accuracy, as reported, 5 cm on 100 m).

It must be admitted that these complexes do not provide solutions for the defeat of important small-sized targets at distances up to 800 m. This requires a sniper weapon with a dispersal of bullets not exceeding 1 MOA. There is no such rifle or ammunition in our arsenal. Perhaps, with the least expenditure of time and money, this gap will fill the creation of a high-precision sniper complex based on an arbitrary sports rifle of the MC-13 type, as proposed by A. Gorlinsky, but subject to the development of a combat sniper cartridge for it. Arbitrary sports rifles are known to provide accuracy on 100 meters in 2 cm, which is 4 times better than SVD. It is clear that such a weapon with a mass up to 8 kg and a powerful optical sight with a magnification up to 12x should be used only for solving special tasks.

We talked a lot about the properties of the rifle. But the main thing in sniper weapons - the accuracy of the battle - is determined to a large extent by the patron. Renowned shooter, Honored Master of Sports of the USSR, repeated champion and world record holder in bullet shooting E. Khaidurov says that at one time athletes in shooting competitions from the army trilinea achieved the highest results when they themselves reloaded the cartridge sleeve of the 7,62XXXNNX mm with the best powder and bullet shooting by foreign cartridges was not allowed). Therefore, it is still possible to improve the accuracy of existing rifles by developing special high-quality cartridges for them.

In addition, the above characteristics of the accuracy of the battle of various sniper weapons involve firing from stable positions by professionally trained snipers. According to these characteristics, the probability of hitting the target was estimated. More strictly, the probability of hitting is determined not only by the value of the so-called technical dispersion, which depends on the weapon and ammunition. Dispersion increases due to shooter errors in the preparation of initial data for firing (mainly in determining the distance to the target and corrective for side wind), as well as due to the inevitable inaccuracies in aiming. These errors can be minimized by training the sniper and providing him with high-precision observation instruments, determining initial data, aiming.

The most important component of success

As A. Gorlinsky noted, the sniper rifle is a jewelry tool that requires careful tuning. Such a tool, by the way, is quite expensive, should be trusted only to a class specialist, it can be set up only by its loving owner. A sniper can fully and effectively use his capabilities only after passing a serious and long course of special training.

A person becomes a high-profile sniper, in whose nature lies the abilities and love of shooting, supplemented by the knowledge and skills acquired in the course of mastering the relevant training program. These issues were widely discussed in the magazine. The main conclusion of the authors is unanimous - for the successful use of sniper weapons, professional arrows are required. For the army and internal troops need a common system of their selection, training and ongoing training. Suggestions for its structure are given in the article “Will Sniper Resurrect” (Soldier of Fortune. 1997. No. 12).

IDEAL SOLDIER?

Psychological and psychophysiological contraindications for appointment as a sniper:

• chronic diseases;
• states after injuries and acute illnesses;
• belonging to a “risk group”, reduced psychological stability, a tendency to mental disadaptation;
• insufficient level of development of professionally important qualities;
• increased anxiety, anxiety, fear;
• excessive impulsiveness, a tendency to a spectacular response, incontinence;
• emotional-vegetative instability (frequent reddening or blanching of the face, sweating, constant trembling of the hands or eyelids);
• irritability, resentment, a tendency to negative emotional and evaluative reactions.


In the training of snipers, the fundamentals of tactics of their actions in various conditions should be laid down as part of combat groups, sniper pairs, single snipers; questions of masking and covering up snipers' actions by other divisions, organizing communications with them. The training system should also include the collection and synthesis of combat experience using snipers, the development and adjustment of their training programs in various specialties for the army and internal troops, the publication of textbooks, perhaps a special journal. Everything listed together and separately requires serious discussion.

Money money...

The third condition, which ultimately determines the solution to the problem of sniping, is the necessary material support with high quality weapons and equipment, sufficient funding for the system of selection and training of snipers, the development of range equipment and simulators for training, adequate payment for sniper labor, creation of a methodology for educating and training shooters top class. Probably, many sensible and important proposals on questions of sniping, expressed by the authors of the articles of the journal, due to the absence of the third condition in our armed forces will remain only good wishes. I would very much like to know the opinion on the issues raised by those responsible for fire training in the relevant departments of the Russian Army and the internal troops of the Russian Federation. Or maybe they do not read the magazine, due to the lack of finance for its acquisition?

CLASSIC SNIPING

“Each shooter must correctly evaluate the capabilities of his weapon according to the accuracy of the fight,” wrote N. Filatov (1909 - 1862), the founder of shooting science in Russia, in 1935. From 1919, he headed the officer course "Shot", led the development and testing of many types of small arms, wrote well-known works on the theory and practice of small business: "Grounds for firing from rifles and machine guns" (Oranienbaum, 1909; Moscow, 1926); “Brief information about the grounds for firing from guns and machine guns” (Moscow, 1928), which became for many years textbooks on shooting in the Red Army.
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