The recent military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have stimulated the development and supply of various anti-mine armored vehicles, and there is also an order for artillery systems of increased accuracy to ensure containment fire.
Some countries use both towed and self-propelled (SP) artillery systems, others plan to switch to using only self-propelled systems.
Of course, there are situations in which standard towed artillery systems are used, as are mortars and ground-to-ground missile systems. For airborne and naval assault forces, towed artillery systems provide a number of significant tactical advantages over heavier self-propelled artillery. Towed systems with a standard 105-155 mm barrel size are quickly transported by helicopter and are currently being successfully used in Afghanistan.
However, self-propelled artillery systems continue to lead the battlefield, due to modernization in the field of projectiles and loading systems, as well as with the support of a number of different systems currently being manufactured and developed around the world.
The Chinese company North Industries Corporation (NORINCO) has launched several 152- and 122-millimeter self-propelled artillery systems, and today it releases the PLZ 45, which is a 155 mm / 45 gauge system originally developed to meet the demands of the National Liberation Army (PLA). It was also exported to Kuwait and, most recently, to Saudi Arabia.
The maximum range of a high-explosive fragmentation projectile with improved aerodynamics and a leading belt (HE ER FB) is 30 km, although this distance can be extended to 50 km using the newly developed HE ER FB with a rocket accelerator and gas generator (BB RA).
To support PLZ 45, a PCZ 45 ammunition auxiliary machine was developed and released. She transports up to 90 shells.
PLZ 45 and PCZ 45 are marketed by NORINCO as a full artillery system of battery and regimental levels.
NORINCO also launched a new fully tracked 122-mm self-propelled SH 3 tracked artillery system with a combat weight of 33 tons. The system is equipped with a turret, the gun of which is charged 122-millimeter shells with a maximum range of 15,3 km, provided that this is a HE charge, and the range 27 km with a HE BB RA charge.
In addition, China is testing a number of new artillery systems, including the PLZ 52 with an 152mm / 52 caliber charge and a new 122-millimeter self-propelled amphibious system.
The only currently used cannon artillery system operated by the German army is the 155-mm / 52 self-propelled caliber system PzH 2000 manufactured by Krauss Maffei Wegmann.
The German army received a batch of 185 systems, export deliveries were made to Greece (24 systems), Italy (70 systems from the Italian production line) and the Netherlands, which ordered the 57 systems; many of them have already been delivered, but some remained as a surplus because of the incoming restructuring requirements. Production of all ordered PzH 2000 will be completed before the end of this year, but the delivery to the market continues.
The combat weight of the PzH 2000 is more than 55 tons, including a semi-automatic projectile charging system and a manual modular charge system (MCS). 60 155 millimeter projectiles and 288 MCS system charges. The maximum range of the 155-millimeter charge HE L 15 A 2 - 30 km, but with the improvement of the projectile, its range can be increased to 40 km.
The German army, like a number of other countries, places particular emphasis on the rapid reaction force, and Krauss Maffei Wegmann has developed in private the 155 mm / 52 gauge Artillery Gun Module (AGM).
The first AGM consisted of the remaining tracked chassis of a multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) M 270, in the stern of which is a remote control tower, charged with the same 155mm / 52 charges of the caliber as in the PhZ 2000. In front of the machine is a protected cabin, from which the team controls the tool.
The result of further joint development of Krauss Maffei Wegmann and the Spanish company General Dynamics Santa Barbara Sistemas (GDSBS) was DONAR - 155 mm / 52 caliber self-propelled artillery system, which was first shown publicly in the middle of 2008 year and is currently being tested.
DONAR is the latest AGM model installed on a new chassis, developed by GDSBS based on the last landing gear of the assault vehicle Pizarro 2, currently produced for the Spanish army. DONAR weighs 35 tons and is managed by a team of two people.
The German army has now decommissioned all 155-millimeter self-propelled artillery M 109A3G, some of which have been sent abroad. Privately, Rheinmetall Weapons and Munitions conducted a modular upgrade of the M 109, receiving the M-109 L52, which allows the entire range of PhN 155 52 ammunition to be used. It was released to the market as a modular system that can be adapted to personal user requirements.
The standard 155-mm self-propelled artillery system of the Italian army today is an upgraded M 109 L equipped with a full set of 155mm / 39 ammunition of caliber transported by FH-70. Now they are replaced by 70 PzH 2000, the first 2 of which came from Germany, and the rest are manufactured under license by Oto Melara. By early July, Oto Melara produced the 51 PzH 2000, of which 42 were supplied by the Italian army. Production will be completed in September 2010.
Oto Melara developed the Palmaria 155mm / 41 self-propelled artillery caliber for export, which was sold to Libya, and recently also to Nigeria.
The tower is used in the artillery system TAMSE VCA 155 155 mm, operated by Argentina. The system is based on an extended chassis tank Tam.
It is known that Iran has developed at least two tracked self-propelled systems, which are now operated by the Iranian army.
Raad-1 - tracked 122-millimeter system, equipped with components of the chassis tracked armored personnel carrier Boraq. This system is equipped with a tower similar to the one installed on the Russian 122-mm self-propelled 2-1 system. The standard maximum range of the projectile - 15,2 km.
The larger Iranian system is Raad-2. It has a combat weight of 16 tons and a caliber 155mm / 39, it uses projectiles similar to the US M 185, used in the late production version of the M 109. The maximum range of the standard projectile M 109 HE - 18,1 km. Possible increase in the range due to the modernization of the projectile.
Japan also developed its own self-propelled artillery systems for many years. The upgraded old model Type 75 155mm - Type 99 has a long range, thanks to the installation of the 155mm / 39 barrel caliber. Like many other Japanese weaponThe Type 75 was not offered for export.
Type 75 155mm
South Korean company Samsung Techwin, under the license of the current BAE Systems US Combat Systems, assembled 1040 pieces of self-propelled artillery systems M109A2 155mm, which are now operated by South Korea. However, since then, the South Korean forces have been replenished with the 155 mm / 52 K9 gauge system from Samsung Techwin, which has been in service for 10 years and is another modification of the M109A2.
The K 9 has a combat weight of 46,3 tons and a standard 155 millimeter projectile range M107HE - 18 km, which can be increased to 40 km using the HE BB projectile.
In support of the K9, the K10 vehicle was developed to supply additional ammunition; It is currently in production and is being commissioned.
The 9 is also manufactured in Turkey using the equipment of the Turkish Ground Forces Command. More than 250 units were produced under the local name Firtina.
In exchange for the currently operating self-propelled artillery systems, Poland chose the 155 mm / 52 Krab gauge system for itself. It is produced by local enterprises, is a tracked system, and is equipped with one of the versions of the AS 90 tower with an 155 caliber produced by BAE Systems Global Combat Systems 52-millimeter barrel. The first order is made for 8 systems, which will be assigned to 2 batteries, 4 systems for each. This order must be completed by 2011 year.
The Russian army still uses a large number of old self-propelled artillery systems, including 203-millimeter 2C7, 152-millimeter 2C5, 152-millimeter 2C3 and 122-millimeter 2-XNNX. It is planned that these systems will be in operation for several more years.
The newest Russian self-propelled system - the 152-millimeter 2-19 MSTA-S - was put into service in the 1989 year, but since then it has been constantly upgraded, especially in the field of fire control systems.
As an export test, the 155 mm / 52 calibration system 2C9M1 was proposed, but no sales have been made so far.
A few years ago, Russia finished a prototype of the unique 152-millimeter twinned artillery system of the Coalition-SV self-propelled, but it remained at the testing stage.
In Singapore, after developing and launching into production a number of towed 155 mm systems — including FH-88 (39 caliber), FH-2000 (52 caliber) and later Pegasus light towed howitzer (39 caliber) equipped with an additional power unit (APU) ) - Singapore Technologies Kenetics (STK) has taken up a new self-propelled artillery system. It is called Primus and it goes without saying that all the 54 systems produced were sent to the Singapore armed forces (SAF).
The Primus is a tracked system, shoots 155 mm / 39 with calibrated projectiles, is equipped with a semi-automatic loading system, the projectile with a fuse is loaded automatically, and the powder charge is loaded manually. Ammunition consists of 26 155 millimeter shells and the corresponding powder charges (charge modules).
The Spanish army, meanwhile, operates a fleet of 155-millimeter self-propelled systems M109A5E, and their local manufacturer, GDSBS, is currently in the process of upgrading this system, one aspect of which is the installation of a digital navigation, aiming and guidance system (DINAPS).
DINAPS is a modular system that combines a hybrid navigation system (inertial and GPS), a radar muzzle velocity sensor, navigation and ballistic software that allows you to connect to the command and control system of the Spanish Army.
The navigation unit determines the angles of horizontal and vertical guidance of the barrel, makes automatic adjustments to the data of the projectile, charge and meteorological conditions, at the same time as the automatic guidance system (AGLS) is used in combination with DINAPS to aim the weapon at the target.
In Switzerland, RUAG Land Systems upgraded the 348 artillery M109 self-propelled systems, the improved model was called the Panzerhaubitze 88 / 95 and is now on the export market.
The complete upgrade concerned the installation of an 155mm / 47 artillery gun of caliber, to which 40 155-millimeter shells are attached with the corresponding number of charge modules. The maximum range of the standard projectile - 23 km. The system has a gun temperature sensor and a semi-automatic charger that increases the rate of fire to 3 shots in 15 seconds. The Panzerhaubitze 88 / 95 is also equipped with an instrument navigation and guidance system that continuously provides the commander, gunner and driver with the necessary information displayed on the displays.
Other innovations include a modernized electrical system, a remote gun release system and a fire detection and response system.
Switzerland also additionally supplied Chile (109) and the United Arab Emirates M3A24 systems, but they were not upgraded prior to delivery.
The Royal British Army Artillery currently uses exclusively 155 mm / 39 self-propelled calibration system AS90 produced by the current company BAE Systems Global Combat Systems. These systems, the total number of 179 pieces, were supplied by the company then known as Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering Ltd (VSEL). Planned to upgrade systems using the installation of an artillery extended range gun (52 caliber) and a modular charge system (MCS), but the program was suspended.
Currently, AS90 is being upgraded in a number of key areas under the Empowerment Program (CEP) to extend its service life, but BAE Systems Global Combat Systems no longer offers a system on the market.
In the United States, due to the expiration of the 203-millimeter M110 and 175-millimeter M 107, the only self-propelled system in use is the 155-millimeter M109.
The newest version, the M109 A6 Paladin, is equipped with a 155 mm / 39 caliber artillery gun, a new turret and an upgraded chassis.
M109 A6 Paladin
The US Army received a delivery from 975 self-propelled M109 A6 Paladin systems from BAE Systems US Combat Systems, plus the same number of auxiliary ammunition transport machines (FAASV) M 992 A2.
The US Army hopes to upgrade most of the M109A6 Paladin fleet to the M109A6 Paladin Integrated Management (PIM) standard. The first model of this system was released at the end of 2007 of the year.
M 109 A 6 Paladin PIM has an upgraded M 109 A 6 Paladin turret installed on a new chassis, which is also used for Bradley airborne combat vehicles used by the US Army.
At the same time, the development of a new 155-millimeter self-propelled system began, following the curtailment of the program for the promising 155-millimeter self-propelled system Crusader. The 155mm / 38 Caliber NLOS — C (Non-Line-of-Sight Cannon) manufactured by the current BAE Systems US Combat Systems was part of the US Army Advanced Fighting Systems (FCS) program, and the first NLOS-С P 1, one of the top five prototypes produced was released in 2008 year.
The NLOS-P1 crew consists of two people, the system is equipped with an 155mm / 38 calibrating artillery gun with an automatic projectile loading system, which first loads the projectile, and then the MCS.
Earlier this year, the US Department of Defense announced the closure of that part of the Advanced Fighting Systems program, which is associated with controlled equipment, including NLOS-S, and at the moment all work is frozen. Now the US Army is studying its future needs in the field of self-propelled artillery.
BAE Systems Global Combat Systems continues to supply the International Howitzer gauge 155mm / 52 gauge to the market, and may also upgrade the US MNNXX for export.
In recent years, there has been a clear trend towards the creation and implementation of wheeled self-propelled artillery systems.
Compared to their tracked counterparts, wheeled self-propelled systems offer a number of significant operational advantages. These include a large strategic mobility, because they move quickly over long distances without the help of conveyors of heavy machinery (HET). It was also stated that they have lower operating costs, they are more accessible in management and maintenance.
China has developed a range of self-propelled wheeled artillery systems, and NORINCO markets at least 2 of them - SH 1 and SH 2 - for potential foreign customers.
The most powerful system is the SH 1 (6 x 6), which has an all-terrain chassis, a protected cockpit and an 155mm / 52 caliber artillery gun mounted in the stern. The machine is controlled by a team of 6 people, has a combat weight of 22 tons and a maximum speed of 90 km / h.
SH 1 (6 x 6)
It has a computerized fire control system, the ammunition load is 20 155-mm projectiles and the corresponding charge modules with the maximum range of the projectile in 53 km when firing HE E RFB BB RA from NORINCO.
The less powerful NORINCO products include the SH 2 system, based on the new 6x6 all-terrain chassis, with the ability to control the front and rear wheels. The 122 millimeter cannon, developed on the basis of a domestic NORINCO towed gun D-30, is mounted on a platform in the center of the chassis.
The maximum range of the SH 2 projectile, when firing a HE BB RA, is 24 km. Combat kit is 24 projectile with charge modules. Like the larger SH 1, SH 2 has an integrated computerized fire control system.
NORINCO has launched production of the new version SH 2 - SH 5 - in which the X-NUMX millimeter gun D-122 has been replaced with the 30 mm / 105 gun gauge. This system is controlled by a team of 37 people and has a maximum range of 4 projectile km, when firing HE BB shells.
China has developed a number of other self-propelled wheeled artillery systems, including one based on the chassis of the 8x8 armored personnel carrier, which in the future may well be used in PLA military operations.
In France, Nexter Systems privately developed the 155mm / 52 caliber artillery self-propelled CAESAR system, the first test model of which was introduced in 1994 year.
Behind it, a pre-production model was released, which the French army upgraded before placing an order for 5 systems for testing at the end of 2000. They were placed in 2002 / 2003, four of them were sent to artillery units, and the fifth was left for combat training, in reserve.
The French army decided to upgrade part of the 155-mm GCT tracked systems (AUF1) fleet to the configuration level AUF2, which includes the installation of 155mm / 52 gun calibers.
As a result, it was decided to remove the existing AUF155 1 millimeter guns, and in 2004, the French army signed a contract with Nexter Systems for the supply of CAESAR 72 systems. The first copies were provided in July 2008, and by the middle of 2009 their number totaled 35.
CAESAR of the French army is based on the chassis of the Renault Trucks Defense 6x6 Sherpa truck with a fully protected cab.
155mm / 52 caliber gun installed in the stern of the machine, equipped with a large opener, which is lowered before opening the fire to ensure a stable platform.
The system has a computerized fire control system to ensure the implementation of automatic operations, ammunition has 18 shells and the corresponding number of charge modules. The maximum range of the projectile HE BB - 42 km.
To date, the CAESAR system has made 2 orders from a foreign buyer. The Royal Thai Army ordered 6 systems (they are already delivered at the moment) and an unnamed export buyer - it was determined that this is the National Guard of Saudi Arabia (SANG) - made an order for 100 units. The latter are based on the chassis of trucks Mercedes-Benz 6х6.
The Israeli company Soltam Systems has extensive experience in the design, development and production of various towed artillery systems and tracked self-propelled systems.
She has now entered the wheeled system market by developing an ATMOS 2000 (Autonomous Truck Mounted Howitzer System), which is currently marketed with an 155-millimeter barrel with a 39, 45 and 52 caliber, the options for a fire control system vary according to customer preferences.
ATMOS 2000 (Autonomous Truck Mounted Howitzer System)
The system has been evaluated by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), it is planned to introduce it into the IDF fleet in support of the upgraded 155-millimeter systems M109 Doher.
ATMOS can be installed on any chassis, the control cabin is in the front of the system, the instrument is installed in the rear. The maximum range of the projectile depends on the combination of projectile / charge, the average is 41 km.
The first export buyer for this system was Uganda, which took delivery of the first batch of 3 units. To meet the needs of Romania, the company developed the 155 mm / 52 ATROM gauge in conjunction with the Romanian company Aerostar. It is based on a domestically developed 6xXNNXX ROMAN chassis and a gun from an ATMOS 6mm / 155 caliber installed in the rear of the system.
The Russian 122 millimeter towed cannon D-30 is the most frequently used in the world. To increase its mobility, Soltam Systems has developed a self-propelled version of the D-30, called Semser.
The first buyer Semser became Kazakhstan. The system is adapted to the rear of the 8x8 KAMAZ all-terrain chassis.
The former Yugoslavia has considerable experience in building and producing towed artillery systems, as well as in upgrading old systems.
Serbia has continued this tradition and is currently producing the 155 mm / 52 self-propelled calibration system NORA B-52, which is based on the KAMAZ 63510 8х8 chassis.
155mm / 52 caliber gun mounted on a turntable in the rear of the chassis; while riding, the barrel is fixed in the front of the system, and during fire, the gun shoots from the rear. The ammunition consists of 36 shells and the corresponding number of charge modules; the maximum range of the ER FB BB projectile at the moment is 44 km.
As well as in many systems of this type of recent production, it is possible to install various fire control systems, including the latest version with automatic guidance, a command and control system and an additional power unit.
In the 70 of the 20 century, Czechoslovakia developed an artillery 152-millimeter self-propelled Dana system, which was based on the Tatra 8х8 armored cargo chassis. About 750 units were produced for the internal and external market, many of which are currently in operation.
Further development of the Slovak self-propelled guns was completed with the production of Xuzummm / 155 calibers Zuzana, modernized in many aspects. The system is based on the Tatra 45 all-terrain chassis, has a protected cabin for the team in front of the system, a fully enclosed turret in the middle part and a protected engine compartment in the rear.
In addition to the exploitation of the Slovak army, Zuzana was also sold to Cyprus and a little later to Georgia.
For testing purposes, the tower was placed on the T-72 M1 tank chassis and as a result of further development, the Zuzana 2 155mm / 52 gauge system was obtained, which is based on the new Tatra chassis and is still at the testing stage of the prototype.
In order to meet the demands of the army of South Africa, the 155mm / 45 caliber 6x6 self-propelled howitzer-gun G6, using the same gun as the towed G5, was developed.
self-propelled howitzer gun G6
South Africa received 43 units, 24 units were exported to Oman and 78 to the United Arab Emirates.
G6 has a combat weight of 47 tons, usually managed by a team of 6 people, its range is 700 km. The ammunition is 45 155-millimeter shells and charges developed by Rheinmetall Denel Munitions.
The maximum range of 155-millimeter HE HE BB - 39,3 km, but this distance can be increased to 50 km by using high-explosive fragmentation projectile, which has an increased firing range (VLAP), already produced for export.
The result of further development carried out by Denel Land Systems was the 155mm / 52 caliber artillery self-propelled system G6-52, which is based on an upgraded chassis, has a new turret system with an integrated 155-mm projectile automatic loading system. This contributes to high rate of fire up to 8 shots per minute. The turret has 40 155-millimeter rounds of ammunition, and in addition 8 155-millimeter rounds are located in the chassis.
artillery self-propelled system G6-52
This system is based on the latest G6 chassis, has also been successfully tested on the T-72 MBT chassis (for India), and in this form the system has the name T6. The development of this system is not yet complete.
Denel Land Systems is also developing the 155-mm artillery self-propelled system T5 Condor for export. The first copy was mounted on a Tatra truck chassis with a lifting capacity that tows 155mm / 52 caliber artillery systems G5-2000. As a standard, an automatic instrument control system is built into the system. The complex can also be installed on another chassis.
Denel Land Systems is developing a new version of the 105-millimeter towed system LEO (Light Experimental Armament), which will feature its installation on a truck. Together with General Dynamics Land Systems, she developed a trial self-propelled version of the system, with a turret mounted on the light armored combat vehicle (LAV) 8x8 chassis.
At the same time, BAE Systems Global Combat Systems is currently completing work on the 6x6_ FH-77 BW L52 Archer self-propelled system. An order for 48 units of this model is expected, of which 24 will be shipped to Norway, and another 24 - to Sweden.
FH-77 BW L52 Archer
Archer is based on the Volvo 6x6 all-terrain chassis, has a fully protected cab in the front of the system and 155mm / 52 caliber guns in the rear. The weapon is controlled, guided and triggered by a team located in the cabin.
The ammunition is 34 projectile and the corresponding number of charges, the average range - 40 km for standard projectile, and 60 km for projectile increased range.
In addition to using conventional projectiles, the system can use more advanced technologies, such as projectiles for attacking from above, BONUS, and Excalibur precision targeting projectiles.
Development of shells
In recent years, numerous developments have been carried out in the field of ammunition, especially artillery shells and charge modules.
Traditional types of ammunition: high-explosive, smoke and light were supplemented with extended-range projectiles with a gas generator or rocket booster, or projectiles combining these characteristics.
To repel a massive armed attack, 155-millimeter (and other caliber) container shells were developed and put into operation, stuffed with a large number of smaller projectiles equipped with HEAT-type cumulative anti-tank warheads.
Some shells had a self-destruction mechanism, others did not, with the result that vast territories were bombarded with unexploded shells that prevented the advancement of friendly troops.
As a result of the convention on cluster munitions, a ban was introduced on the use of cluster bombs as well as missiles with such sub-charges, but a number of countries still produce and use such munitions.
To suppress costly targets — such as tanks and artillery systems — advanced 155 millimeter shells were designed and launched to attack from above. These include BONUS shells from Nexter Munitions / BAE Systems Global Combat Systems (used by France and Sweden) and German SMArt used by Australia, Germany, Greece, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
The US Army introduced the Copperhead (CLGP) artillery shells many years ago, and although their shelf life has almost expired, they are still on the registry.
The Russian Instrument Design Bureau (KBP) has developed a whole series of laser-guided artillery shells, including the 152-millimeter Krasnopol (now also has its 155-millimeter version). These shells were sold to France and India, where they were later used in Bofors 155-millimeter systems produced by FH-77B during hostilities with Pakistan. At the moment, NORINCO supplies 155-millimeter shells to the market similar to Russian Krasnopol in terms of characteristics.
Russia also developed a 120-millimeter version of laser-guided artillery shells — The Edge (the whole system is called KM-8) for use in 120-millimeter mortar systems, and the Kitols — the 122-millimeter variant for towed and self-propelled systems.
Canada and the United States successfully used the early versions of Raytheon 155-millimeter precision-guided missiles (PGMs) in Afghanistan. Further mass production of such missiles is planned. Every effort is being made to reduce their costs and make them widely used.
ATK also took part in the competition, providing the US Army with artillery shells equipped with a precision targeting system with remote blasting functions (PGK), which replaced the existing artillery fuses.
During the tests, the system showed a total probable deviation on 50 m with the range of the 155 millimeter projectile M589A1 in 20,5 km.
The introduction of PGK will contribute to a significant reduction in the required number of projectiles to neutralize the target, which as a result will entail an overall reduction in ammunition costs.
Conventional balloon-type projectiles are currently being actively replaced by modular MCS or uni-MCS, where 5 modules are used in the 155mm / 39 caliber system and six in the 155mm / 52 caliber.
They are easier to manage, besides, they are suitable for any self-propelled system with automatic loading system.
Many countries pay special attention to ISTAR's designs that help facilitate the detection of targets by artillery units. Such developments include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), various types of radar and other military sensors such as laser rangefinders / pointers and day / thermal imaging devices that allow you to detect and detect targets at long distances.
In connection with recent advances in ammunition and charge modules, towed and self-propelled systems will continue to play a major role in hostilities, but other systems are likely to be introduced in addition to them.
For example, as part of the US Army FCS (Advanced Fighting Systems) program, a rocket launcher for firing from a closed position (NLOS - LS) was developed, consisting of a block of launch canisters (CLU) containing 15 vertically installed high-precision blister missiles (PAM) or cruise missiles (LAM). Currently, development is underway on LAM, in order to increase its range to 70 km. Despite the order to stop the entire program, work on the NLOS-LS for the US Army is still ongoing.
The United Kingdom is currently implementing the program Team Complex Weapons, in which the development of the winged fire ammunition Fire Shadow, the supplier of which is MBDA, is in the first place. It seeks to provide ground forces with the ability to quickly capture and hit a target over long distances and with greater accuracy.
A large number of countries are now focusing on fire control and ammunition development, rather than on the firing platform itself.
Traditionally, firing operations are carried out at the level of battalions, batteries or troops, but many of the recently introduced self-propelled artillery systems are equipped with an on-board computerized fire control system integrated with the ground navigation system, which would allow for firing missions autonomously.
This feature, combined with an automatic projectile loading system, allows achieving a high level of fire rate and the implementation of the MRSI fire missions (simultaneous multi-projectile hit, “barrage of fire”).
These systems begin to operate much faster, carry out a fire mission, and also quickly disappear to avoid returning shelling.