120 years ago, 2 in November 1894, the last Russian emperor Nikolai II Alexandrovich took the throne. Nikolai Alexandrovich Romanov, 26-year-old son of Emperor Alexander III, inherited the throne after the sudden death of his father. On the same day, officials, courtiers and troops took the oath to the emperor.
Nikolai Alexandrovich himself was a good man and a family man. In calmer times, he would rule for the joy of himself and the people, Russia continued to gradually strengthen. But he was very unlucky. First, his father died suddenly, and Nicholas committed unexpectedly the throne ahead of time. Secondly, the Romanovs' empire was in deep crisis, and it needed to be radically reformed, and it had to be done quickly, but without a break (Stalin had to do everything very quickly to save civilization and the people). Thirdly, it was during the reign of Nicholas II that the “world community” (the “civilized West”) sentenced Russia to division. The whole world came to a new era and the old empires, including Russia, had to become a thing of the past. The masters of the Anglo-Saxon project prepared the planet for a big repartition. Germany and Russia had to exhaust each other in a fierce struggle, and their resources served as the foundation of the New World Order.
In general, Nicholas II was not lucky. He did not have the iron will of Father Alexander III and great-grandfather Nicholas I to resist the sophisticated and insidious enemy, as well as the capabilities and ruthlessness of Peter I, to radically rebuild Russia. In order for it to stand in world war and be able to win, come out updated. And without a radical transformation, the old, Romance Russia could not survive. Too deep contradictions lay at its core. For three centuries of its existence, the safety margin of the “White Empire” has been exhausted.
Peter I is usually accused of distorting historical the path of Russia, "cut a window to Europe" and Westernized the country. However, this is only the tip of the iceberg. Peter only completed the lengthy process that his predecessors began. Without raising the theme of the accession of the Romanovs to the throne (this is a separate, vast and complex topic), it is obvious that from the first Romanovs Russia gradually began to be rebuilt in a Western manner. To begin with, the Romanovs achieved complete freedom from society, gradually reducing the role of Zemsky Sobors and other people's institutions to zero. Then the Romanovs and the power-hungry church hierarchs dealt a terrible blow to the basis of Russian society - the Russian faith, which carried the “Kitezh-grad” (God's Kingdom on Earth) civilization values. The spiritual tradition was suppressed, the line of Sergius of Radonezh and his students, non-possessors, archimandrite Dionysus and the elders of the Solovetsky monastery. After all, it was the Russian faith that was the source of the people's energy, their strength, capable of accomplishing any miracle.
Nikon and other "reformers" who introduced modern Greek rituals, made a complete substitution of the meaning of faith. Living faith was replaced by an empty, formal religion. Avvakum and other “Old Believers” were brutally suppressed. Holy Russia, which the Nikonians reduced to rituals, the total nationalization of the church, bureaucratic servility and police supervision of the parishioners (the priests were obliged to "knock" on suspicious parishioners), in fact, went underground. The most healthy part of Russian society, the Old Believers, became persecuted for steadfastly preserving their ideals. It is they who, with their hard work and patience, will later create the Russian national capital. And before that, for two centuries, they were retreating to the most remote parts of Russia, preserving their own way.
Nikon and Romanovs stopped this life-giving source, the Russian faith. Suffice it to recall how the troops from 1666 to 1674. besieged Solovetsky monastery, the last stronghold of the Russian spirit. Taking it through betrayal, the troops brutally killed the monks, who heroically fought for their abode. They were drowned in ice holes, skinned and hung on meat hooks. As a result, the split led to the formation of a huge gap between the people and the government. This split completely took shape under Peter, when two people were formed in Russia - the Russian people themselves, and the German and French-speaking "elite". At the same time, the best part of the people (up to a quarter of the population) went into a “split”, forming their own, “parallel” Russia. Old Believers retained the Russian faith, spiritual and physical sobriety, honesty and perseverance.
Peter the First completed the case, abolishing the patriarchate and making the church a department of the state. Gradually, most of the population lost faith, and the clergy lost their authority. Faith was kept only by certain old men, like Seraphim of Sarov. The official "Orthodoxy" degenerated, became a formality. Therefore, it is not surprising that the people as a whole showed indifference to the killing of churchmen, the destruction of churches and monasteries during the years of the Civil War. It should be noted that the current "state Orthodoxy" is not at all better than what was in the Russian Empire, the disease has not been eradicated. It is impossible to revive spirituality with beautiful tempering novelties and empty ceremonialism. Thus, in its spirituality and kindness, the Soviet society of the period 1940-1950. It is an order of magnitude higher than the Russian society of the 2000 model.
The attempt of the Romanovs to recode the Russian civilization, turn it into Europe completely failed and ended with the national disaster of 1917 of the year. But it took more than 300 years. Peter I was not the first Westerner, but it was he who made Westernization irreversible. Peter's Cultural Revolution designed a turn towards Europe. The autocrat literally with an iron fist drove Western culture into Russia, with brutal reprisals, such as the execution of archers, when the king personally cut off their heads and forced them to do so, suppressing any resistance. There is nothing fun in shaving beards, dressing up in foreign clothes, sending young people who are most easily amenable to suggestion, recoding, abroad, women's participation in joint parties, these are all elements of the cultural revolution, replacing their values with others. New capital - St. Petersburg has become the western city, the place of residence of the new "elite". No wonder the city carried and carries a lot of Western, including hidden, Masonic symbolism.
The deepest meaning of Peter’s policy was best expressed by one of his closest associates, Peter Saltykov: “The Russians are in every way similar to the Western nations, but they are behind them. Now we need to put them on the right path. " These words became the guiding star of all the "reformers" and "perestroika" who tried to remake Russia and the Russian people in the Western style. This view of Peter was formed under the influence of foreign mentors, and at the same time companions.
As a result, Peter created the powerful Russian empire with all its ups and downs, and he also predetermined her death. The tragedy of his son Alexei is a kind of sign, speaking about the future of Romanovskaya Russia. Peter was able to modernize Russia in a Western way, make it a mighty military, maritime and economic power, but the spirit of the people, its cultural code was distorted, which in the future predetermined the death of the Russian Empire.
The Russian people were divided into two parts - the gentlemen and the impoverished population. Gentlemen possessed a high, Western culture, they could receive an excellent education, travel, live in clover, and the population was reduced to the level of almost slaves who had to fight for the empire, bear all costs, pay taxes. At the same time, the “elite” gradually degraded. Unfortunately, such Russian people in the spirit as Lomonosov, Suvorov, Ushakov, Nakhimov, Kornilov were not enough for the whole of Russia, they could not close all the “embrasures”. In general, the “elite”, having lost the iron tsar-reformer, who did not spare anyone, including himself, decomposed, saturated with Western values. "Elitist" even killed the sovereign Paul when he tried to restore discipline and order in the aristocracy. As a result, it was the “elite” that made the February 1917 revolution of the year, the charter to endure such “remnants” as autocracy. The pro-Western "elite" wanted to finally join Europe, make Russia look like England or France.
Under Alexander III (and even a little earlier), the Russian Empire got a chance for transformation, restoration on the basis of the Russian way. The Eastern (Crimean) War and the Berlin Congress 1878 of the Year, which deprived us of the fruits of victory over the Ottoman Empire, showed that Russia has no friends and allies in Europe. It was under Alexander Alexandrovich that the foreign and domestic policy of Russia began to rapidly “grow into Rus’s”. In Russian culture, traditional motifs began to appear. She unexpectedly took up the search for the deep foundations of Holy Russia, the moral sources of Russian life. Tolstoy, Leskov, Tyutchev, Dostoevsky, Leontyev, Fet, Savrasov, Levitan, Nesterov, Mussorgsky, Dal, Danilevsky and many others revealed the depths of Russian existence. The major figures of Russian culture knew perfectly well and appreciated European culture, but it came to the realization that it was alien, that Russian culture and civilization were original and self-sufficient. As a result, the Russian people and the state opened up opportunities for radical transformations based on the Russian way.
However, Russophile Alexander III fell ahead of time, and Nicholas II could not change the situation and save the empire, create a new elite in Russian spirit, eliminate illiteracy, conduct industrialization and restructuring of agriculture. At the same time, continuing the foreign policy course of Alexander the Peacemaker, without getting involved in external conflicts, focused on the internal arrangement of the Russian Empire.
Especially dangerous for the then Russia was to fight. She could not fight anyway. The most far-sighted people, like Durnovo, Stolypin and Rasputin, warned about this (the last two Masonic structures were physically eliminated). Already the Russian-Japanese war 1904-1905. showed all the rottenness of the empire and the precariousness of the internal situation, where the hardest political, socio-economic and national contradictions have ripened. The war revealed the problem of the lack of strategic planning for decades to come. Russia had dozens of years of peace in the Far East, but did not use them for a serious development of the region. The war showed the weakness of the “peacetime” generals; among the generals there were no Suvorovs and Schelians, ready for decisive and swift actions, able to use the unique combat potential of a Russian soldier and officer. That Russian diplomacy is not capable of resolving disputed issues with Tokyo amicably, delimiting the spheres of influence in China and Korea, making the Japanese friends and allies in the Pacific. That officials and the bourgeoisie are amazed at corruption and robbing the army (this was during the Crimean War and will be in the First World War). And for this collapse and theft, no one answered.
The war revealed a deep division in Russian society. The common people did not know at all what the country was fighting for, and the liberal intelligentsia openly wished their country defeat. Army betrayed at all. Even after a series of defeats and heavy losses, the Russian army was not defeated and intensified, and the Japanese army was on the verge of a military catastrophe. By the summer of 1905, Japan was exhausted, Russia was able to concentrate a powerful army in Manchuria, which was finally ready to launch a decisive offensive. It was possible to defeat the Japanese, return Port Arthur, generally throw the enemy out of China and Korea. Japan was on the verge of financial collapse, its military and demographic resources were exhausted, the Japanese would have to ask for peace. However, at a convenient moment in Russia, the revolution was provoked, the United States persistently offered mediation in the negotiations, and Russian politicians like Witte actively supported the peace initiative. Russia acknowledged defeat on the eve of its victory.
In general, the war with Japan was a warning that Russia could not be at war. Behind any adversary of Russia will be England and the USA, wishing to destroy Russia with someone else’s hands and take their resources into their hands. They skillfully set off the Russians and the Japanese, and then the Russians and Germans.
At the same time, Russia's external enemies have worked for decades to create a heterogeneous “fifth column” within Russia. They were all sorts of socialists, anarchists, nationalists, separatists, Liberal Democrats, Freemasons and other vermin. And the most dangerous were not the Bolsheviks, who were on the sidelines of political life, but high-ranking liberals, members of the Masonic lodges — grand dukes, generals, bankers, industrialists, Duma leaders, major publishers and journalists, lawyers, etc. the empire was overwhelmed by liberalism, gentleness and strange inaction. She did everything except her immediate responsibilities. Revolution 1905-1907's. became a test of the stability of the empire, its immunity.
A heroic attempt to keep the empire from collapse was made by Stolypin. But his policy partially collapsed, not having met the support of the authorities and the people, was partly designed for a long peaceful period of development, which the country did not have. In addition, he was killed, as Stolypin stubbornly stood for peace at any cost. World War I became the death sentence of the empire. All the best forces and resources were thrown to the front. The cadre army, which could give a hard rebuff to the revolutionaries, was killed in the battles. Almost in all spheres of life destabilization occurred, chaos began to grow. The Fifth Column was given the opportunity to prepare and carry out a coup d'etat in February 1917. Nicholas II was doomed, the sovereign and his family made ritual sacrifices that symbolized the death of Russia and the Russian people.
True, the enemies of the Russian people miscalculated. Russia and the Russian people were able to get out of this pit, albeit at the cost of millions of victims. It should be noted that the current situation in the Russian Federation has an obvious similarity with the late Russian Empire. The head of state Vladimir Putin (or his successor) must conduct the “Russification” of Russia, the “nationalization of the elite”, the new industrialization, regain the independence of the country's finances, prevent the country from being drawn into a big war in its initial period (it will have to participate in it one way or another) , complete the rearmament of the armed forces, etc. Otherwise, Russia will face another unrest.