Naval forces in the Black Sea theater

The Turkish fleet is the strongest and most powerful in the Black Sea, both in the number of ships and in the aggregate combat power.

The basis of the battle line of the Turkish fleet are 8 frigates MEKO 200, belonging to 2-m different generations.


The most modern among them - 2 frigate class MEKO 200 TN-IIB "Barbarossa"

Naval forces in the Black Sea theater


These ships have 3350 tons of full displacement. Two of them were built in Germany, and two - directly in Turkey. For their size, these small ships are very well armed. The basis of their armament is 16-charging PU MK-41, designed for 16 missiles RIM-162 ESSM (Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile). These anti-aircraft missiles were designed specifically to intercept low-flying maneuvering targets, such as supersonic cruise missiles. The range of their action at a speed of almost 4 M is about 50 km, and a very sophisticated programmable guidance system allows them to have a high probability of interception of modern missiles of any class.

The anti-ship armament of the frigates is represented by 8 missiles "Harpoon" in 2-x 4-charging containers.

The ship’s artillery is a standard 50-caliber 5-inch gun and 3 (unusually for such a small ship) automatic sea zenith guns of 25 millimeters. The guns manufactured by Oerlikon are considered to be very advanced systems of this class.

Anti-submarine armament of ships is limited to TA and helicopter (which is not surprising, considering that only Turkey has developed submarine forces in the Black Sea)

The 4 frigate of the Yavuz class (MEKO 200 TN-I) is smaller and weaker. Their main armament is limited to 8 PU EMSM ADMS, which makes their anti-aircraft capabilities very limited.

Turkey’s 8 fleet of large class G frigates round off the line. They are heavily upgraded frigates of the class "Oliver Hazard Perry", transferred from the US Navy. Although these large ships are not young, they have nevertheless been significantly modernized.



Turkish ship upgrades included the installation of an 32-charging PU MK-41 for the ESSM self-defense missiles in the bow. This has significantly improved the ability of frigates to repel salvo attacks of anti-ship missiles and intercept modern missiles.

The main armament of the frigate still makes up the 32-girder launcher PU Mk-13 - one of the most advanced PU in its class. Although this system belongs to the obsolete generation of beam launchers and is not capable of firing more than one missile in a salvo, it is still able to launch a rocket every 8 seconds. Two 20-charging drum shops may contain long-range SM-1 MR Block III missiles.

Thus, the air defense of frigates is two-echelon and very powerful.


The fire control system has undergone great changes. Modernization GENESIS gave it all the features of a modern system, in particular, the ability to track almost 1000 targets, multi-function radar, modern integration of weapon components and highly efficient control. In fact, now these are powerful and modern units that are powerful enough to participate in combat operations.

Anti-ship armament consists of 8 missiles "Harpoon" in PU stores MK-13.

Corvettes Turkey has

Two of them are new, high-performance units built using Stealth technology. They belong to the series "Milge".



With a displacement of 2300 tons, these corvettes carry an arsenal of 8 RCC "Harpoon", 21-charging PU SAMs self-defense RAM and 76-millimeter automatic cannon. Anti-submarine armament is represented by TA and a helicopter, which is supposed to replace the creation of a UAV. At the moment, these ships are the only units on the Black Sea, created using the Stealth technology.

Only two such ships are ready, but it is assumed that there will be more than 12 in all.

6 old class B corvettes are much more primitive.



Essentially, they are the big D'Esten D'Orves advice notes, handed over to Turkey. They are armed with anti-ship missiles "Otomat" (which causes problems with the procurement of spare parts), but do not have air defense missile systems and active air defense systems in excess of the 100-millimeter 55-caliber. Their combat capabilities are limited to escorting larger ships to reinforce the volley.

The number of light units in the Turkish fleet is very large, and all this is quite powerful rocket boats.



The most modern are 9 rocket boats of the Kilik class of German construction. Built in the 1998-2010, these boats have a displacement of 552 tons, which gives them quite satisfactory seaworthiness. The speed in 40 nodes and the range in 1900 km with 30 nodes allows you to attack any objects in the Black Sea area. The armament of the ships - 8 missiles "Harpoon" and 76-mm automatic gun "Oto Melara", as well as 40-mm anti-aircraft gun at the stern.

2 boats "Ildiz", 4 boats "Ruzan" and 4 boats "Dogan" slightly older and less speed. Their maximum stroke is about 38 nodes. Otherwise, they are almost identical to the “Kilik” class. They are almost as powerful units, the only drawback of which is the lack of air defense systems. Under the conditions of the Black Sea, this may be a problem.

8 missile boats "Catral" - the old ships 1970-x. They have a total displacement of 206 tons and are armed with 8 Penguin short-range missiles. These ships have no modern artillery and are of dubious value. In fact, they can only be effectively used in the coastal defense; however, they have a mine-laying system, which makes it possible to use them as quick minzags.

Turkey Submarines has 14 pieces, all belong to the German Type 209 Type Series.



The most modern of these are 4 PL Type 209T2 / 1400. These submarines built in the 2000s are the most modern submarines on the Black Sea. Their full displacement is 1586 tons. The underwater speed reaches 22 nodes with a range of underwater 700 km. The immersion depth is 500 m. Their main armament is 8 TA with a diameter of 533 of a millimeter, which allows them to be used to place mines and Garpun missiles.

4 PL Type 209Т1 / 1400 is not very different from the first, but are considered somewhat more noisy.

Older 6 Type 209 / 1200 built in 1970's are somewhat outdated and overly noisy. Their speed is less, and the crew is more numerous. Nevertheless, given the weakness of the submarine fleets of the other powers of the Black Sea, even these old submarines are very dangerous, especially in areas covered from aviation.

Landing forces include 5 large tank landing ships and 40 small tank landing ferries.

Thus, the total strength of the Turkish squadron is determined in 16 frigates (general salvo - 128 PKR "Harpoon"), 8 corvettes (general volley - 16 PKR "Harpoon" and 48 missiles "Otomat"), 21 modern rocket boat (general salvo - 168 "Harpoon" missiles and 8 old ones (common salvo - 64 RCC)

The Black Sea Fleet of Russia ranks second in the Black Sea. Although it surpasses the Turkish in aggregate tonnage of large units, most of these ships are rather outdated or have a number of drawbacks.

The most powerful ship of the Russian fleet is the cruiser project 1164 "Moscow"



A fairly large and powerful ship (comparable in class to modern destroyers), it is the result of a chain of evolution of Soviet strike bomber carriers. Its main armament — the extended range X-NUMX P-16 “Vulkan” missiles — can hypothetically hit a target at any point of the Black Sea (in practice, due to the difficulties with targeting, the absence of Soviet-era aerospace target designation systems — this possibility is only hypothetical )

At the same time, an air defense cruiser is completely inadequate for a ship of this size. The S-300F SAM system is good enough, but there are only 64 missiles available, which is completely insufficient for reflecting a fairly massive salvo from airplanes or surface ships. The air defense missile system "Osa-M" is outdated and does not provide effective destruction of speed targets like the AGM-84 HARM. Six 30-millimeter automatic guns are powerful enough, but due to problems with the guidance system, they are inferior to similar Vulcan Phalanx systems.

The main drawback is that there is only one cruiser in the ranks, and in the event of its failure for technical or military reasons, there is nothing to replace it with.



The second large ship is the BNK Kerch project 1134-B. For large sizes (8800 tons), the ship has a rather unsatisfactory air defense system from the 2-two double-beam PST air defense missile system Storm (total 80 missiles) and 2-x Osa air defense missile system. The anti-ship armament of the ship is limited to PLUR "Rastrub-B" in the number of 8 units. These PLUR, although good enough against the submarines, are completely useless against surface ships, since they have an effective radius of 90 km, which is much smaller than the range of the anti-ship missiles.

BPC "Ochakov" project 61 outdated hopelessly.



Despite the modernization and armament of the 8 spacecraft with X-35 Uran missiles, this spacecraft is too weak and worn to pose any danger to modern units. His air defense system "Wave" does not pose a threat even for single aircraft.

Two IPC project 1135 are small frigates with a displacement of about 3200 tons.



Their main armament is 4 PLUR "Rastrub-B", which actually makes it impossible for them to conduct naval combat. Two OSR "Osa" is able to repel only single attacks and do not pose any threat to aircraft due to the short range.

Small units Russia has about 10 pieces. The most up-to-date of them are two air-cushion interconnection systems of the 1239 project.



ROC project 1239 - powerful and modern units. Possessing a very high speed, they can deliver powerful blows with their supersonic Mosquito anti-ship missiles (8 pieces on each). In the waters of the Black Sea, these ships, having the ability to move on even ground, can be very dangerous for any enemy. Unfortunately, due to the limited range of the Moskit anti-ship missiles (120 km) and the high fragility of the design, these ships are forced to come very close to the enemy. The Osa-M complexes can only be considered as partial protection, they are not capable of hitting air targets at a distance of more than 15 km and at an altitude of more than 4,5 km, which allows airplanes and helicopters to successfully hit MRCs.

Two ISCs of the 12341 project are smaller and more primitive.



They are scaled rocket boats of high seaworthiness. Their weapons are 6 PU PKR Malakhit, subsonic PKR with a range of up to 150 km, which makes them not powerful enough for modern naval combat. Nevertheless, these ships have the Osa-M air defense missile system and, in general, are superior to any Turkish missile boat.

Rocket boats are available 5, all project 12411.

4 of them are armed with anti-ship missiles "Mosquito" (4) and one with anti-ship missiles "Termite" (which makes it completely useless). A number of boats were upgraded and received a new air defense complex "Palash", which dramatically increased their effect.



The only submarine of the Russian Federation on the Black Sea - project 877В "Alrosa"



In the 2000-x submarine "Alrosa" was equipped with a jet propulsion, which dramatically reduced its noise. However, this submarine is only one, which makes it of little use.

The Russian fleet, in general, is a very dangerous force. He is the only one who has supersonic anti-ship missiles. However, in general, the number of combat-ready large units is very small. Of the 3 ships, only the RNR of the 1164 project has powerful anti-ship missiles and powerful anti-aircraft missiles.

Light forces of the fleet, in general, are very dangerous, but few. Their effectiveness can be severely limited in the conditions of the domination of enemy aviation. RCCs of the Mosquito class are certainly very dangerous, but their radius does not exceed (or even inferior) the radius of the latest modifications of the Harpoon RCC.

The Romanian Navy is the third most powerful in the Black Sea.

The basis of the Romanian fleet are 3 frigate.

The frigate "Maratseshti", built in Romania in the 1980-x, is a rather unusual ship.



Built on civil shipbuilding technology, it has a displacement of almost 5500 tons, which allows it to be classified as a destroyer. Its armament is quite outdated - it is the 8 PU-PKR P-20 (modified P-15), 4 76-millimeter autocannons and 430-millimeter automatic guns. The ship does not carry anti-aircraft missiles, which makes it suitable for use only under the protection of other units. In general, his combat capabilities are low.

Two frigates Tip-22 - the basis of the strength of Romania.

Each of them, with a displacement of 5300 tons, is armed with a Civulf self-defense SAM system. This small rocket with the launch of 10 km can effectively hit low-flying targets. The main armament is 4 PKR "Otomat", powerful enough.

Corvettes Romania has 4, none of them have an air defense system or anti-ship missiles. In fact, these are large patrol ships of the Almirate Petre Baruniani class. They have helicopters, which makes them applicable for anti-submarine warfare, but without air defense systems, their survival in modern warfare is impossible within the radius of action of aviation.

RTOs and rocket boats Romania has 7, all armed with anti-ship missiles P-15. They are copies of Soviet units of a similar class and are no different.

The Romanian fleet is generally rather weak. He absolutely does not have enough ships with a powerful air defense. Although some kind of defense is only in 2-x frigates, but it can only protect against small attacks.

The Bulgarian Navy is strong enough.

It is based on the Belgian-built 4 frigate.



These ships, with a displacement of only about 2200 tons, are carried by the Exocset anti-ship missiles (4 units) and the C Sparrow SAM system (8 units), which makes them powerful enough for their small sizes. Although the anti-ship armament of ships is rather weak, they are nonetheless able to perform their functions.

The old Soviet corvette of the 1159 project, armed with anti-ship missiles P-15 and the Osa air defense missile system, is also part of the fleet.

The fleet is supplemented with 4 small corvettes of the 1241.2 "Lightning-2" class. These small units are 500-ton Soviet ships with powerful artillery weapons. They are only suitable for patrols, as they are not equipped with any anti-ship missiles or anti-aircraft systems.

The fleet also has an old submarine project 633 (outdated and noisy) and 3 old missile boats "Osa"

In general, the Bulgarian fleet is well balanced. Given the small coast of Bulgaria, he is fully capable of carrying out his tasks in his defense.

The Ukrainian Navy is in very poor condition due to a lack of funding. His real combat worth is low. However, in recent times there are signs of improvement.

The only major ship of the Ukrainian Navy is the frigate of the 1135 project "Getman Sagaidachny"



A large enough, 3300-ton ship frigate is armed only with the Osa air defense missile system and 100-millimeter artillery. He does not carry PKR. The presence of powerful anti-submarine weapons (2 5-pipe TA) and a helicopter makes it a good patrol unit.

4 IPC project 1241M form the basis of the Ukrainian line. All of them are armed with the Osa air defense missile system and artillery.



Two rocket boats of the 12411T project with Termite missiles and two rocket boats of the 206 project are the only carriers of anti-ship missiles in the Ukrainian Navy.
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