Russia's national threat is its technological safety.

Russia's national threat is its technological safety.One of the problems of “innovation” Russia was its technological safety. In the last decade, the expression “engineering thought” has virtually disappeared. Russia and the Russians are no longer considered in the world as a state and a nation capable of technological breakthroughs that can change the whole world. In the report of the World Economic Forum for 2010, Russia turned out to be at the 77 place in the ranking of technological developed countries.

And this is with the openness of borders, the ability to borrow foreign technology, to learn about the latest achievements of world scientific and technical thought. Although in the USSR, with the “iron curtain”, Soviet engineers were “ahead of the rest of the planet” in leading and most important areas, such as military and space. The launch of the first artificial satellite of the planet, the world's first atomic surface ship and the first atomic civilian vessel, the flight of Y. Gagarin, the first spacewalk of A. Leonov, the miracle of the first flight of the Buran, cannot be listed. Now we recall the similar achievements of our engineering and design ideas while watching popular science films or reading books.

The “geopolitical catastrophe” of 1991 of the year led to the collapse of industry, science, the massive flight of scientists, engineers abroad, and engineering education was ruined. This is a real threat to the national security of Russia - without national modern technologies, we are doomed to a complete historical defeat in this rapidly changing world.

Currently in the Russian Federation there are 442 polytechnic state universities and 113 non-state universities. According to the Engineering Education magazine, in May 2010 of the year, the project “Developing and testing a system for monitoring employers 'satisfaction with quality of graduates from higher education institutions” conducted a survey on employers' satisfaction with the quality of training graduates of Russian universities. Two specialists from 10 of the largest enterprises-employers of the city of Kirov in the field of communications and IT-technologies, engineering, biotechnology and energy took part in the survey. In this questionnaire, representatives of employers were to assess the quality of graduate training on the 7-point system. Most of the marks were placed in the range of 3 - 5 points. Moreover, during the same study, students rated their abilities highly - from 5 to 7 points. In addition, employers noted the low ability to apply their knowledge in practice.

Officials from the department of Fursenko are confident that the problem of polytechnic and other paperwork education (when innovations and modernization are continuous, and in fact further degradation) and punitive measures can still be “solved”. But the situation can not be corrected, continuing to go through the introduction of the so-called. “Bologna system”, when teachers and teachers of the country are mostly one of the poorest categories of the country. With the frank and insolent luxury of officials and businessmen and their children, this causes a hidden social protest of teachers, unwillingness to participate in the implementation of new standards. But since they are not ready to resist these processes, the “Fursenko reform” is being sabotaged. That is why the various instructions, programs and other educational codes that are invented in the Ministry of Education (to show their vigorous activity and need) conflict with real life.

In this case, the director of the Accreditation Center of the Association for Engineering Education of Russia, Professor S.I. Gerasimov is absolutely right: “If a manager in a large supermarket earns more than a TsAGI or SibNIA engineer, then the likelihood of new Burans and supersonic airplanes is negligible.” In addition, recently it is not enough to get fundamental knowledge, the main task of universities is to teach a young person to learn, independently acquire knowledge and implement it in practice.

According to Professor Gerasimov, from November 2010 of the year to January of 2011, several training seminars were held for the management staff of engineering universities in a number of federal districts. The participants were asked to make assessments of this series: a systemic and deep crisis; critical situation; temporary deterioration (stagnation); satisfactory condition; good condition; another. More than half of the specialists rated the state of engineering in Russia as a systemic, deep crisis or critical state, another 27% assessed the state as stagnation. And only 15% managers of engineering universities recognized it as satisfactory. The wording “the state of affairs“ good ”was not chosen by anyone. To save the situation need a set of emergency measures.

There are other depressing figures: in Russia, less than 30% of schoolchildren are expressing to pass the EEG in physics, that is, more than 70% (!) Of senior pupils do not see themselves in engineering and technology! In the structure of the export of Russia, only about 5% are machines and equipment, in the 60-70-ies this figure was higher than 20%. For example: in 2009, in the USA, this figure was 34%, in Japan 62%, in South Korea up to 50%. It is difficult with such indicators to say: “Russia is ahead!” Where is “forward” ?! To the further degradation of education, science, the preservation of only raw materials orientation?

Another important problem in Russia is that our professional qualifications of people who make management decisions are extremely low. In order to become a doctor, professor, there are certain procedures, but deans, vice-rectors, rectors, ministers are often random people who do not have normal management skills. Hence the problem of corruption.

According to Professor Gerasimov, concrete steps can be taken to change the situation for the better: adopt the Federal Law on Engineering Activities (it will regulate the rights and duties of a qualified engineer, maintain a national register of engineers, define requirements for certification procedures for qualifications, etc.); the need to debureaucratize the activities of higher educational institutions, increasing their autonomy; prepare a new management body for universities; develop a national, internationally recognized system of social and professional accreditation of educational programs and certification of engineering qualifications; to involve employers and scientists of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the process of training, retraining of specialists.

Innovation situation

The National Association of Innovation and Information Technology Development (NAIRIT) has prepared a report on the results of the work of the innovation sector of Russia in the first half of 2011. According to the Association, in 2011, 1,2 trillion was planned for the implementation of innovative programs and projects within the framework of the federal and regional budgets of Russia. rubles. This is 7% more than in the 2010 year. In the first half of the year, about 470 billion rubles were used, while at the same time, private venture capital funds invested about 80 million dollars - finances went to about 40 projects. For example, in the first half of the same year, venture capital funds in the United States invested more than 1600 billion dollars in approximately 11 projects.

The largest volume of investments traditionally belongs to the field of information and telecommunication technologies - 23,6%, followed by energy and energy saving - 14,1%, the third place in transport and engine-building is 12,8%, the fourth in biotechnology with medicine is 11,3%. The most positive dynamics among IT technologies is + 4,2% (from 19.4% to 23.6%). In the negative remained: aviation and space systems - from 2,8% to 2,4% (respectively, from 2010 to 2011 years); industrial technologies - from 8,8% to 6,3%; agricultural technologies - from 7,9% to 6,6%; construction technologies - from 3,5% to 1,4%; ecology and resource saving (a leader in reducing investments) - from 8,2% to 4,5%; electronics and instrument engineering - from 4,8% to 3,9%.

In this case, it is possible to note a serious failure, as in previous years, in the field of military robotics. While the armed forces of Western countries, and of Eastern countries, are actively switching to the mass use of robotic, autonomous military systems - unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), combat robots and demining robots - in the Russian Federation none of the existing projects of such military systems (and there are more than 50) as a result was never launched in the series.

Positive dynamics can be noted in the fact that there is a gradual change in the system of geographical distribution of innovators in the territory of the Russian Federation. Large non-capital innovation centers are beginning to show higher growth rates in the number of personnel employed in the innovation sphere, compared with the two capitals - Moscow and St. Petersburg. The share of these centers for this indicator in I half decreased by 3% and 5%, respectively. Moscow from 51% to 48%, Northern Capital from 26% to 21%, Novosibirsk's share increased from 5% to 7%, Tomsk from 4% to 6%, Yekaterinburg from 3% to 4%, Nizhny Novgorod from 3% to 6 %, other centers with 8% to 11%.

There has been a negative trend in the area of ​​brain drain, young professionals. Thus, the National Association of Information Technology Innovation and Development conducts an annual survey among 51 graduates of a Russian higher education institution from 11 regions of Russia. According to him, in the 2011 year of the order of 7-11% of Russian graduates emigrate abroad to continue their career as a scientist. These negative indicators have remained at approximately the same level in recent years. Of particular concern is the segment of specialists who graduated from Russian universities three to five years ago. Among them, the proportion leaving the Russian Federation was about 18% and then increased by 60% over the past three years. It is worth noting that for young scientists from Russia as a new place of work and residence, the most attractive countries of the world are becoming members of the European Union, such as Germany, France, Holland, England, Switzerland.

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