All-Terrain Transport Rescue All Terrain Transport (RATT), built at the beginning of the 90-s, is used by special units of the US Air Force to transport casualties, but at present it cannot provide the necessary mobility
Special forces are designed to act in the rear of the enemy. In the modern scenario, they need to move imperceptibly, although the term “in the rear of the enemy” no longer means so much under conditions of asymmetrical combat operations. Given this, and depending on their method of deployment, the operational units must move long distances, carrying heavy equipment. The implementation method is definitely a key criterion when choosing high-cross cars. The operation can be carried out without any land mobile equipment, for example, parachute landing, can be carried out with limited means using medium helicopters, or carried out with more powerful machines with the participation of heavy aircraft or helicopters.
The same principle applies in case of intrusion from water (or from under water). When deployed directly over land, such restrictions are not so significant, so in some situations special forces can even use heavy armored vehicles.
In essence, there is no such means as a typical “machine for special forces,” although, in the opinion of ordinary people, it should be similar to “stripped” cars from films about World War II. Machines used by special units and often originating from different existing unarmored or armored vehicles are part of the stock of some special forces, although many other types are used: some are lightweight, for example, quad bikes or buggy machines, and others are heavier, for example , M-ATV from Oshkosh, RG-33 from BAE Systems, etc., in service with American forces.
In 2013, the United States placed four contracts related to the mobility of special forces. One in January for Guardian Angels Air Force search and rescue units, which will receive the R-1 Rescue All-Terrain Transport (RATT), one in March for a non-standard commercial vehicle, one in August to replace a GMV 1.0 (Ground Mobility Vehicle) based on Humvee and, finally, one in October in order to fulfill the new requirement for an ITV (Internally Transportable Vehicle) car transported inside the convertible V-22. Let's look at them in chronological order.
Although many do not include combat search and rescue operations as special operations, in many aspects they are. Therefore, they need the same technical equipment, including mobile devices. These vehicles are light vehicles with high mobility, since helicopters are involved in most combat search and rescue operations. Cars must be transported either inside the helicopter or on its suspension. At the start of 2013, Guardian Angels US Air Force units selected a modification of the HDT Global Storm car to meet the GAARV (Guardian Angel Air-Deployable Recovery Vehicle) airborne rescue vehicle requirements. This requirement was published (which rarely happens with special forces equipment) and thus it would be interesting to analyze some of its provisions, since they could become a point of reference for highly mobile assault vehicles.
The system requirements document, released in April 2010 of the year, owes its appearance to the conclusion that the currently operating R-1 RATT vehicle has extremely limited possibilities for transporting rescue teams and equipment to the incident area, which are further reduced on the way back from already saved people.
Tactical car Storm was selected for the US Air Force Guardian Angels search and rescue teams.
It is clear that the new car should not only have better off-road patency, but also the ability to work during a hurricane or other humanitarian operations, allowing members of the rescue team to cross streets filled with water up to 76 cm, carrying heaps of garbage. The new Gaarv should be transported inside the M / HC-130P / N, HC-130J, C-130 and C-17 aircraft, in the CH-47 and CH-53 helicopters, and in the CV / MV-22 Osprey tiltrotor. According to the command document aviation Air Force "Transportability of wheeled vehicles in V-22" in order for the car to enter the Osprey, it must be shorter than 4,44 meters, below 1,5 meters on the center line and already 1,52 meters. An analysis conducted in the subsequent period showed that such a vehicle is not able to satisfy the requirements for payload and power reserve, and therefore the requirements for the CV / MV-22 tilt plane were removed from the document published two years later. Obviously, this relaxed the restrictions and allowed some of the key parameters to be reviewed. The most important of them was the payload: Gaarv must transport a rescue group of four with its equipment, its total weight is estimated at 677 kg. But the heavy rapid deployment system Rapid Extraction Deployment System (REDS), ammunition, water, weapons installed on the machine and cargo increase the weight by another 684 kg, two stretchers with patients each 113 kg each increase the weight to 1587 kg, while the maximum own the mass of this car is 2268 kg. All personnel, including two speed bumps, must be inside the safety cage that protects when rolling over. The minimum range was determined at 280 km (autonomy 560 km) with two hours of engine operation at the scene, although its target value was doubled (engine operating time at the scene also two hours); in both cases, the speed of the car with the full operational weight on the main roads is 72 km / h. The required maximum speed should be more than 135 km / h. Gaarv must overcome 100% slopes and 80% lateral slopes. The engine must run on standard gasoline with an octane rating of 80 or higher, although a diesel engine can be installed optionally.
As for weapons, the machine must be able to adopt weapons with interchangeable supports for M-249, M-240 or similar. weapons. Serviced weapons should have a circular sector of 360 ° shelling without transportable stretchers or at least 270 ° with two stretchers. It is not possible here to provide a complete list of requirements or to compare two 2010 and 2012 documents of the year. What can be said definitely is that perhaps no machine can meet all the requirements of the original document, and some of these requirements are generally contradictory. Therefore, the units of Guardian Angels decided to take the path of least resistance - to take the existing solution that could fit their mission in the best possible way, remaining within the budget.
SR Customs-5 from BC Customs
21 January 2013 of the Year The Air Force Lifecycle Management Center (AFLCMC) issued an HDT Global contract for Gaarv, selecting the Storm model. Shown in the fall of the 2012 of the year, the Storm SRTV (Search and Rescue Tactical Vehicle) is a modification of the SRTV-5, created by BC Customs; This company also developed a version of the car, which could go into a convertiplane V-22. The Storm car was developed in collaboration with special forces, it meets most of the requirements of Gaarv and is based on a chassis with a tubular frame with a General Motors LS3 gasoline engine with an 430 hp power. The engine is installed in the center to ensure good weight centering. With a total tonnage of 3,6 and a tonne of 1,96 tonnes, the Storm fits perfectly into the restrictions, the maximum speed on the highway exceeds 160 km / h, and the power density almost 120 hp / t allows you to accelerate to 100 km / h in just over 15 seconds. Off-road throughput is provided by the engine with torque 576 Nm and suspension with high speed. The standard machine has a 4,90 meter length, a 2,03 meter width and a 1,68 meter height; Up to three stretchers are placed inside the roll-over protection frame, while the machine gun mounted at the top has a circular sector of 360 ° shelling. The contract with an indefinite delivery date and an unspecified quantity included the purchase for testing and evaluation of the first batch of five vehicles; their production began in August 2013 of the year, and the delivery of 12 in November 2013 of the year. After completing the test, the USAF will be able to buy another 61 machine. In small quantities, the Storm variant is also in service with the US Border Guard.
HDT Global has developed and manufactured the SRTV, which is based on the racing buggy created by BC Customs.
Custom NSCV Commercial Machines
In December 2012, the General Services Administration issued a request for a commercial proposal for so-called non-standard commercial vehicles (NSCV), designed to command special operations forces. Machines of this type are not only a cheap solution to ensure the mobility of battle groups, they can also be used by undercover groups to seamlessly merge with local traffic.
The special forces, however, need some form of protection and increased mobility, that is, the adaptation of light-duty pick-up trucks, SUVs, sedans or vans to their requirements is necessary. For the next three years, the American command of special operations forces will require about 300 of such vehicles and, therefore, in March 2013 of the year it entered into a contract with the Battel Memorial Institute. Its subsidiary, Battelle Tactical Systems, has been carrying out this kind of modernization for almost a decade, and according to the terms of the contract, it modifies Toyota's Land Cruiser and Hi-Luxe cars in accordance with special requirements. This includes booking, integration of the combat information and control system, upgrading of the chassis components, such as chassis reinforcement and reinforced suspension, more powerful operating brakes, wheels with protivproskolnymi inserts, infrared lights, a winch, a roof rack and additional power shafts. The Battel Institute works together with a number of subcontractors, mainly a small business (including veteran organizations). The contract will run from March 2013 to March 2016, the total cost of which is 69 million dollars. If we break it up by years, then about a year 23,7 million dollars and from 90 to 100 cars fall on a year. At the same time, the percentage of the two models has not yet been disclosed. The trials of six cars (three for each model) began in July 2013 of the year and ended in February of 2014; in the same month began the first deliveries.
Indigenous Armor offered a completely different approach to the NSCV concept. She developed a completely new car based on the requirements for protection and undercarriage, and then “disguised” it as a commercial vehicle. The car received the designation NSTT (Non Standard Tactical Truck - non-standard tactical truck), on it the turbo diesel engine is installed with the power of 325 hp. from the company Navistar. This machine is 1,93 meter wide and can be easily transported in a CH-47 helicopter, its maximum speed exceeds 135 km / h on paved roads, it can overcome 60% slopes or move along 40% side slopes. The car features an independent suspension with diagonal suspension arms on the rear axle and double A-arms on the front axle. The bottom provides protection against blasting on the M-67 hand grenade, ballistic protection is at B6 Level (NATO standard 7,62-mm bullet). According to the documents of the program office of the special forces command, specialized armored cars, such as NSCV, are on the list of command needs.
The Specter Wide Track Configuration configuration, based on the Jamma Force Protection vehicle, was used to develop the GDLS company's bid for the GMV 1.1 program. A narrow gauge variant has been proposed for the ITV program.
The GMV 1.1 from AM General is already wider than the previous GMV 1.0 (in turn, a direct modification of the Humvee), but nevertheless it maintains a high level of uniformity with its predecessor.
On GMV 1.1 from AM General, the Optimizer 3200 engine from the same company is installed, which is also installed in the BRV-O car offered for the JLTV program
The lucrative contract under the GMV 1.1 program led numerous companies to develop high-traffic vehicles. In the end, 22 August 2013 of the year (with a semiannual delay) the command of special operations forces announced their choice of General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems, combined with Flyer Defense LLC (among other well-known applicants were AM General, General Dynamics Land Systems, Lockheed Martin , Navistar, Oshkosh, and SAIC. Due to the shrinking US market, some of the bidders decided to protest this decision and the General Budget Office started checking out protests filed by AM General and Navistar. 19 December 2013 of the year rejected the protests, but Chal January 2014 year, AM General has filed a lawsuit in US federal court on an application for special operations forces command). A contract with indefinite delivery times and an indefinite number of GMV 1.1 can reach the sum of 562,2 million dollars and the total number of 1297 machines that will be equipped with combat information and control systems supplied by state-owned enterprises.
The new car will replace the GMV 1.0 based on the Humvee, which on the balance of command is worth 1072 pieces. Being a modification of the M1165A1 ECV, this car retains the width of the 2,21 meter, which makes it impossible to transport it in a Chinook helicopter. The payload varies from 2,2 to 1,1 tons, depending on whether the protection is set to B3 Level or not.
According to the results of the recent meetings, the requirements for GMV 1.1 were determined, according to which the vehicle should be placed in C / MH-47 and, after leaving the helicopter, the armament should be ready for firing in less than 60 seconds. The threshold total weight of the vehicle (own weight plus equipment to support the flight) was installed in 5,9 tons, the vehicle must accommodate four main passengers plus an arrow with the possibility of accommodating two more passengers. The projected operational profile provides 70% driving time on auxiliary roads and 30% on main roads. GMV 1.1 should reach speeds over 100 km / h on roads covered and overcome the vertical step 46 height, see. Minimum cruising range when filling the tank on 75% was set to 400 km. The vehicle must be equipped with a safety cage capable of supporting four of its total masses. Other requirements include light, modular protection solutions, minimal signs of conspicuity (signatures) in various environmental conditions, all-round visibility of the crew at 360 ° with a minimum of dead zones, a continuous sector of firing 360 ° for the main combat module. Also, the architecture of vetroniki (vehicle electronics) should provide easy integration of new CBSs. For further development, multi-fuel, availability of simulators for cost savings, tools for improved situational awareness of the next generation and, finally, maintainability in harsh conditions with minimal assistance are needed. At the same time the possibility of transportation in the tiltrotor V-22 is not required.
GMV 1.1 is a modification of the Flyer car, developed in the middle of 90's by the Flyer Group LLC (currently Flyer Defense part of the Marvin Group). The company then joined forces with General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems, the de facto main contractor for the bid. Strangely enough, the detailed information about the characteristics of the winning car was not disclosed. Although based on a well-known car, it should be at least wider (as determined by the requirements), since the original Flyer is intended more for transportation in the V-22 than in the CH-47 helicopter. Apparently, the manufacturer waits for the resolution of all legal disputes, before announcing the details of the contract for Flyer GMV 1.1. The rest of the article will describe a version compatible with the V-22 convertoplane.
At AUSA 2012, General Dynamics presented a version of its Specter, a further modification of the Jamma developed by Force Protection (Force Protection was purchased at the end of 2011). Specifically designed for transporting a V-22 convertoplane, the Jamma, later renamed Specter, also has a broader version that is transported inside the CH-47. This Specter WTC (Wide Track Configuration) is based on a high modulus skateboard-type chassis (power plant, auxiliary units, suspension and fuel tank inside a flat platform on which the body can be installed with an arbitrary configuration) with a ground clearance 427 mm, on which the modular case is installed. The length of the 5,53 machine meter, due to the wider wheels and the geometry of the suspension with longer levers, the width increased to 1,98 meter compared to the 1,52 meter in the V-22 version. The Specter WTC is fitted with an 3,2-liter six-cylinder in-line diesel engine with a turbocharged horsepower 180. and torque 540 Nm; maximum speed on roads with a coverage of more than 135 km / h. Two operators are placed behind the driver and commander, a machine gunner is placed on the rear platform and, if necessary, two more people (the maximum number of seats is seven). On the rear platform, the safety cage is much higher than at the front of the car (for air transport, the height of the frame is reduced manually from the 2,80 meter to the 1,82 meter in less than a minute and a half). Specter WTC's own weight is 3,3 tons and the payload capacity of 1,37 tons, which can be partially used to increase the level of protection.
Although Navistar’s Special Operations Tactical Vehicle looks like a light truck, it’s actually a specially designed vehicle disguised as a pickup truck.
Navistar Defense’s SOTV can be equipped with additional protection kits to increase crew protection.
AM General offered a GMV-based 1.0 vehicle (currently in service), which retains its uniformity with the M1165A1 at the 70% level, which significantly reduces operating costs, spare parts, maintenance and training. Although the level of uniformity is very high, however, GMV 1.1 has become a completely new platform, since it meets the requirements for transportability in the CH-47 with a corresponding decrease in width by 18 cm (the GMV 1.1 is also included in the CH-53 helicopter). In addition, the adopted engine is a modification of the engine offered by AM General for its BRV-O car, which in turn is proposed as a solution for the JLTV project. Thus, the Optimizer 3200 was adopted, but its power was reduced by 10% compared to the power of the JLTV engine in order to reduce fuel consumption and install a lighter transmission (it is also proposed for the upgraded Hummer chassis); power output 270 hp converted to more than one horsepower per kilogram of engine (it weighs 250 kg). AM General focused on weight reduction and this led to the fact that the power density was 45 hp / t, and the net payload of 3175 kg, which is more than the car's own weight 2812 kg. The car also has a power reserve of more than 480 km and a maximum speed of 130 km / h on the highway, while a fully independent suspension, taken from the world of racing cars, provides good cross-country maneuverability. The modular rack system allows you to change the configuration of the placement of people and cargo (places for 4-7 people and six places of attachment of weapons). All passengers are protected by a modular safety cage, which, according to the company, is capable of withstanding the calculated load of 150%. AM General offers its GMV vehicles in the international market, where they attract considerable interest.
Medium Assault Vehicle - Light from Northrop Grumman was created in partnership with Pratt & Miller Engineering. BAE Systems has developed a booking kit for the car
Navistar, with its GMV 1.1 application, copies the approach of Indigen Armor, with which it collaborates on the already mentioned NSTT project. In other words, its SOTV (Special Operations Tactical Vehicle - tactical special operations vehicle) is very similar to the Toyota Hi-Lux, one of the most common pickups that can be seen in many potential areas of operations. Although the similarity is only external, the car itself was specially created to meet the requirements for GMV 1.1. The length of the 5,33 machine is meter, the width of the 2,01 meter and the height of the 1,83 meter, which is 10% more than that of Hi-Lux. It has its own weight 3312 kg, useful payload 3084 kg; Seating in a secure cabin four plus one. The car has a suspension with double wishbones and spring-hydraulic shock absorbers in front and suspension on oblique levers with spring-hydraulic shock absorbers in the back. The engine is based on the Navistar MaxxForce V8 six-liter turbo-charged diesel engine with intercooled horsepower 325. and 773 Nm maximum torque coupled to an Allison 2550SP six-speed automatic transmission. The basic weapon system can accept an 12,7-mm machine gun or an 40-mm automatic grenade launcher. When loading a car into a Chinook helicopter, installing weapons by pulling out just two pins can be quickly removed and placed on the rear platform. Navistar offers its car as an armored platform, which is protected against NATO 7,62x51 mm bullets in accordance with EN 1063 standards. Additional booking kits may also be installed on the machine.
Modularity was the highest priority when Oshkosh Defense began to work from scratch with the goal of developing a vehicle currently known as S-ATV (Special Purpose All Terrain Vehicle). It was first shown in September 2012. The basis of the machine is a roll-over protection frame with a four-door cab, the protection level of which can be adapted to customer requirements (therefore, the net weight varies from 2,7 to 4,5 tons with a total weight of 6,35 tons). The standard width is approximately two meters, but can be reduced for the purpose of transportability in CH-47 in accordance with the GMV 1.1 application or vice versa increased if larger volumes are needed. In order to meet different mobility requirements, a customer can also choose a turbodiesel engine to his taste, the output power varies from 225 hp. up to more than xnumx hp with torque exceeding 300 Nm. A multi-fuel engine can run on diesel, JP-815 or Jet-A. The maximum technical speed is 8 km / h, while the power reserve exceeds 120 km. The driver is located in the center, depending on the configuration, the number of seats in the S-ATV from two to seven. To power the 500 B network, generators can be installed on 24 – 200 A. Oshkosh, a specialist in suspension systems, naturally installed its intelligent independent suspension TAK-300i, which allows the car to easily travel over rough or urban terrain at high speed because ground clearance can be regulated depending on the type of terrain, and during air transport may be reduced to a minimum. A kit for low temperatures reduces the minimum operating temperature to -4 ° C, while the standard operating temperature range is from -45 ° C to + 32 ° C.
At AUSA 2012, Northrop Grumman showed off its proposal for the GMV 1.1 project under the designation MAV-L (Medium Assault Vehicle - Light), developed from scratch in collaboration with Pratt & Miller Engineering. Pratt & Miller chose a tubular frame with a 4,4-liter Caterpillar 220 hp engine installed. and a torque of 700 Nm. Good off-road mobility is ensured by the Meritor independent suspension with long-short arms on the front axle and trailing arms on the rear axle with corresponding 46 cm and 51 cm travels.The MAV-L is 5,32 meters long, 2,02 meters wide (allows transport in Chinook) , while the height of 2,09 meters can be reduced to 1,85 meters in air transport mode in just three seconds, which corresponds to the time of lowering the ramp of the CH-47 helicopter. The total mass of the MAV-L is almost 5,9 tons, the power density is over 37 hp / t, the maximum speed on paved roads is 130 km / h and over 95 km / h on unpaved roads, a 140 liter fuel tank allows range of more than 420 km when driving on mixed terrain: 30% paved roads, 30% dirt roads and 40% off-road. Six people can be accommodated inside the protective frame, while the seventh is served by a machine gun. However, to accommodate the additional number of people, the MAV-L is equipped with one handrail under the vehicle and one handrail on top so that four people on each side can catch on from the outside during the final phase of the attack, bringing the total to 15 people. Northrop Grumman offers a weather-only kit as well as an arctic sub-standard kit. Also available is a third kit developed by BAE Systems to provide ballistic protection (non-expandable level). In a closed configuration, the MAV-L can accommodate four. The support ring can accept a 12,7 mm machine gun or even a remotely controlled weapon station; however, it can be replaced by an information gathering and reconnaissance station in case of reconnaissance missions; a 400 A generator provides sufficient power for most combat missions. Northrop Grumman intends to promote its MAV-L vehicle and is considering the needs of the US Army, Marine Corps and Air Force, and the export market.
The company's offer for Lockheed Martin GMV 1.1, in fact, was based on the British Supacat HMT vehicle, versions of which are in service with the British army
In collaboration with the British Supacat, Lockheed Martin developed a variant of the HMT series and gave it the designation CVNG (Common Vehicle Next Generation - the next generation common car). CVNG is available in 4x4 and 6x6 configurations. Both configurations have a width of 2,03 meters and a length of 5,50 and 6,75 meters respectively, which is slightly less than their British counterparts, but at the same wheelbase. The 4x4 configuration car has a total weight of 7 tons, the own weight of 4,4 tons, the effective payload capacity of 2,6 tons allows you to increase protection to a certain level. The 6x6 variant with a total mass of 10,5 tons has a tonnage capacity of 5,4. Lockheed Martin has teamed up with British Jankel to offer three sets of reservations: the explosive and ballistic 1 Level, the explosive 2a Level and the ballistic 2 Level. CVNG car with 6,7-liter Cummins ISBe engine with horsepower 185 hp It has a maximum speed of 130 km / h and a power reserve of 500 km, which increases to 700 km when installing an additional fuel tank. It leaves an adjustable air suspension of the basic version of the HMT, allowing you to change the ground clearance from 180 to 485 mm and, accordingly, overall height from the minimum 1,89 meter in the transport position to the 2,39 meter. The modular cabin, which can accommodate various functional kits, accommodates five people plus a machine gunner.
Description of Protector II armored car from Mobile Armored Vehicles with my subtitles
To be continued