The distance between the western and eastern outskirts of the Russian Federation is almost 10 000 km (more than 171 degrees of longitude). And the northern continental point is removed from the southern one by about 4000 km (36,5 degrees along the meridian). These huge sizes of geographic space predetermine the extreme importance of the issues of strategic mobility in the system of measures to organize the country's defense.
The problem of strategic troop transfer has acquired a special significance due to the fact that our Armed Forces are now operating in a market economy, when the majority of business entities belong to private individuals. And they, by virtue of the logic of the current economic model, are guided above all by the motives of profit. Meanwhile, abroad, especially in the United States and Great Britain, a great deal of experience has been accumulated in effective public-private partnership, which is also applicable in part to the conditions of Russian capitalism.
In the new century in the United States, the expansion of the geography of the use of armed forces, the increasing importance of time and surprise factors have set the Pentagon in the task of reducing the deployment time of large military contingents in various regions of the world. Taking into account the remoteness of the territory of the United States from potential theaters of military operations on 5 – 13 thousand km, the high strategic mobility of the American troops became of particular importance for Washington.
Therefore, one of the priorities of the construction of the armed forces is the development of forces and means of strategic transfer, which is carried out on the basis of the provisions of the concept paper of the Chiefs of Staff Committee “Requirements for the system of strategic mobility of the armed forces for the period up to 2016 year”.
The main organizing and leading structure in the system of global transportation of the US armed forces is the integrated strategic redeployment command. It is responsible for coordinating the use of forces and equipment necessary for the delivery of forces and equipment of the armed forces to the forward zones, as well as for transporting troops and goods to training, to participate in humanitarian and peacekeeping missions, and combat activities during military conflicts in various parts of the world.
OCPS includes three components:
• Air Force Air Force Command;
• command naval shipping;
• command of army military transport (ground forces).
To ensure the deployment of the armed forces in the advanced areas, the OCPS involves both maritime, air and ground transport, as well as a system of advanced storage of weapons and material assets in the theater of operations.
At the same time, the forces and means of strategic transfer include not only air (sea) ships and ground transportation of the US Department of Defense, but also transport owned by commercial companies. Attracting opportunities from the civilian sector allows the Pentagon to significantly increase the pace of troop movements abroad, as well as to avoid the financial costs of maintaining its own reserve fleet of vehicles.
To date, the main way to transfer large groups of troops over long distances remains the sea. More than 90 percent of weapons and other military goods are delivered by sea. The main task of the Maritime Transport Command (ILC) is to carry out strategic maritime transport of military goods by sea in the interests of all types of armed forces in accordance with the plans of the RSC.
This command is entrusted with the task of organizing the use of the ship's personnel necessary for the transfer of the armed forces. It provides sea transport, carries out the transfer of troops, military equipment and means of material and technical supply, provides refueling ships.
There are up to 9 thousands of people in the KMP (mostly civilian specialists) and about 130 transport vessels for various purposes, which are organized in five components:
• rear support forces fleetdesigned for the daily provision of ships carrying military service in advanced areas;
• special forces that are responsible for tracking spacecraft and submarines, conducting hydrographic surveys and providing the marine component of a global missile defense system;
• Pre-warehousing forces that are designed to create the necessary stocks of weapons and military equipment for the operational deployment of the armed forces in crisis zones;
• forces of service and support of fleet forces that provide various types of support at sea (repair, hospital, towing, search and rescue);
• Strategic maritime transport forces (transportation of weapons and military equipment in the interests of the US Department of Defense).
Back in 1976, in order to increase the capabilities of the ILC, in its composition the forces of the first-order reserve were formed. In accordance with the agreement that was concluded between the Pentagon and the Navy Department of the United States Department of Transportation, the maritime reserve included merchant ships of the Department of Transportation, ships of commercial shipping corporations, as well as ships of US companies registered abroad and concluded agreements with the Department of Transport.
In the United States, there is a federal program for the mobilization of civilian courts, under which all major transports registered under the US flag are taken into account and, if necessary, can be involved in solving problems in the interests of the Ministry of Defense.
The reserve of the first stage of the ILC is able to provide command of the sea with a large number of sea transports in a short time. Currently there are about 50 ships in it.
Organizationally, the reserve of the first stage is part of the reserve fleet of the US National Defense, which includes old dry cargo ships, tankers and vessels for the transportation of personnel. He is alerted in a state of emergency at the direction of the president. As of October 1 2014, the national defense reserve fleet includes more than 110 ships.
Most of the ships that can be used to transport troops to areas of operations, in peacetime, is not under the control of the US Department of Defense. To transfer them to the Pentagon in wartime, contracts for chartering are concluded between the Ministry of Defense and the shipowner companies.
The three most common types of freight are:
• the vessel is chartered without a crew for a specific time;
• scheduled chartering (the Pentagon determines the types of vessel and cargo, ports of loading and unloading);
• temporary chartering (the Ministry of Defense for a certain time has at its disposal a vessel staffed by a crew).
It should be emphasized that the United States has a federal program for the mobilization of civilian courts, under which all major transports registered under the flag of the United States are taken into account and, if necessary, can be involved in solving problems in the interests of the Ministry of Defense. The program involves the use of not only the ship of private companies, but also their port infrastructure.
Currently, this program covers about 380 55 transports of shipowner companies, which together can transport 205 thousand five-ton containers and 335 thousand tons of cargo.
The command of the air force transfer of the Air Force has five main tasks:
• organization of aerial deployments and tactical aviation to any area of the world;
• dropping (landing) of airborne assault forces;
• refueling in the air of the aircraft of the American armed forces and their allies;
• conducting search and rescue operations;
• evacuation of the wounded from the combat area.
The number of KVP personnel is over 50 thousand people (of which 8,5 thousand are civilian personnel). The command of the air transfer is concentrated the main forces and means of military transport (about 300 aircraft) and transport and refueling aircraft (170 aircraft) of the US Air Force.
In total, the US Air Force has up to 250 strategic and 440 tactical transport planes, as well as over 500 transport refueling planes. Within a day they can transport about 8 thousands of tons of cargo to a distance of more than 5,5 thousands of kilometers.
In addition to military transport aviation, for the transfer of troops and cargo in the United States, within the framework of the federal program, forces and means of civilian airlines are used — the reserve civil aviation fleet (RFA).
Currently, 30 commercial airlines are participating in the program. Their 1200 transport and passenger aircraft can be involved in the task of delivering personnel and military equipment. The terms of readiness of the aircraft of these airlines for transfer to the Pentagon are up to 48 hours.
The US Army Ground Forces Military Command (FAC) plans military shipments, develops plans for their organization in the event of a state of emergency, and also directs all military freight and passenger traffic in the continental United States. Directly in the organization and provision of rail transportation in the FPC are the military transport control center and the operational headquarters.
To ensure the military transfer to the operational control of the joint command, the strategic transfer is transmitted over 2000 railway cars and special platforms intended for the transport of military cargo along the railway system of North America, including Alaska, Canada and Mexico. If necessary, their number can be increased to 6000 units.
The Pentagon controls the most militarily important railways with a total length of about 60 thousand kilometers. In the United States, there are about 18 thousands of locomotives and 1,2 million freight cars.
Terms of readiness of private aircraft for the transfer to the disposal of the Pentagon is up to 48 hours.
In addition, the United States has a network of strategic highways with a length of about 87 thousands of kilometers, which are of military importance and provide up to 95 percent of all military facilities in US territory. There are about 600 thousand buses registered in the country, 39 million trucks and tractors, as well as up to 16 million trailers. The total carrying capacity of road transport suitable for military transport is more than 150 million tons.
Rail transportation in the US military is most important due to the peculiarities of the country's transport system in fourth place after air transfer, sea transportation and road transport.
The main purpose of rail transport is to carry heavy, mainly tracked, military equipment and cargo over a distance of more than 600 kilometers from their locations (military camps, arsenals, warehouses) to sea terminals for subsequent loading onto transport ships and being sent to their destination. At present, US military personnel are generally not transported by rail.
In the US Armed Forces, railway troops do not exist as an independent branch of the military. The means of rail transportation are concentrated mainly in the exchange fund of freight cars of the Ministry of Defense, which includes all cars (platforms, tanks, etc.), which are owned by or leased from civilian organizations by various structures of the Pentagon.
It consists of about 2250 wagons for various purposes, most of which are assigned to specific bases of the ground forces (marines) and are intended to provide mobilization activities. In addition, the fund owns more than 100 shunting diesel locomotives, which provide for the transfer of trains to loading (unloading) points and their transfer to junction stations.
This fund does not include the rolling stock of the armed forces, which ensures the operation of certain military infrastructure facilities (for example, armory and shipyards, seaports, etc.), since the cars used for their needs do not undergo mandatory certification for compliance with federal standards adopted in the United States. The fund is managed by the command of the military transport of the ground forces.
On the whole, the troop transfer system in the US armed forces makes it possible, according to the Pentagon, to effectively ensure the deployment of military units both nationally and globally.
The UK also pays considerable attention to ensuring the strategic mobility of its troops, which is understandable, given the geographical position of the United Kingdom. The main ways to solve the tasks, according to the British military command, are:
• improvement of the aircraft fleet of military transport aviation,
• modernization of the infrastructure of air bases,
• increase the transport capabilities of the naval forces.
In particular, in 2013, the 8 th strategic transport plane C-17 "Globesmaster" was included in the British Air Force. Aircraft of this type fully met the needs of the ten-thousandth contingent of the British army as part of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan, carrying out direct transportation of goods from the Brize-Norton airbase to the Kandahar air base. For the implementation of military passenger traffic are used two aircraft BAE-146.
Modernization of various modifications of the C-130 “Hercules” C-130 “Hercules” aircraft that were carried out, during which modern communication and data facilities were installed, and the fuel system was improved. Full withdrawal from C-2020 is planned for the period from 2022 to 400 a year, which is ten years earlier than the scheduled date. They will be replaced by A-XNUMXM Atlas transport aircraft manufactured by the European company Airbus Military. It is planned that the first aircraft of this type will go into service with the Air Force already this year.
In addition, the UK took on the equipment of the seven aircraft-tankers A-330 MRTT "Voyager", which are a modification of the civil liner "Airbus" A330-200. They can carry a payload of up to 45 tons. In accordance with the plans of the military command, aircraft of this type will form the basis of the fleet of transport and refueling aircraft and will be able to perform the functions of transport.
In total, 2020 will have 8 C-17A “Globesmaster III” 22, A-400М aircraft and 14 A-330MRTT Voyager aircraft in combat personnel of the military air force of the British Air Force.
In the interests of increasing the efficiency of military transport flights and the optimal use of various types of aircraft, virtually the entire BTA fleet is focused on the Brize-Norton and Norholt air bases, which have logistic centers.
Shipping is also a priority to ensure the mobility of the British armed forces. In the interests of "projection of force" in remote sea zones and continental areas, the British Ministry of Defense can employ six amphibious ships of various types capable of carrying out a long-distance cruise with expeditionary formation of marines to the brigade level.
The rear service of ship groups is called upon to carry out 10 multifunctional auxiliary vessels, of which 6 can be used as tankers, one is a floating workshop and three can transport aircraft. In addition, each of them can perform the functions of supplying sea and land connections.
In addition, the task of providing logistical support to groups of troops in remote theaters, the transport of weapons, military and special equipment, as well as ammunition for military contingents is solved by six ships of strategic sea transport of the "ro-ro" type. These vessels are owned by the United Kingdom Department of Defense, but are operated by private companies and are used for commercial purposes in peacetime.
As part of the program to improve the marine logistics support system in remote areas, the Ministry of Defense is implementing a contract with the South Korean company Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marin Engineering, which envisages the construction of four universal supply vehicles for the British Navy. The transfer of the British Navy to the first of four vessels scheduled for construction is scheduled for 2016 year.
In general, the UK armed forces can independently provide strategic mobility of a military contingent of up to 30 thousands of servicemen and its use in remote theaters for about six months without using other state resources.
In order to concentrate personnel and equipment for the subsequent transfer to remote theaters near the city of Miramas, located in the southern part of the country, a transit transport and logistics base has been deployed, allowing to accommodate up to 1,5 thousand people and up to 600 units of automotive vehicles.
One of the examples of the organization of strategic transfer to remote theaters is the conduct of relevant activities in the framework of Operation Serval in Mali. Since the beginning of the operation, regular flights of military transport aircraft were organized from the territory of the metropolis to the airfield of the city of Bamako (Mali), and strategic means of maritime transportation were also actively used, including the Mistral helicopter landing craft and three charter vessels of the “ro -ro.
One of the main shortcomings that emerged during the operation in Mali was the shortage of military transport aircraft to transport troops and cargo to remote theaters. For this reason, the French leadership had to seek the help of friendly states.
In Japan, legislation, including the law “On Self-Defense Forces”, provides for the possibility of using civilian vehicles in the interests of transporting troops of national armed forces in the event of a state of emergency.
For sea transfer, ships can be used by the Maritime Security Administration of the Ministry of State Lands, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, and Merchant and Fishing Fleets. In total, there are about 160 large ferries and passenger ships in Japan, which are capable of simultaneously carrying up to 100 thousand people, over 12 thousand trucks and 8 thousand cars. However, most civilian ships are not able to carry heavy armored vehicles on board.
The Ministry of Defense of Japan periodically engages civilian transport to provide for operational and combat training, anti-piracy, and peacekeeping operations. For this purpose, passenger aircraft and ferries are mainly used for charter flights in accordance with the short-term contracts concluded in each individual case.
For example, during the exercises of the Japanese Armed Forces, Dzayaytay Enshu and the ground forces of Kedo Tenti Enshu, which took place in November 2011, the Natchan World ferry was engaged in the implementation of operational troop movements.
The use of high-speed electric trains is a mandatory element in the PRC when developing issues of strategic rearrangements during operational training.
At the same time, the general scheme and procedure for attracting various types of civilian vehicles for the transport of military goods is not currently developed. In this regard, the Japanese military department is taking measures to improve the regulatory framework and create a centralized system of civilian transport in order to carry out military transport.
In particular, the option of long-term lease of civil courts is being considered. In order to organize the interaction between the “self-defense forces” and the owners of the courts, the establishment of a special company operating on the basis of the principle of public-private partnership is envisaged. In this case, landlords for a fixed fee will be required at the request of the Ministry of Defense to provide their ships, as well as to carry out their maintenance and training of crews.
In June of this year, as an experiment, practical development was started of the operation of such a company with the involvement of the Natchan World and Hakuo ferries, capable of delivering long-distance delivery to 1500 military personnel and around 200 trucks.
In the future, it is planned to conclude a contract for the long-term lease of these vessels (for 20 years from 2015 of the year). The annual cost of its implementation will be about 2 billion yen (20 million dollars). According to experts of the Ministry of Defense of Japan, the conclusion of such agreements is more economical than building new amphibious ships.
Ferry crews, if necessary, are planned to be staffed with a permanent reserve (a trained contingent of former naval personnel). In order to overcome the ban on the presence of transports themselves in dangerous areas, the possibility of amending the law “On Self-Defense Forces” is being considered.
The command of the People’s Liberation Army of China regards an increase in the strategic mobility of the armed forces as one of the important directions for the implementation of long-term plans to “modernize national defense” designed for the period up to 2049.
According to Chinese military experts, this goal can be achieved by combining two methods. Firstly, by increasing the maneuvering capabilities of all types of armed forces, and secondly, by activating the state transport system to ensure military transport.
At the same time, it is noted that currently in China there is no corresponding regulatory and legal framework defining the procedure for the use of civilian transport by the armed forces. In each specific case, a corresponding resolution is adopted by the highest military authority of the country — the Central Military Council of the PRC.
To eliminate this shortcoming, the law “On public transport” and the provisions “On military transport” and “On military representatives in transport” are being drafted.
These legal acts are supposed to establish the procedure for the transport of troops by air, water, ordinary and high-speed rail transport, as well as the use of civil aircraft for the delivery of military personnel abroad in the case of assistance to foreign states and for evacuating Chinese citizens from them. Responsibility for solving the last two tasks is planned to be assigned to foreign representative offices of state-owned transport companies, creating appropriate compensation mechanisms for lost profits.
In drafting laws aimed at increasing the strategic mobility of the PLA, medium-term plans for the development of the transport infrastructure of the People's Republic of China are taken into account. In accordance with them, it is planned to form an integrated network of various types of communications by 2020, including 10 transport corridors (five in the North-South direction and five - West-East), as well as 42 large transport hubs.
A significant role in improving the system of military transportation is given to strengthening the interaction of the PLA logistics bodies with relevant government departments, local authorities in the field and transport (including private) companies within the framework of mobilization preparation of the state. The technical basis for this should be a network of automated management, which is scheduled to cover all the major formations of the PLA, the office of the provincial mobilization committees and large transport and logistics companies. It is believed that this will significantly increase the possibilities for the operational transfer of forces and means. At the same time, it is planned to create specialized bases and military transport support units on the basis of civilian transport enterprises.
Particular attention is given to the information management processes. In particular, due to the use of satellite systems of radio navigation and communication, it is planned to provide visualization of the complex situation on the movement of vehicles (echelons, columns) in real time.
At present, the practice of transporting personnel by high-speed passenger trains (speed of travel - up to 300 km / h) is widespread in China; military personnel carry only personal weapons and portable stocks of material assets. Heavy weapons are obtained at the destination from the warehouses of the unit formations or reserve troops.
The main advantage of this method of redeploying military units, according to Chinese estimates, is the high efficiency of actions. In particular, during the Kuaye-2009 exercise, the PLA commanders, using three high-speed electric trains, managed to ensure the maneuver of a light mechanized regiment at a distance of 2500 km during the day (taking into account the withdrawal of weapons and military equipment). The experience gained has been implemented across all armed forces, and now the use of high-speed electric trains is an indispensable element in working out the issues of strategic rearrangements during operational training.
As part of the activities of the PLA in addressing "non-combat tasks" (participation in the aftermath of natural disasters, man-made disasters in China and abroad, peacekeeping activities under the auspices of the UN, etc.), the requirements for air transport are significantly increased. In this case, there is a gradual transition from using only military transport aircraft to their integrated use with civilian means of air transportation.
In 2012, civil aviation was the first to transfer an airborne division (without heavy weapons and equipment).
Currently, civil aviation of the PRC has about 80 wide-body transport aircraft with a total payload of up to 4000 tons. In accordance with the plans for the development of public transport by 2020, their number should reach 400, which, as China believes, will significantly increase the strategic mobility of the armed forces.