Military Review

French "Tsushima"

25


On October 21, 1805, the famous Battle of Trafalgar took place between English and French-Spanish fleets - one of the most epic sea battles in stories. As you know, it was the last major naval battle of France, except for Mers-el-Kebir, more reminiscent of the beating of babies. And this battle the French with the Spaniards lost “dry”, with a crushing score, losing the 22 battleship, the vast majority of whom surrendered. The British did not lose a single ship, and their irretrievable damage in personnel was 24 times less than their opponents.
Trafalgar put the final point in France’s attempts to become the leading maritime power, having won this title from the "Mistress of the Seas" - Great Britain. But, despite some episodic successes, it did not work out. From the beginning of the 18th century, the French fleet invariably lost all the more or less significant battles to the English. However, whatever one may say, geopolitics' reasoning about geographical determinism, tellurocracies and thalassocracies is by no means unfounded.

Next is a selection of paintings and book illustrations that give a visual representation of both the Battle of Trafalgar itself and its participants.



Farewell scene with Admiral Nelson, sent to beat the French. In the center - his mistress - Lady Hamilton, perhaps no less famous than himself.



British 104-gun three-deck battleship "Victory". By the 1805, it was already a very old ship, it had sailed 40 for years, having survived many storms and battles. However, Admiral Nelson, not doubting the quality of the work of British shipbuilders, made him his flagship in the upcoming battle. I must say that the average service life of a wooden warship (and there were no others in those years) was only 10-13 years.
The construction of "Victory" took 5400 oaks and more 600 trees of other species, which is roughly equivalent to 50 hectares of forest. The total length of his rigging is over 40 kilometers, the total sail area is 6510 square meters.



The Battle of Trafalgar in the painting by English artist William Clarkson-Stanfield, painted hot on the heels of 1806. It is clearly seen at how short distances this battle took place. The ships fired almost point-blank and sometimes literally collided with the sides.



And this is a picture of the French artist Louis Philippe Crepin, with the same plot. It is clear that in the center he portrayed a French ship, fighting off the British battleships that were holding it from two sides.



The culminating moment of the battle: "Victory", firing from both sides, breaks through the wake column of the French battleships and cuts the enemy system into pieces.



Lord Nelson with adjutants on the Victory deck during the Battle of Trafalgar. Painting by William Overanda.



The heroic death of Nelson from the bullet of a French sniper is perhaps the most common subject of the 19th century English marine painters. I chose a picture of Denis Digton painted in 1825 year.



British sailors since Trafalgar. On the left in the foreground is the sailor, in the back is Sir Horatio Nelson himself and his adjutant.
Right, in order: a Marine officer, a fleet lieutenant, and two merry sailor hobbits returning from a pub.



French sailors of the same period: a marine with a musket and a ship's lantern and a sailor with a boarding spear. In the center - tools for cleaning, loading and unloading guns.



"Victory", turned into a ship-museum.



The gun deck "Victory", which was also a resting place for sailors who slept without much comfort in hanging canvas hammocks close to each other. However, the French sailors were even more "comfortable", because until the second half of the XIX century, they had to sleep in an embrace, two by two in one hammock. It is not surprising that among the sailors of other countries they had a strong reputation of homosexuals.



Drawing "bedroom" typical British sailing battleship. Blue marked hammocks sailors, and red - Marines.



Battleship Victory in the cut.

French "Tsushima"


Plan of the Battle of Trafalgar. Red color - British ships, blue - French, black - Spanish.
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  1. Pervusha Isaev
    Pervusha Isaev 27 October 2014 08: 54
    -2
    For this, the French were created to use as a pear, for their absurd history, this nation, as it did not try and could not become a great one-day of defeat ...
    1. Hairy Siberian
      Hairy Siberian 27 October 2014 09: 07
      +8
      But what about Napoleon Bonaparte?
      1. Pervusha Isaev
        Pervusha Isaev 27 October 2014 09: 47
        +2
        Quote: Hairy Siberian
        But what about Napoleon Bonaparte?


        standings, Napoleon is a military genius, but he is those who won the BATTLES, but lost the WAR ...
        1. bekjan
          bekjan 27 October 2014 14: 16
          +1
          You forgot to mention the great French corsairs.
          1. Pervusha Isaev
            Pervusha Isaev 27 October 2014 15: 42
            0
            Quote: bekjan
            You forgot to mention the great French corsairs.


            I don’t know such people and how big are they?
            1. Blackgrifon
              Blackgrifon 27 October 2014 20: 09
              +1
              Quote: Pervusha Isaev
              I don’t know such people and how big are they?

              Probably because they inflicted terrible damage on the British, with very little strength.
      2. Standard Oil
        Standard Oil 27 October 2014 09: 56
        +3
        Quote: Pervusha Isaev
        For this, the French were created to use as a pear, for their absurd history, this nation, as it did not try and could not become a great one-day of defeat ...

        I do not agree with you, the French themselves were quite nothing years before the 30-40s of the XX century, and then they were poisoned by a liberal infection. Yes, and so to speak about the French, what are the Austrians or Italians?
        1. Vladimirets
          Vladimirets 27 October 2014 10: 42
          +10
          Quote: Standard Oil
          And if we talk about the French like that, then what are Austrians or Italians really worth?

          “When God created the armies, he built them in one line according to their strength. And it turned out that the Austrian army was on the far right. “Lord,” the Austrians prayed, “Well, should we at least beat anyone ?!” And then God created the Italian army ... "
          Anecdote from the First World War
        2. Pervusha Isaev
          Pervusha Isaev 27 October 2014 11: 19
          +2
          Quote: Standard Oil
          I do not agree with you, the French themselves were quite nothing years before the 30-40s of the XX century, and then they were poisoned by a liberal infection. Yes, and so to speak about the French, what are the Austrians or Italians?

          I don’t argue, the great French scientists, thinkers, but look at the world map, traces of greatness are noted in Russia, England, but not in France, Russia was able to digest worthless French culture in the 19th century, when I knew French chatted, I hope forever.
          Now they are reviewing history and this is in favor of Russia, for example, the fundamental law of Lomonosov-Lavoisier. If LOMONOSOV is truly great, this Lavoisier himself is unremarkable, except for one he made the GREAT DISCOVERY at the same time as Lomonosov and became famous all over the world. Although this principle of OPENING SIMULTANEOUS is obviously absurd, it can be added, though not to the topic of our great INVENTOR POLZUNOVA, who FIRST CONSTRUCTED THE STEAM MACHINE, but gave privileges to the Englishman WATT, who was in the commission for the delivery of the machines to the building the car and now the power unit of the BATT is named after him.
          As for all Italians and Austrians, they only have a great past, but history can be rewritten ...
          1. Alex
            Alex 27 October 2014 15: 02
            +8
            Quote: Pervusha Isaev
            Now they are reviewing history and this is in favor of Russia, for example, the fundamental law of Lomonosov-Lavoisier. If LOMONOSOV is truly great, this Lavoisier himself is unremarkable, except for one he made the GREAT DISCOVERY at the same time as Lomonosov and became famous all over the world. Although this principle of SIMULTANEOUS OPENING is obviously absurd

            Lomonosov discovered the law of conservation of the mass of reactants years earlier at 30 (1756 year), Lavoisier came to similar conclusions in 1789. He simply presented his wording in a letter to L. Euler, who for some reason (I do not know) this fact He didn’t advertise, and Mikhail Vasilievich himself did not attribute this discovery to the greatest (in any case, it is not mentioned in his “Review of the most important discoveries”), considered it logical and self-evident and did not find it necessary to trumpet about it at every intersection.

            But the simultaneity and independence of discoveries (we had never heard of such a PRINCIPLE) is a fairly common thing in science.
            1. Pervusha Isaev
              Pervusha Isaev 27 October 2014 15: 31
              0
              Quote: Alex
              this fact was not advertised, and Mikhail Vasilyevich himself did not attribute this discovery to the greatest (at least, it is not mentioned in his “Review of the most important discoveries), he considered it quite logical and self-evident and did not find it necessary to trumpet it at every intersection .


              Lomonosov wrote his "Ancient Russian History", but it looked very strange ALL the main theses of the "Norman version of history" were confirmed by Lomonosov, although it is known that Lomonosov defended Russian history and even fought with Miler, but after his death his published work began to completely repeat history official, already in our time the parents of Akdemik FOMENKO have invented a way to study the authorship of the text, called the "method of invariant comparison" and what happened? that the text of Lomonosov is the text of Milera-plagiarism-forgery-this is me to the fact that the works of Lomonosov were corrected.
              The law of conservation of matter is the fundamental law of nature, before Lomonosov it was far from obvious, there were all sorts of "ethers", "volatile substances", etc. Lomonosov said that it can be measured ...
              1. Alex
                Alex 27 October 2014 16: 02
                +3
                I will not judge what kind of historian Lomonosov was, for he is not an expert. The only thing I know for sure is that he was a patriot not by name, but by his liking. Maybe what I overdid in my historical research, I do not know. But what is the "story" and "academician" Fomenko - this is the second conversation.

                Whether his scientific works after death were falsified and ruled, is also a moot point. But as for his physicochemical heritage and contribution to science, no Millers can do anything about it. Yes, and they’re unlikely to be able to: chemistry and physics, my friend, it’s not doubtful dates you can pull out of the sleeve, there is either there or not. As for the ether, there was no doubt in its existence almost until the 20th century (even Mendeleev was looking for a place for it in his PS). But he doubted the calorific value and phlogiston, especially the first one, rightly believing heat as one of the types of energy transmitted directly without participants-transmitters-intermediaries. Perhaps he would have debunked the phlogiston before, but damn it. More precisely, the hydrogen that he discovered a little earlier than Cavendish: almost without weight, volatile, seeps everywhere, burns in almost everything (from what was known then) - what is not a candidate for phlogiston ?! Later, he definitely understood that this wasn’t it, and he even disbelieved in the existence of these German nonsense.

                So, why all this your quite strange comment, I personally did not understand. I’m kind of talking about the discovery of Lomonosov-Lavoisier and repetitions in science, and you are talking about some kind of research by Fomenko’s parents ...
                1. Pervusha Isaev
                  Pervusha Isaev 27 October 2014 16: 30
                  0
                  Quote: Alex
                  so what, why all this your rather strange comment, I personally did not understand. I’m kind of talking about the discovery of Lomonosov-Lavoisier and repetitions in science, and you are talking about some kind of research by Fomenko’s parents ...


                  Well, if you don’t know, then you will not be able to understand
                  http://modernlib.ru/books/nosovskiy_gleb_vladimirovich_fomenko_anatoliy_timofeev
                  ich / metodi_statisticheskogo_analiza_istoricheskih_tekstov_chast_2 / read_50 /
                  1. Alex
                    Alex 27 October 2014 17: 32
                    +2
                    Quote: Pervusha Isaev
                    Well, if you don’t know, then you will not be able to understand

                    I will read without a doubt, thanks.
            2. Pervusha Isaev
              Pervusha Isaev 27 October 2014 15: 34
              0
              Quote: Alex
              But the simultaneity and independence of discoveries (we had never heard of such a PRINCIPLE) is a fairly common thing in science.


              Now, here’s how scientific discoveries are shuffled ?, I heard that Lomonosov had made a discovery before, but that would have been amazing for 30 years ...
              1. Alex
                Alex 27 October 2014 16: 11
                +4
                Quote: Pervusha Isaev
                here, here’s how scientific discoveries are shuffled ?, I heard that Lomonosov had made a discovery before, but what would have been amazing for 30 years

                Well, here it is more or less clear. Scientific research is, in general, one way, although in different ways. And the order for the direction is the result of changes in society. In the age of steam engines, thermodynamics developed, in the era of industrialization - organic synthesis, then petrochemicals. And science is international in nature, here many scientists go in parallel. And luck ... She is a windy, fickle lady, not many immediately smile, and incident, as you know, speaks only to a prepared mind. So it turns out that some are decades ahead, others - but bastards, and some manage for a couple of days. Cavendish held a lot of things in his hands, but his desire for rechecking for years threw him off, Liebig blushed bromine, lithium five venerable chemists did not notice at point blank range, and only Devi guessed to use electrolysis in general.
          2. Bersaglieri
            Bersaglieri 27 October 2014 15: 43
            -2
            ".. to the Englishman WATTU, who was on the commission for the acceptance of the Polzunovskaya car, ..." - Watt? At the age of 10? :)
            1. Pervusha Isaev
              Pervusha Isaev 27 October 2014 16: 19
              +1
              Quote: Bersaglieri
              ".. to the Englishman WATTU, who was on the commission for the acceptance of the Polzunovskaya car, ..." - Watt? At the age of 10? :)


              Watt James (1736-1819), English physicist and inventor.

              Ivan Ivanovich Polzunov (1728-1766)
              Steam engine Polzunova

              In April 1763, I.I. Polzunov submitted to A.I. the head of the Kolyvano-Voskresensky factories Poroshin the memorandum and the project of the fire machine attached to it
              what are ten years old dude?
          3. Bersaglieri
            Bersaglieri 27 October 2014 15: 44
            -1
            Pervushka, run lessons to do, dvoechnik!
        3. vinc
          vinc 27 October 2014 11: 32
          +3
          Are you talking about those who surrendered the country "in two weeks" to Hitler, and then at the expense of 10 pilots became one of the winners in the whole war?
          1. xan
            xan 27 October 2014 12: 00
            +3
            Quote: Vinci
            Are you talking about those who surrendered the country "in two weeks" to Hitler, and then at the expense of 10 pilots became one of the winners in the whole war?

            In WWI, the French showed that they could fight and win in a total war of annihilation. In the Crimean War, the French were the most combat-ready part of the Allied army, it was they who took the Malakhov Kurgan and were able to keep it. There is nothing to say about the Napoleonic wars, in the end even the teenagers of Mary-Louise won the battle, including the Russians.
            The French have a glorious military history, and a really shameful WWII cannot be undone.
            1. Alex
              Alex 27 October 2014 15: 09
              +4
              Quote: xan
              In WWI, the French showed that they can fight and win in a total war of extermination
              Without the British, and later the Americans, I think there wouldn’t be enough strength, even against Germany fighting on two fronts. In any case, they repeatedly asked for help in distracting the Fritz to the Eastern Front (even to the detriment of our interests). As in WWII.

              In the Crimean War, the French were the most combat-ready part of the Allied army, it was they who took the Malakhov Kurgan and were able to keep it.
              Again, as part of the coalition and under the frankly failed Supreme Command of the Russian army. In fact, the triune expeditionary force fought against the garrison of one naval base and naval crews.

              There is nothing to say about the Napoleonic wars, in the end even the teenagers of Mary-Louise won the battle, including the Russians.
              It is a pity, the whole army did not consist of only royal teenagers. Then, look, the whole world would speak French ...
            2. 00105042
              00105042 27 October 2014 16: 36
              +2
              Quote: xan
              The French have a glorious military history,
              don’t need to blame the French, half of Africa was conquered by them at one time, Vietnam, islands in Oceania, Canada partially, some states in the USA also belonged to the French - and for a long time they competed on equal terms with the British and Spaniards. Of course, they greatly lost their passionarity, they were crushed by tolerance, but their military history is very strong.
              1. Alex
                Alex 27 October 2014 18: 11
                +3
                Quote: 00105042
                no need to blame the French, half of Africa was once conquered by them, Vietnam, islands in Oceania, Canada partially, some states in the USA also belonged to the French

                I also have military prowess - to drive the natives. That the French, that the rest of the "white people" ...
        4. Alex
          Alex 27 October 2014 14: 50
          +2
          Quote: Standard Oil
          And if we talk about the French like that, then what are Austrians or Italians really worth?

          Nothing. Which was repeatedly proved, moreover, mainly to each other. Lissa’s only battle is worth what: one battle, but for almost a couple of centuries they managed.
      3. nnz226
        nnz226 27 October 2014 10: 24
        +2
        Also finished badly. Paris was taken by the allied forces led by Russians !!!
      4. predator.3
        predator.3 27 October 2014 10: 48
        +3
        Quote: Hairy Siberian
        But what about Napoleon Bonaparte?

        Napoleon, just waiting for this fleet on the English Channel to land in England, gathered several thousand merchant and fishing vessels for landing, and the Villeneuve fleet had to cover them, which is a pity ... although history does not like the subjunctive mood.
      5. Alex
        Alex 27 October 2014 14: 48
        +2
        Quote: Hairy Siberian
        But what about Napoleon Bonaparte?

        "In my absence, only stupid things are done." Something like this...

        This is because we are talking about the STATE, and not about individual PERSONALITIES.
    2. Afblgh
      Afblgh 27 October 2014 12: 43
      +5
      You just don't know the story. France is the strongest and most developed state in Europe, and the whole world for 14-17 centuries, then they began to weaken. Even in England she spoke Old French nobility, everyone tried to imitate and copy the French (especially the German princes), even the Germans soon had a complex in front of the French, which disappeared only after
      Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871.
    3. bekjan
      bekjan 27 October 2014 14: 13
      +2
      and Napoleon did what he enslaved all of Europe, only now there was no need to climb into Russia.
  2. sevtrash
    sevtrash 27 October 2014 09: 02
    +1
    It is unlikely that the paintings can be considered a documentary reflection of reality. Rather, this idea of ​​the author of this same picture about the events that took place is also very spoiled / improved / ennobled based on the artistic value and temporary views of society.
    Of course there were no photographs back then, but maybe there was something not in such an epic vein?
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 27 October 2014 09: 31
    +4
    And Britain began to rule the seas, after this battle ..
  4. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 27 October 2014 11: 01
    +6
    The French in the Middle Ages were considered good soldiers. Napoleon
    suffering huge losses in continuous wars blew
    the gene pool of his nation (all the strongest men died).
    Angichans are fighting continuously (until now), but avoid large losses.
    Therefore, they hold the rating of a "warring nation", are ascetic and not inclined to pacifism.
    Children of their elite always serve in combat units. Even princes chop in jeeps and combat
    Helicopters in hot spots.
    1. xan
      xan 27 October 2014 12: 16
      +2
      Quote: voyaka uh
      Therefore, they hold the rating of a "warring nation", are ascetic and not inclined to pacifism.
      Children of their elite always serve in combat units. Even princes chop in jeeps and combat
      Helicopters in hot spots.

      The British are not soldiers on land. Their victories over the past two centuries have become such due to later public relations events. Their most famous land victory, Waterloo, was won thanks to the agility of the Prussians' allies.
      Children of their elite show off for show. This is a tradition similar to the late Russian guard, the most pontific and practically the most uncompetent due to the replacement of the charter with traditions.
    2. Papakiko
      Papakiko 27 October 2014 12: 48
      +7
      Quote: voyaka uh
      Children of their elite always serve in combat units

      What our "elite" has .... you will wait and not get it.
      Quote: voyaka uh
      Even princes chop in jeeps and combat helicopters in hot spots.

      Quote: xan
      full window dressing for show.

      Vernyak !!!
      We are unlikely to wait from contemporaries:
      English cavalry, light cavalry! Anyone will bow in amazement before you. Graceful! Fearless! Beautiful devils! But your path passes the Death Valley.
      Ah, the wondrous horses of Great Britain! The price of one horse is a state! The fun and pride of the Royal Court ... There will be no one to ask for your doom. Golden patterns sparkle on their uniforms. Silver spurs ring to the beat of the lynx. On a frisky horse predicting the abyss. James Cardigan - An Unrivaled Rider! - There are Russian guns, here is a flat field! Any cavalry free will! Under a stranger’s sky, gloomy in autumn, Let your horses run with the fastest gait! How to hide from the Russian buckshot in the field! She cuts, shreds, cripples. And your life is valued less than the “half”, But the team rushes to the Russian guns. Calm, confident, aptly and quickly. Russian gunners work.
      - Accept the “welcome”! You yourself asked! Who made you attack Russia?
      Not everyone in that battle will be lucky. But part of the brave ones are redoubt before the redoubts. And distorted faces will flicker, And they will be chopped, chopped, chopped ... And then, holding battle formations, The rest will return to the starting point. And hundreds of lancers, without engaging in battle, Silently part as a sign of respect. English cavalry, light cavalry ...
      Now Cardigan suffers from insomnia: He is alive, and the team is covered in glory,
      Lies lifeless under the Balaclava.
    3. Alex
      Alex 27 October 2014 15: 15
      +4
      Quote: voyaka uh
      Children of their elite always serve in combat units. Even princes chop in jeeps and combat helicopters in hot spots.
      I beg you ... Children of ukro-elite also famously pose in front of cameras. But really ... Do you really seriously think that the Crown Prince will be at the point where the probability of getting a dozen or two bullets in your head or feeling a Mujahideen’s knife on your neck is higher than 1: 100? And who then put on the throne? And your shirt is always closer to the body.
  5. Prager
    Prager 27 October 2014 13: 26
    -5
    the French in their history have not refuted the opinion that they are the dung of European history, no matter how hard they try to do this, Trafalgar again turns out to be. But they cleverly learned how to cling to other people's victories.
    1. xan
      xan 27 October 2014 14: 02
      +9
      Complete nonsense, you do not know the story.
      It is impossible to imagine the history of Europe and the world without France.
  6. bekjan
    bekjan 27 October 2014 14: 18
    +2
    You are all about France and England. Remember how we defeated the entire Turkish fleet of Turks in Sinope and their entire coastal defense. This is the real admiral, Admiral Nakhimov.
  7. bekjan
    bekjan 27 October 2014 14: 19
    +7
    And our Admiral Ushakov won all 55 of the 55 naval battles. This is our way, in Russian.
  8. Alex
    Alex 27 October 2014 15: 18
    +4
    Add Fyodor Ushakov, who taught Nelson himself the mind (in absentia, true) and the military honor (if you believe the film, personally).
  9. Robert Nevsky
    Robert Nevsky 27 October 2014 19: 11
    +1
    As a young man, I read the novel Traflagar by a Spanish author ...
  10. shurup
    shurup 27 October 2014 22: 55
    0
    Victory and Mikasa are examples of how to relate to your own story. "Aurora" should be brought to the pre-Tsushima state, and at the "Predestination" in Voronezh you can already go on an excursion, then the opportunity is outlined to be like it.
    1. Alex
      Alex 27 October 2014 23: 40
      +2
      Quote: shurup
      "Aurora" should be brought to a pre-Tsushima state,
      I agree, it’s only possible. I have to go in not externally (this is not difficult), but internally. The cars, of course, are already irretrievably lost, but the dummy and the reduced current model, I think, will be nice.

      it is already possible to go on an excursion to the "Predestination" in Voronezh, then the opportunity is outlined to be like it.
      Cool, that would be to "board"! It is gratifying to see that things are slowly moving forward.