Military Review

The first ship of the series of rocket launchers

“In the 1987, the“ Lun ”descended on the water - the first ship of the series of combat missile-carrying WIGs weighing 400 tons. The chief designer was V. Kirillov. The ship was armed with three pairs of 3М80 or 80М Mosquito cruise missiles (NATO designation SS-N-22 Sunburn). The second “Lun” was also laid as a rocket carrier, but the conversion that began began to make its own adjustments, and it was planned to complete it as a rescue.

The first ship of the series of rocket launchers

2. LTH:
Modification Lun
Wingspan, m 44.00
Length, m 73.80
Height, m ​​19.20
Wing area, m2 550.00
Weight, kg
empty 243000 aircraft
maximum take-off 380000
Engine type 8 TRD NK-87
Thrust, kgf 8 x 13000
The maximum speed, km / h 500
Practical range, km 2000
Flight height on the screen, m 1-5
Seaworthiness, points 5-6
Crew 10
Armament: 6 PU PKR ZM-80 Mosquito
The weather was disgusting, so the photos are faded, but what is - that is.
There will again be many photos, and many of the same type.
Lun is located on the dock, specially designed for it, with a load capacity of 500 tons.

3. Unlike the Orlyonka, the Lun has no chassis, only hydro-skiing, so it cannot climb on its own. Therefore, he needs a dry floating dock.

4. This dock is brought into the bay by tugs, then plunges a few meters (perhaps diving to 10 meters), and then the enslaved ground-winged wig goes by itself.

5. The overall impression of the WIG: the aircraft, made at a shipyard using the technologies that they had. That and more unique to his ability.

6. Under this fairing is a marine radar.

7. Lun is equipped with eight engines Kuznetsov KB. The same put on the IL-62, if I'm not mistaken, however, here is their marine version, plus rotary nozzles. Engine type 8 TRD NK-87. Thrust, kgf 8 x 13000.

8. It remains a mystery to me: why only one engine is closed by such a grid?

9. View of the nozzle.




13. View from the wing.

14. From the ground.

15. If Lun will be restored, then it is planned to replace the engine with those that stand on the unfinished "Savior".

16. The body of the wig is functionally divided in length into four parts (area): the bow, middle, stern and keel area and stabilizer. In the bow (rooms with equipment and structures that ensure the movement of PSEs) there is a wheelhouse for the crew, a pylon on which the main engines are located, and rooms in the area of ​​the pylon with auxiliary engines and propulsion systems; in the middle (premises from the bow to the middle of the hull) - equipment for testing and combat, as well as a galley, toilet, crew cabin, in the aft (from the center of the hull to the stern) - also filled with test equipment; in the Kiel area - an electric power installation for providing an ekranoplan with electric power in a parking lot, a complex of electronic equipment for navigation and communications. At the cross of the keel and stabilizer at a height of 12 m from the waterline there is a shooter's room. The crew of the wig consisted of 7 officers and 4 contract soldiers (midshipmen). The autonomy of his 5 day.

17. This is a bottom view of a pylon with engines.

18. In fact, the screen effect is the same airbag, only formed by the injection of air, not by special devices, but by an incoming stream. That is, the “wing” of such devices creates a lifting force not only due to the rarefied pressure above the upper plane (like in “normal” aircraft), but additionally due to the increased pressure below the lower plane, which can be created only at very small heights (from a few centimeters up to several meters). This height is commensurate with the length of the average aerodynamic chord (MAR) of the wing. Therefore, the wing of the wig are trying to perform with a slight lengthening.

The effect of the screen is connected with the fact that disturbances (pressure increase) from the wing reach the ground (water), are reflected and have time to reach the wing. Thus, the pressure rise under the wing is large. The propagation speed of the pressure wave is, of course, equal to the speed of sound. Accordingly, the manifestation of the ground effect begins with h <(lxV) / 2v, where l is the wing width (wing chord), V is the speed of sound, h is the flight height, v is the flight speed. The higher the wing's MAR, the lower the flight speed and altitude, the higher the ground effect.

For example, the maximum flight range of the Oriole ecologolet at the height of 0,8 m is 1150 km, and at the height of 0,3 the meter with the same load is already 1480 km. Traditionally, at flight speeds near the ground, it is considered to be the height of the screen half the wing chord. This gives a height of the order of a meter. But with sufficiently large WIG, the height of the flight “on the screen” can reach 10 and more than meters. The center of pressure (the common point of application of force) of the screen effect is closer to the rear edge, the center of pressure of the “normal” lifting force is closer to the leading edge, therefore, the greater the contribution of the screen to the total lifting force, the more the center of pressure shifts back. This leads to balancing problems. A change in height changes the balancing, a change in speed, too. The roll causes a diagonal displacement of the center of pressure. Therefore, the management of WIG requires specific skills.

This is the view from under the wing on the flaps (or how to call them correctly?). After they are lowered: this is exactly the position they occupy, after which the engines force air under the wing, the WIG rises from the water and starts moving.

19. View of the flaps (or how to call them correctly?) From the tail of an airplane.

20. View from the hull toward the wingtips.

21. View of the left wing.

22. These things are so massive and made on the ship that you wonder.

23. The device rotates and locks the flaps.

24. The left wing and floats at its end.

25. The surface of the float.

26. He's from the side of the case.

27. Advantages of the ekranoplans and ekranolyat (the ekranolet differs from the ekranoplan in that it can break away from the screen and rise to great heights):
• high survivability;
• high enough speed;
• at ekranoplans high profitability and higher load-carrying capacity in comparison with airplanes, since the lifting force is added up with the force generated from the screen effect;
• WIG in speed, combat and load-lifting characteristics surpass hovercraft and hydrofoil vessels;
• for the military, the imperceptibility of the ground-effect vehicle on radar due to the flight at a height of several meters, high-speed performance and immunity to anti-ship mines are important;
• for ekranoplans, the type of surface that creates a screen effect is not important - they can move over a frozen water surface, a snowy plain, off-road, and so on; as a result, they can move along “direct” routes, they do not need ground infrastructure: bridges, roads, etc .;
• modern screen-mounted aircraft are much safer than ordinary aircraft: in case of a malfunction in flight, an amphibian can take to the water even with strong agitation. Moreover, it does not require any pre-landing maneuvers and can be carried out simply by discharging gas (for example, in the event of engine failure). Also, the engine malfunction itself is often not so dangerous for large WIG due to the fact that they have several engines divided into starting and sustainer groups, and the failure of the engine of the sustainer group can be compensated by starting one of the starting group engines;
• ekranoleta belong to aerodrome-free aviation - for take-off and landing, they do not need a specially prepared take-off runway, but only a sufficiently large water area or a flat land area;

28. Disadvantages:
• one of the serious obstacles to the regular operation of WIG is that the place of their intended flights (along the rivers) very precisely coincides with the zones of maximum concentration of birds;
• WIG control is different from the control of the aircraft and requires specific skills;
• WIG "attached" to the surface and can not fly over an uneven surface. This deficiency is devoid of screen;
• although the flight “on the screen” is associated with lower energy costs than the aircraft, however, the launch procedure requires greater thrust-to-weight ratio comparable to that of a transport aircraft and, accordingly, the use of additional starting engines that are not used on the cruising mode (for large ekranoplans), or special starting conditions for the main engines, which leads to additional fuel consumption;

29. Lately история with ekranoplans received a completely unexpected turn. After analyzing the prospects of this type of technology and having come to the conclusion that, to put it mildly, there is a significant backlog of work (due to the actual absence of such) in the field of ekranoplanostroeniya, the US Congress created a special commission to develop an action plan to eliminate the “Russian breakthrough”. Members of the commission offered to ask for help ... to the Russians themselves and went directly to the Central Clinical Hospital for SEC. The leadership of the latter informed Moscow and received permission from the State Committee for Defense Industry and the Ministry of Defense to hold talks with the Americans under the auspices of the Commission for the Export Control of Arms, Military Equipment and Technologies of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. And in order not to draw too much attention to the subject of negotiations, inquisitive Yankees offered to use the services of an American company under the neutral name “Russian-American Science” (RAS), and with her mediation, a delegation of overseas specialists had the opportunity to visit the Central Design Bureau for SEC, to meet with EKN designers, find out, if possible, the details of interest. Then the Russian side kindly agreed to arrange a visit by American researchers to the base in Kaspiysk, where they were able to capture, without any limitations, a “Eaglet” specially prepared for the flight on a photo and videotape.

Who was part of the American "landing"? The head of the delegation is Colonel of the US Air Force Francis, who heads the program for creating a promising tactical fighter. Under his leadership were prominent experts from research centers, including from NASA, as well as representatives of American aircraft manufacturing companies. Among them, the most famous person was Bert Rutan, who designed the aircraft of the non-traditional aerodynamic scheme "Voyazher", in which several years ago his brother made a nonstop round-the-world flight. In addition, according to representatives of the Russian authorities present at the show, the delegation included persons who, over the years, collected information in all possible ways about Soviet ekranoplans and for the first time suddenly had the opportunity to see with their own eyes - and even touch - the object of their close attention.

As a result of these visits, which cost American taxpayers only 200 thousands of dollars, our new friends will be able to save several billion dollars and significantly, by 5 - 6 years, shorten the development time of their own ekranoplan projects. US representatives have raised the issue of organizing joint activities to eliminate their backlog in this area. The ultimate goal is to create an ekranoplan transport-assault landing vehicle with a take-off weight of up to 5000 tons for the American rapid reaction force. The entire program may require 15 billion. How much of this amount can be invested in Russian science and industry - and whether it will be invested at all - is still unclear With such an organization of negotiations, when the 200 thousand dollars received do not cover the costs of the Central Design Bureau and the pilot plant in the amount of 300 million rubles for bringing to flight condition " Eaglet ", rely on the mutual benefit of cooperation is not necessary.

The reaction of the responsible official of the Commission for Export Control of Armaments, Military Equipment and Technologies of the Russian Defense Ministry Andrei Logvinenko to the appearance of press representatives in Kaspiysk (simultaneously with the Americans) leads to doubts about the benefits of such contacts for the state interests of Russia. Officially referring to considerations of secrecy, he tried to ban journalists from entering the base, and in the private conversation that followed, he explained that his task was to prevent information leaks to the press about Russian-American contacts about ekranoplans, and added that after the Americans left, we could shoot and write anything, but without a word mentioning the American visit to the former secret object.

Based on this, we can assume that there are no longer any things unknown to our probable adversary in this paradoxical technique.

Let's look at these beautiful contours, like a speedboat.



32. And this is a special protection (electro-chemical) against corrosion of the case. Exceptionally often used in shipbuilding.

33. To mitigate the landing is used ski. Because of this, the ground effect vehicle can take off and land at agitations up to 5 meters.

34. View of the hydraulics from the tail.

35. Swiveling hydrolog.

36. Another view of the ski.

37. Two schools can be distinguished in ekranoplan designs: Soviet (Rostislav Alekseev) with a straight wing and western (Alexandra Lippisha) with a delta wing (back angle, that is, with a backward sweep) with pronounced reverse transverse V.

Scheme P.E. Alekseeva requires more work to stabilize, but allows you to move at high speeds and in airplane mode.

The Lippish scheme includes a means of reducing excessive stability (wing with reverse sweep and reverse transverse V), which reduces the disadvantages of balancing WIG in conditions of small size and speed.

View of the tail.

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  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 2 October 2013 08: 23
    "Masha is good, but not ours!" The idea is good, but those. the service is not very simple and not a cheap pleasure to contain it (them!!!).
    1. 17085
      17085 2 October 2013 09: 47
      Any ship is expensive to maintain. But in this case it is justified - the power of the weapon, like a missile cruiser, and the size is an order of magnitude smaller, the tactical capabilities - are already breathtaking. If you build the same using new technologies, I’m sure it will be cheaper than building and maintaining a missile cruiser.
      1. Windbreak
        Windbreak 2 October 2013 11: 20
        Quote: 17085
        power of a weapon like a missile cruiser
        What missile cruiser is there? 6 Mosquitoes are like a small missile ship
        1. 17085
          17085 2 October 2013 12: 36
          Six launchers - a small rocket? Are you confusing anything?
          1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
            Andrei from Chelyabinsk 2 October 2013 14: 35
            Quote: 17085
            Six launchers - a small rocket? Are you confusing anything?

            Small missile ships:
            1) Project 1234 (600 tons) - 6 anti-ship missiles P-120 "Malachite"
            2) Project 1240 (342 tons) - 4 Malachite
            3) Project 1241 (380-470 tons) - 4 "Malachite" or "Mosquito"
            Missile cruisers
            1) 1164 Atlant Project - 16 RCC Basalt or Volcano
            2) Project 1144 - 20 anti-ship missiles "Granit"
            At the same time, bazaltes / granites fly to 550-700 and even 1000 km (Volcano) and Mosquito fly to 120 km
          2. Windbreak
            Windbreak 2 October 2013 18: 36
            8 launchers with missiles Mosquito at MRK project 1239.12 PU with missiles Onyx at MRK project 1234.7 "Nakat"
          3. Windbreak
            Windbreak 2 October 2013 18: 38
            8 launchers with missiles Mosquito at MRK project 1239.12 PU with missiles Onyx at MRK project 1234.7 "Nakat"
        2. sso-xnumx
          sso-xnumx 2 October 2013 20: 23
          and if instead of "mosquitoes", put something more serious, "granite" or "basalt", and more than one. What will it play, eh ???
      2. Voodoo
        Voodoo 2 October 2013 17: 11
        Although I put a plus sign for the quote, it is somehow incorrect to compare with the cruiser, because these combat units have completely different tactics and principles of combat use. I will not paint, because those present on the forum are able to think through themselves ...
      3. aszzz888
        aszzz888 3 October 2013 00: 54
        Guys, at least minus it completely, but they will not take it into service! Look, what is being done, it would seem, with simple state orders for weapons? Of course, I am "FOR" acceptance, but the circumstances, unfortunately, are higher than our will or not.
        1. Nuar
          Nuar 3 October 2013 12: 12
          Quote: aszzz888
          Of course, I am "FOR" acceptance, but the circumstances, unfortunately ...
          it is certainly true, but put pressure on pesimism not to put a minus sign, but to a corner! am
  2. Iraclius
    Iraclius 2 October 2013 09: 18
    Thank you for the article. In vain slander in the photo - it turned out fine! good
    It is a pity that these developments have become the property of "comrades" from the camp of their sworn friend. angry

    Eternal memory to the brilliant Soviet designer, creator of marvelous apparatuses - hydrofoil ships and ekranoplanes - Rostislav Evgenievich Alekseev.
  3. vietnam7
    vietnam7 2 October 2013 09: 27
    In the 99th I saw an eaglet in Kaspiysk, I was impressed, of course, before that I had read about it in the technique of youth, though it was already somehow fried and the paint was clinging in some places. In Google, the planet was looking for him - worth darling! Now I looked in - some photos from him, where did they share the eaglet?
    1. Vasia kruger
      Vasia kruger 2 October 2013 10: 43
      An eaglet is standing in Moscow, on the Khimki reservoir, Zakharkovsky Bay, directly opposite the northern river station. Look at Wikimapia)
      1. Andriuha077
        Andriuha077 4 October 2013 03: 32
  4. Xmypp
    Xmypp 2 October 2013 09: 36
    The great creation of a great power.
    Nothing more to say.
  5. avt
    avt 2 October 2013 09: 40
    Suppressed and apparatus and topic. Now they’re doing a little bit of light in a small series. But it’s more like a modeler’s designer, or you can seem more than serious work.
    1. sub307
      sub307 2 October 2013 13: 14
      Or maybe they have not "rotted away" to the end, in the sense - the topic. Somewhere, I do not remember exactly where, "fixed" the information in the form of a statement: "Russia can return to the construction of large ekranoplanes." Perhaps Rogozin "defended" somewhere, it looks like him. God forbid, as they say.
  6. 17085
    17085 2 October 2013 09: 41
    Thanks for the article, the photos are just unique.
  7. RPG_
    RPG_ 2 October 2013 09: 52
    Hmm, the return of the 90s, again, they will give everything to the Americans for a penny.
  8. Aubert
    Aubert 2 October 2013 10: 10
    Yeah, at one time combat ekranoplanes, along with SSGNs and missile-carrying aircraft, were to form the basis of the counteraction forces of the Shtatsky AUG.
    But here perestroika also started :(
    1. Vasia kruger
      Vasia kruger 2 October 2013 10: 40
      As far as I remember, the ekranoplanes were hacked before perestroika, it seems that the main conflict was that the maritime and aviation departments could not figure out which of them a new type of equipment refers to. + then they relied on missiles, so many military projects went into the void.
      1. Ka-52
        Ka-52 2 October 2013 14: 55
        Everything revolutionary is very difficult to find its niche. Especially among the military, which adhere to conservative views, and this is justified, but a fresh look, albeit with reservations, should have its place in a normal army. Example: the army of Nazi Germany, with their mechanized divisions. That's who put a lot on technical superiority, but was carried away by wunderwaffles and lost touch with reality.
        For some reason, in the 90s, Ekranoplanes were very fond of failing, and not an economical and dead-end branch. Moreover, the evidence was given by very serious people, but the ekranoplan is not a plane or a ship, maybe that's why you should not judge it one-sidedly.
  9. Evgeniy667b
    Evgeniy667b 2 October 2013 10: 18
    The aerodynamic layout, as the author of the article confirms, causes difficulties in maintaining alignment, especially at the time of launching missiles, if only it is possible from the screen mode, and not from planing. This requires a high level of crew training and the presence of a human factor. Unfortunately, the narrow-minded and technically illiterate first president of the Russian Federation ("Uralskiy nugget") greatly undermined a more promising direction - EKIP. This is the level of the ekranolet. Russian-French cooperation was formed and at the moment all the information is of a closed nature on the initiative of partners. In parallel with this topic, the topic of aquasin has gone out of sight. Fuels with a water base, which the oil lobbies could well take care of.
  10. Vasia kruger
    Vasia kruger 2 October 2013 10: 38
    Lun is handsome. Terrible car. Respect to the author, a good article, beautiful photographs.
  11. biglow
    biglow 2 October 2013 10: 52
    maybe new developments have appeared in this area, even theoretical ones, and therefore they decided to merge the junk to the Americans, let them spend time and money
  12. gispanec
    gispanec 2 October 2013 12: 42
    An unfinished rescuer stands in readiness of 80-90% at the Nizhny Novgorod shipyard VOLGA. I watched him live 4 years ago ..... the director said that Shoigu then refused him .... and they are waiting for a decision .... this monster produced an indelible feeling of power and horror on me ....))
  13. Evgeniy-111
    Evgeniy-111 2 October 2013 12: 52
    The merits include one more thing:
    The ekranoplan cannot be shot down by an air defense missile (they fire at a certain altitude of the object) and anti-ship missiles (designed for a certain speed of the ship).
    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      Andrei from Chelyabinsk 2 October 2013 14: 37
      Quote: Evgeniy-111
      WIG cannot be shot down by an air defense missile

      It was before, now - it is already possible
  14. goody
    goody 2 October 2013 13: 01
    This is the flight of thought of the Soviet designers hi
  15. Alexey M
    Alexey M 2 October 2013 13: 09
    When I studied at the techie there was a teacher who tested this harrier in the Caspian. So he said that during the tests the tail tore off so they calmly without a tail and the base reached. The flight altitude on the afterburner of the engines was about 2 km. It was thought of as an airborne cargo and missiles were later delivered by order of the Ministry of Defense. For acceleration, almost all engines are needed, but half is enough at cruising speed. And there’s also a movie about it called Black Sail.
    1. Andriuha077
      Andriuha077 4 October 2013 03: 43
      The tail was torn off at the first Eaglet, which was from the wrong alloy.
      Its height is 300 meters.
  16. ramsi
    ramsi 2 October 2013 13: 30
    I just didn’t understand, but what about his seaworthiness without flight (and with flight too)?
  17. Vyalik
    Vyalik 2 October 2013 13: 33
    He is even in such a state of BEAUTY. It is necessary to develop this project. Not long ago there was a doc. Film about design bureau under the leadership of Alekseev, I think not all frames are lost.
    1. Andriuha077
      Andriuha077 4 October 2013 03: 51
  18. Farvil
    Farvil 2 October 2013 14: 29
    And our corrupt officials are ready to sell their mother for the sake of profit and once again to lick their western ass.
  19. Prapor-527
    Prapor-527 2 October 2013 14: 37
    Combat missile-carrying ekranoplanes are a systematically ruined project for the sake of the 'peace-loving' NATO (as well as many others).
  20. sergant89
    sergant89 2 October 2013 15: 41
    In childhood, they often went to the sea with the boys (Caspian Sea) and from the side of Makhachkala at a distance of 5-7 km from the coast they flew as we called them seaplanes, so they were already heard very unbearably on the coast, by the 90 year fell silent and the planes no longer appeared.
  21. moremansf
    moremansf 2 October 2013 16: 09
    Thanks to the leaders of perestroika ........
  22. The Indian Joe
    The Indian Joe 2 October 2013 16: 28
    Great article, thanks for the interesting stuff!
  23. APASUS
    APASUS 2 October 2013 18: 05
    US Congress created a special commission to develop an action plan to eliminate the "Russian breakthrough." Members of the commission suggested asking for help ... to the Russians themselves and went directly to the Central Design Bureau through the SEC. The latter’s leadership informed Moscow and received permission from the Goskomoboronprom and the Ministry of Defense to conduct negotiations with the Americans under the patronage of the Commission on Export Arms Control,

    Here the Americans do not think for a long time on the topic "should it or not" and quickly sent a messenger!
    And we, in the place of becoming the first and trading such machines around the world, are sucking out a reason for refusal!
    Bravo, we’ll continue to drag in the tail ............. and after another 10 years we’ll buy our invention from China
    1. not good
      not good 3 October 2013 23: 47
      Judging by the actions of Mr. Logvinenko, he already sold everything and received his 30 pieces of silver.
  24. Dimy4
    Dimy4 2 October 2013 20: 43
    The first time I read about ekranoplans in the magazine, if I'm not mistaken, "Technology of Youth", a very, very long time ago. It is a pity that the project went almost for free to a probable "friend".
  25. tomket
    tomket 2 October 2013 23: 38
    it’s strange that they didn’t saw it, I somehow don’t believe in the prudence of Yeltsin, apparently they just forgot it
  26. ran nearby
    ran nearby 4 October 2013 21: 48
    Many thanks to the author for the magnificent photos. Honestly, I thought that not a single ekranoplane was left in the Russian Federation, back in the 90s they all sold and sawed.
    Those who “hacked to death” such a promising topic should be shot under the article “treason to the Motherland”. For a more interesting type of weapon / rescuer today simply does not exist. With the current technologies of engine building, electronic flight control, the presence of new anti-ship missiles - such a platform as an ekpanoplane - an unambiguous advantage over the "sworn friends" by an order of magnitude, or even more. And nafik don't need missile cruisers. A flock of ekranoplanes is much more effective than any cruiser and will practically "instantly" deliver a northern fur-bearing animal to any AUG anywhere in the world ocean. wink
    The benefits of ekranoplan as a lifesaver are also obvious.
    I repeat, but the neglect of ekranoplans, otherwise than a crime can not be called.