Wingspan, m 44.00
Length, m 73.80
Height, m 19.20
Wing area, m2 550.00
empty 243000 aircraft
maximum take-off 380000
Engine type 8 TRD NK-87
Thrust, kgf 8 x 13000
The maximum speed, km / h 500
Practical range, km 2000
Flight height on the screen, m 1-5
Seaworthiness, points 5-6
Armament: 6 PU PKR ZM-80 Mosquito
The weather was disgusting, so the photos are faded, but what is - that is.
There will again be many photos, and many of the same type.
Lun is located on the dock, specially designed for it, with a load capacity of 500 tons.
3. Unlike the Orlyonka, the Lun has no chassis, only hydro-skiing, so it cannot climb on its own. Therefore, he needs a dry floating dock.
4. This dock is brought into the bay by tugs, then plunges a few meters (perhaps diving to 10 meters), and then the enslaved ground-winged wig goes by itself.
5. The overall impression of the WIG: the aircraft, made at a shipyard using the technologies that they had. That and more unique to his ability.
6. Under this fairing is a marine radar.
7. Lun is equipped with eight engines Kuznetsov KB. The same put on the IL-62, if I'm not mistaken, however, here is their marine version, plus rotary nozzles. Engine type 8 TRD NK-87. Thrust, kgf 8 x 13000.
8. It remains a mystery to me: why only one engine is closed by such a grid?
9. View of the nozzle.
13. View from the wing.
14. From the ground.
15. If Lun will be restored, then it is planned to replace the engine with those that stand on the unfinished "Savior".
16. The body of the wig is functionally divided in length into four parts (area): the bow, middle, stern and keel area and stabilizer. In the bow (rooms with equipment and structures that ensure the movement of PSEs) there is a wheelhouse for the crew, a pylon on which the main engines are located, and rooms in the area of the pylon with auxiliary engines and propulsion systems; in the middle (premises from the bow to the middle of the hull) - equipment for testing and combat, as well as a galley, toilet, crew cabin, in the aft (from the center of the hull to the stern) - also filled with test equipment; in the Kiel area - an electric power installation for providing an ekranoplan with electric power in a parking lot, a complex of electronic equipment for navigation and communications. At the cross of the keel and stabilizer at a height of 12 m from the waterline there is a shooter's room. The crew of the wig consisted of 7 officers and 4 contract soldiers (midshipmen). The autonomy of his 5 day.
17. This is a bottom view of a pylon with engines.
18. In fact, the screen effect is the same airbag, only formed by the injection of air, not by special devices, but by an incoming stream. That is, the “wing” of such devices creates a lifting force not only due to the rarefied pressure above the upper plane (like in “normal” aircraft), but additionally due to the increased pressure below the lower plane, which can be created only at very small heights (from a few centimeters up to several meters). This height is commensurate with the length of the average aerodynamic chord (MAR) of the wing. Therefore, the wing of the wig are trying to perform with a slight lengthening.
The effect of the screen is connected with the fact that disturbances (pressure increase) from the wing reach the ground (water), are reflected and have time to reach the wing. Thus, the pressure rise under the wing is large. The propagation speed of the pressure wave is, of course, equal to the speed of sound. Accordingly, the manifestation of the ground effect begins with h <(lxV) / 2v, where l is the wing width (wing chord), V is the speed of sound, h is the flight height, v is the flight speed. The higher the wing's MAR, the lower the flight speed and altitude, the higher the ground effect.
For example, the maximum flight range of the Oriole ecologolet at the height of 0,8 m is 1150 km, and at the height of 0,3 the meter with the same load is already 1480 km. Traditionally, at flight speeds near the ground, it is considered to be the height of the screen half the wing chord. This gives a height of the order of a meter. But with sufficiently large WIG, the height of the flight “on the screen” can reach 10 and more than meters. The center of pressure (the common point of application of force) of the screen effect is closer to the rear edge, the center of pressure of the “normal” lifting force is closer to the leading edge, therefore, the greater the contribution of the screen to the total lifting force, the more the center of pressure shifts back. This leads to balancing problems. A change in height changes the balancing, a change in speed, too. The roll causes a diagonal displacement of the center of pressure. Therefore, the management of WIG requires specific skills.
This is the view from under the wing on the flaps (or how to call them correctly?). After they are lowered: this is exactly the position they occupy, after which the engines force air under the wing, the WIG rises from the water and starts moving.
19. View of the flaps (or how to call them correctly?) From the tail of an airplane.
20. View from the hull toward the wingtips.
21. View of the left wing.
22. These things are so massive and made on the ship that you wonder.
23. The device rotates and locks the flaps.
24. The left wing and floats at its end.
25. The surface of the float.
26. He's from the side of the case.
27. Advantages of the ekranoplans and ekranolyat (the ekranolet differs from the ekranoplan in that it can break away from the screen and rise to great heights):
• high survivability;
• high enough speed;
• at ekranoplans high profitability and higher load-carrying capacity in comparison with airplanes, since the lifting force is added up with the force generated from the screen effect;
• WIG in speed, combat and load-lifting characteristics surpass hovercraft and hydrofoil vessels;
• for the military, the imperceptibility of the ground-effect vehicle on radar due to the flight at a height of several meters, high-speed performance and immunity to anti-ship mines are important;
• for ekranoplans, the type of surface that creates a screen effect is not important - they can move over a frozen water surface, a snowy plain, off-road, and so on; as a result, they can move along “direct” routes, they do not need ground infrastructure: bridges, roads, etc .;
• modern screen-mounted aircraft are much safer than ordinary aircraft: in case of a malfunction in flight, an amphibian can take to the water even with strong agitation. Moreover, it does not require any pre-landing maneuvers and can be carried out simply by discharging gas (for example, in the event of engine failure). Also, the engine malfunction itself is often not so dangerous for large WIG due to the fact that they have several engines divided into starting and sustainer groups, and the failure of the engine of the sustainer group can be compensated by starting one of the starting group engines;
• ekranoleta belong to aerodrome-free aviation - for take-off and landing, they do not need a specially prepared take-off runway, but only a sufficiently large water area or a flat land area;
• one of the serious obstacles to the regular operation of WIG is that the place of their intended flights (along the rivers) very precisely coincides with the zones of maximum concentration of birds;
• WIG control is different from the control of the aircraft and requires specific skills;
• WIG "attached" to the surface and can not fly over an uneven surface. This deficiency is devoid of screen;
• although the flight “on the screen” is associated with lower energy costs than the aircraft, however, the launch procedure requires greater thrust-to-weight ratio comparable to that of a transport aircraft and, accordingly, the use of additional starting engines that are not used on the cruising mode (for large ekranoplans), or special starting conditions for the main engines, which leads to additional fuel consumption;
29. Lately история with ekranoplans received a completely unexpected turn. After analyzing the prospects of this type of technology and having come to the conclusion that, to put it mildly, there is a significant backlog of work (due to the actual absence of such) in the field of ekranoplanostroeniya, the US Congress created a special commission to develop an action plan to eliminate the “Russian breakthrough”. Members of the commission offered to ask for help ... to the Russians themselves and went directly to the Central Clinical Hospital for SEC. The leadership of the latter informed Moscow and received permission from the State Committee for Defense Industry and the Ministry of Defense to hold talks with the Americans under the auspices of the Commission for the Export Control of Arms, Military Equipment and Technologies of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. And in order not to draw too much attention to the subject of negotiations, inquisitive Yankees offered to use the services of an American company under the neutral name “Russian-American Science” (RAS), and with her mediation, a delegation of overseas specialists had the opportunity to visit the Central Design Bureau for SEC, to meet with EKN designers, find out, if possible, the details of interest. Then the Russian side kindly agreed to arrange a visit by American researchers to the base in Kaspiysk, where they were able to capture, without any limitations, a “Eaglet” specially prepared for the flight on a photo and videotape.
Who was part of the American "landing"? The head of the delegation is Colonel of the US Air Force Francis, who heads the program for creating a promising tactical fighter. Under his leadership were prominent experts from research centers, including from NASA, as well as representatives of American aircraft manufacturing companies. Among them, the most famous person was Bert Rutan, who designed the aircraft of the non-traditional aerodynamic scheme "Voyazher", in which several years ago his brother made a nonstop round-the-world flight. In addition, according to representatives of the Russian authorities present at the show, the delegation included persons who, over the years, collected information in all possible ways about Soviet ekranoplans and for the first time suddenly had the opportunity to see with their own eyes - and even touch - the object of their close attention.
As a result of these visits, which cost American taxpayers only 200 thousands of dollars, our new friends will be able to save several billion dollars and significantly, by 5 - 6 years, shorten the development time of their own ekranoplan projects. US representatives have raised the issue of organizing joint activities to eliminate their backlog in this area. The ultimate goal is to create an ekranoplan transport-assault landing vehicle with a take-off weight of up to 5000 tons for the American rapid reaction force. The entire program may require 15 billion. How much of this amount can be invested in Russian science and industry - and whether it will be invested at all - is still unclear With such an organization of negotiations, when the 200 thousand dollars received do not cover the costs of the Central Design Bureau and the pilot plant in the amount of 300 million rubles for bringing to flight condition " Eaglet ", rely on the mutual benefit of cooperation is not necessary.
The reaction of the responsible official of the Commission for Export Control of Armaments, Military Equipment and Technologies of the Russian Defense Ministry Andrei Logvinenko to the appearance of press representatives in Kaspiysk (simultaneously with the Americans) leads to doubts about the benefits of such contacts for the state interests of Russia. Officially referring to considerations of secrecy, he tried to ban journalists from entering the base, and in the private conversation that followed, he explained that his task was to prevent information leaks to the press about Russian-American contacts about ekranoplans, and added that after the Americans left, we could shoot and write anything, but without a word mentioning the American visit to the former secret object.
Based on this, we can assume that there are no longer any things unknown to our probable adversary in this paradoxical technique.
Let's look at these beautiful contours, like a speedboat.
32. And this is a special protection (electro-chemical) against corrosion of the case. Exceptionally often used in shipbuilding.
33. To mitigate the landing is used ski. Because of this, the ground effect vehicle can take off and land at agitations up to 5 meters.
34. View of the hydraulics from the tail.
35. Swiveling hydrolog.
36. Another view of the ski.
37. Two schools can be distinguished in ekranoplan designs: Soviet (Rostislav Alekseev) with a straight wing and western (Alexandra Lippisha) with a delta wing (back angle, that is, with a backward sweep) with pronounced reverse transverse V.
Scheme P.E. Alekseeva requires more work to stabilize, but allows you to move at high speeds and in airplane mode.
The Lippish scheme includes a means of reducing excessive stability (wing with reverse sweep and reverse transverse V), which reduces the disadvantages of balancing WIG in conditions of small size and speed.
View of the tail.