Military Review

Russian space: glorious past, difficult present, uncertain future

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The quick effect of a sharp increase in financial investments in the industry cannot be expected


A major restructuring currently underway in the Russian rocket and space industry is aimed at solving a lot of the problems and contradictions that have accumulated in it. A series of major accidents that have occurred regularly in the industry in recent years and have considerably spoiled its image in the eyes of the country's top leadership, as well as foreign partners and customers, has led to serious changes in the national space program.

The succession of resignations of the heads of the Federal Space Agency of Russia (Roskosmos) did not at all affect the negative trend. It is doubtful that a new attempt to change the situation, initiated by the government and with the blessing of the president, will give quick results. Moreover, a significant part of the problems facing Roskosmos is of a worldwide nature. They are also characteristic of other space powers today.

Low quality and old engineers

The problems of the domestic rocket and space industry were identified most graphically by the regularly occurring accidents of Proton launch vehicles. Their failures were a direct consequence of the main problem for today's Russian high-tech industry - low production culture and poor quality control. Enterprises use equipment that has not met modern technologies and requirements for a long time. This problem is well known and the leadership of Russia. So, even 12 on April 2013 of the year in Blagoveshchensk, President Vladimir Putin at a meeting on the prospects for the development of cosmonautics in Russia, said: "A significant part of the equipment of the rocket and space industry is outdated, more than 80 percent of the electronic component base used is produced abroad."

It is in the inadequate quality control that the cause of the Proton accidents lies. According to the results of one of the last, 2013, which took place in July (the launch was broadcast live on Russian television), the chairman of the emergency commission, the former deputy head of Roscosmos, Alexander Lopatin, stated that “in the Khrunichev Center (manufacturer of the rocket. - Auth.) Incorrect installation of sensors in the yaw plane. These devices were monitored without comment and were allowed to board the launch vehicle, but the installation of some of them directly on the rocket did not happen correctly, they were turned upside down by 180 degrees. ”

The conclusion of the commission was predictable: Proton-M has been in operation since April 2001. If the design of the carrier had a flaw, it would have appeared long ago. For 13 years of production of this modification of the rocket, its manufacturing technology should have already been worked out. However, Proton-M demonstrates low reliability: of the 79 rocket launches, only 70 were successful. In four cases, the carrier itself failed (September 5 2007, December 5 2010 of the year, July 2 of the year 2013, 15 of the year May 2014 of the year). Five times the launch tasks were not completed due to crashes of the Breeze-M upper stage, which brought the payload to an unplanned orbit (28 February 2006 of the year, 14 March 2008 of the year, 17 August 2011 of the year, 6 of August 2012 of the year and 8 of December 2012 of the year ). Thus, the reliability of the media is only 88,6 percent. Most of these nine accidents occurred not because of deficiencies in the design, but because of errors in the manufacture of elements of the carrier and their assembly, not "caught" by subsequent tests and inspections.

It is worth noting that one of the Proton crashes that occurred on 5 in December 2010 of the year cost the position of the previous head of Roscosmos, Anatoly Perminov. The findings of the commission of the accident about the insufficient technical control of the carrier before the start were blamed on the head of the agency and led to the resignation. During his tenure of his successor, Vladimir Popovkin, from April 2011 to October 2013 (that is, in just two and a half years!), A whole series of launch vehicle accidents occurred: four Protons and two Soyuz did not fulfill their tasks. Although Popovkin repeatedly demanded that enterprises improve the quality of production and improve the control of finished products, he could not change the situation, which was the main reason for his resignation.

Russian space: glorious past, difficult present, uncertain future


More radical measures in this area were proposed by 18 on July 2013, Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin. In his extravagant manner, he reacted to the conclusions of the emergency commission by following the post in his mini-blog on Twitter: “Those suspected of gross violation of the assembly technology of the Proton-M rocket will be tested on a polygraph. The Russian government is waiting for the report of Roskosmos. ”

The roots of the problems with poor quality and poor control lie in another — a personnel problem: there is an acute shortage of qualified engineers and workers at Russian space enterprises. This problem is particularly acute in cooperation. Personnel training that existed in the USSR has greatly deteriorated. Technical universities are not popular with high school graduates. Small wages, especially in 1990 – 2000's, resulted in high staff turnover. The result was a serious age disproportion: the average age of 67 thousands of workers today in the space sector is 43 of the year. However, there are two peaks: about 40 percent of employees have 60 age and more, and about 35 percent more - those who are 30 – 35 or less.

The industry has almost no middle-aged specialists (35 – 45 years) who possess high working ability, qualifications and experience. In addition, compared with the Soviet era, the number of specialists with higher education has almost halved, and the number of specialists with scientific degrees has tripled. “The space industry needs to more actively attract new scientific and engineering personnel, above all, of course, talented young people,” said President Vladimir Putin in 2013, “and to do this, create the necessary conditions for professional growth, ensure decent wages, social conditions, develop system of scientific grants.

Budget takeoff and corporate fonda

Decent wages and the grant system are part of the next problem of Russian space - financial. True, the size of the space budget of Russia today is no longer such a critical issue. In ten years, it has grown almost 18 times: from 10 billion rubles in 2003 to 178,1 billion rubles this year (5,26 billion dollars). Even with inflation, this is a huge leap. Growth will continue further - in 2015, the state plans to spend a billion rubles on 202 space programs. According to Vladimir Putin, from 2013 to 2020, about 1600 billions of rubles should be allocated to space activities within the framework of the relevant state programs.

For comparison: so far the most dramatic growth of the space budget was observed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the first half of the 60-ies when the Apollo program began to land on the moon. For six years, the agency’s budget has grown 68 (!) Times - from 488 million dollars in 1958 to 33,24 billion dollars in 1964 a year.

If ten years ago, Russia was inferior in terms of expenditures on the space program even to such countries as Canada, India and Israel, then today it has reached the third place in the world in this parameter. NASA leads with more than three-fold separation: its budget in 2014 was 17,65 billion dollars. However, Russia is almost equal in terms of expenditures on space with the united Europe: the budget of the European Space Agency (European Space Agency - ESA) in 2014 was estimated at 4,10 billion euros (5,62 billion dollars). However, this comparison is true without taking into account the funds spent by the countries of the Old World on the national space programs in addition to the European one. In addition, there is no reliable information about the space budget of China, which may well take third or even second place in the world.



It should be noted that such a significant increase in the space budget of Russia did not occur under any particular priority program, as in the case of NASA with the landing of astronauts on the Moon in 60-s. Rather, it was a return to the level of financing the industry in Soviet times. The objectives of such a budget growth are the maintenance of the status of Russia as one of the leading space powers by 2020, and the strengthening of this status by 2030.

Indeed, it does not make sense to count on the quick effect of a sharp increase in financial investments in the space industry. The implementation of space programs in the world is at least five years. Given the degradation over the past 20 years of Russian design bureaus, who have lost most of their specialists, these deadlines will increase even more. Therefore, it makes no sense to expect, along with the spasmodic growth of the budget, the same rapid growth of the orbital constellation, expansion of space research, improvement of their quality and reliability.

Actually, the country's leadership did not expect a fast "cosmic miracle" from Roscosmos. The agency was tasked to spend the budget wisely and restructure the industry to improve its performance.

The distribution of budgetary funds for specific space programs is still a disproportion. “Until recently, manned programs ranged from 40 to 58 percent of the space budget to the detriment of other areas,” stated Vladimir Putin. - As a result, we have fallen behind the world level in a number of areas, for example, by means of remote sensing of the Earth, personal satellite communications systems, registration and rescue of objects in distress, and so on. A noticeable separation from the leading space countries was formed in our country and in the technologies that provide programs for the development of the so-called deep space. Of course, we must preserve everything that has been accumulated in the manned part, but other directions must also be tightened. ”

In addition to “more than 40 percent” (and this is no less than 70 billion rubles) on large-scale spending of Roscosmos budget in 2014, manned cosmonautics are the costs of maintaining the group and developing the global navigation system GLONASS (12,6% or 21,56 billion rubles). Another 12,2 percent (20,8 billion rubles) is directed to the development of Plesetsk and Baikonur, the construction of a new Vostochny cosmodrome in the Amur Region. In addition, according to Roskosmos management, about 38 more percent of the budget is allocated for the creation of new and production of existing launch vehicles (apparently, the head of the agency took the construction of launch complexes for new missiles to this article). And only 9 percent remains on all spacecraft, except manned (as of 2013 year). Therefore, the space agency was forced to reconsider priorities.

The change of priorities has led to the formation of the “space front” - managers of enterprises that are the main recipients of budget funds, which they must now lose. An example of such an open opposition was the confrontation in 2011 – 2012 that was led by Roscosmos Vladimir Popovkin and the general director of Russian Space Systems (RKS), the chief designer of the GLONASS space navigation system, Yuri Urlichich. In the war with Roscosmos, the RKS used even the methods of "black PR", spreading disinformation about Popovkin, discrediting his honor and dignity.

In March, 2012 appeared on the Internet an open letter to the Deputy Director General of the RCN, Ivan Golub, in which he called on the head of Roscosmos to resign. In response, Roscosmos launched an anti-corruption campaign against RKS, as a result of which Urlichić was removed from his post as GLONASS chief designer, and in December 2012 of the year - RKS general director. The Department of Internal Affairs on the Moscow Metro opened a criminal case against the leadership of the RCC suspected of embezzling 6,5 a billion rubles allocated for the development of the GLONASS system. In May, 2014 th, former deputy Urlichich in the RKS, Andrei Chimiris and Aleksey Kuzenkov, were charged with fraud.

However, the most intransigent “space frontier” during the entire existence of the space agency in Russia (it was formed in February 1992) has always remained the head company in the field of manned flights - the Rocket and Space Corporation (RKK) Energia. S. p. Queen. With her, the “wars” were going on during the time of the first head of the agency, Yuri Koptev (1992 – 2004), who was opposed by the president of Energia, Yuri Semenov (the head of the RSC was in 1989 – 2005). This continued under Anatolia Perminov (2004 – 2011), whose main opponent was the head of Energia, Nikolay Sevastyanov (2005 – 2007). Nothing has changed under Popovkin, and now, with the current head of the agency, Oleg Ostapenko, who was already opposed by Vitaly Lopot (headed "Energy" from 2007 onwards). The methods of counteraction are the same here: in April, the 2014-th Investigation Department of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation in the Central Federal District opened a criminal case against Lopota, suspecting him of abuse of power.

Spacecraft and "aimless" ships

The recipient of the very “40 – 58 percent of the budget” of RSC Energia, naturally, did not want to lose state funding. The corporation regularly sought to include all new manned projects in the federal space program of Russia. From 2000, RSC insisted on the creation of the Clipper reusable spacecraft. The space agency involved in this project insisted on revising the requirements for the ship, which was transformed in 2009 into a more versatile manned transport vehicle of a new generation (PTK NP). In 2006, RSC Energia developed a concept for the development of Russian manned cosmonautics over the 2006 – 2030 years. It envisaged the gradual creation of an industrial transport space system, the exploration of near-Earth space, the Moon, and flights to Mars. It was proposed that the Russian segment of the ISS should not be reduced to orbit along with the entire station in 2020, but be undocked and turned into a new national, permanently operating orbital station.

“Most of the accidents occurred due to errors in the manufacture of elements of the carrier and their assembly, not“ caught ”by subsequent checks”
In April 2013, Vitaly Lopota unveiled a slightly different scenario for the development of manned astronautics. After the flooding of the International Space Station (ISS), it envisaged the creation of an internationally visited platform at the Lagrange point (the position allowing the spacecraft to be constantly in the same position relative to the Earth and the Moon), and in the long run - international manned expeditions to asteroids, to the Moon, into orbit and the surface of mars. In the opinion of the RKK President, such a program could become the driving force for the technological advancement of the entire engineering industry in Russia, as in the 80s, the Energy program Buran. Lopota also called on the Russian government to start developing a new super-heavy class launch vehicle capable of putting tons of payload into 70 orbit. The corporation has already developed a proposal for such a rocket.

If we leave aside questions of the influence of space programs on Russian engineering as a whole, as well as space competition (which essentially ceased in 1969 after the Americans landed on the Moon), suffice it to say that during the space age 56 years only telecommunication satellite systems became business profitable to their operators. Gradually, systems of photographing the Earth from space and navigation come to payback. Manned cosmonautics is akin to basic science, which does not bring short-term profit. The only exception in this area for Russia was the “space transport”: the delivery of foreign astronauts to the ISS. However, this type of business could not provide even the work of RSC Energia, becoming only a small bonus to state budget financing.

In total, for the 55 flights of foreign astronauts on Mir and the ISS under contracts with NASA in the period from 1994 to 2017, Russia received 3,21 a billion dollars a year. In addition, eight professional astronauts and eight space tourists flew from 2000 to 2009-th to the ISS, for the flight of each of which Russia received 20 – 22 million dollars, that is, a total of about 330 million dollars. The total profit from manned flights during 22 years was 3,54 billion dollars - one and a half times less than the current annual space budget.

The use of manned flights in the national interest has long lost specific and clear goals in Russia. In the USSR, since the end of the 60-s, a program for the development of orbital stations was being implemented, which resulted in the Salyut and Mir stations. The next stage is the Mir-2 project, integrated into 1992 – 1993 in the ISS. However, without a diverse scientific program in which institutes and other research organizations would be interested, the meaning of maintaining and developing the Russian segment of the ISS is lost. Currently, according to the Russian program on the ISS, mainly biomedical experiments are carried out, the main purpose of which is to test a long flight to Mars. A new direction was the material science experiment “Plasma Crystal” to produce unique alloys that cannot be created on Earth due to gravity. However, most of the possible studies that could be performed at the orbital station have already been carried out. Now the Russian crew is mainly engaged in maintaining the station’s proper operation, thus ensuring the implementation of a scientific program in the American segment.

However, Energia insists on the continuation of programs of orbital stations, for the delivery of crews to which and the supply of cargo, and is developed primarily PTC NP. Plans for manned flights to the moon, and especially Mars, have never been officially approved either by Roskosmos, or even by the Russian government. Thus, the new ship is created under the old, already achieved goals. If, shortly after the launch of the PTK NP flight (the first launch is scheduled for 2017 – 2018 years), the ISS in full will be de-orbited (this operation is scheduled for 2020), then this target for the new ship disappears. Thus, there is no need for this project at all.

The existing tasks, including the fulfillment of international obligations under the ISS project, may well be performed by the Soyuz family ships. The modernization currently being carried out will make it possible to reduce the weight of service systems, thereby increasing the size of the delivered payload, increase the power supply system capacity, ship comfort for the crew, and increase its reliability as a whole. With external similarity with the project of the very first “Union” of the middle of 60, the modern ship has nothing to do with it in terms of systems and capabilities. The dimensions and masses of the modernized Soyuz fully meet the requirements for manned vehicles for near-earth flights and the supply of orbital stations.

Applied targets and "new old" rockets

The creation of the NTC NP without the goals clearly defined by the Federal Space Program for it leads to the fact that Roskosmos regularly delays the work on the project, seeking to redistribute funds to more pragmatic directions. The main one is rightly called cosmic communication. Among the priorities - coverage of the Arctic zone. It is also planned to increase the capacity of communications and television systems in geostationary orbit. According to agency estimates, it is necessary to increase the number of transmitters on communication satellites by an order of magnitude, up to 2000 trunks, which requires a grouping of 44 spacecraft.

An important priority for Roskosmos remains the shooting of the Earth from space. Until recently, only one Resource DK spacecraft was used for this purpose. He provided the need for Russian buyers of images of the Earth only for 10 percent, the remaining 90 percent were purchased abroad. In 2013, two new satellites of this type were launched. Roscosmos plans to bring the number of such devices to 2015 by 16. At the same time, the share of domestic images in the domestic market will increase to 60 percent, and to 2020 year - to 90 percent.

Quite pragmatically, the agency approached one of its main tasks - ensuring Russia's guaranteed access to space. Roskosmos is financing the maintenance of ground-based space infrastructure facilities at the Plesetsk and Baikonur cosmodromes, from where launches of Rokot light-launch vehicles, Soyuz-2 medium rocket and Proton-M heavy launch vehicles are conducted today. Again, despite the external similarity with the missiles of the past decades, these are fairly new, cost-effective and efficient carriers. Their engines, control systems, equipment have been repeatedly replaced since the first flights.

Today in the world there is an acute problem of cheap access to space. Of course, it is cheaper to use the existing missiles and their launch complexes, without taking the risks and costs of creating new ones. All types of Russian carriers used for launches of domestic devices are in high demand abroad. For example, the commercial launches of the Proton brought Russia about 5,7 billion dollars (from 1996 of the year they were executed 83). Europe in general went to an unprecedented step, having built a launch facility for the newest version of the Soyuz-2 rocket - Soyuz-ST at its launch site in French Guiana. From there, five commercial launches have already been completed.

In addition to upgrading old rockets, Roskosmos also finances the creation of a new family of carriers, the Angara. In fact, this project went to the agency from the Ministry of Defense of Russia, which, even in 1992, announced a competition for the creation of a heavy-class launch vehicle for its needs. In 1994, the winner was the Space Center. M. V. Khrunichev. In 1997, during the liquidation of the military space forces, the Ministry of Defense refused to fully finance all stages of the Angara project, remaining only a customer of rocket launches and co-financing the construction of the launch complex. However, the project was already at a fairly advanced stage. Therefore, the civilian space agency has taken on the burden of further funding the development work. Its volume in the framework of the Federal Space Program in the 2000-s was a significant part of the Roscosmos budget: in 2006 – 2014-m - 3,288 billion rubles (about 100 million dollars at the current rate). Of this amount, 2,68 billion rubles (81,5%) was allocated from the federal budget and 0,608 billion rubles (18,5%) from funds invested in space activities by the implementing organizations.

Angara carriers were developed in the middle of the 90-ies, in a period of acute lack of funding. Therefore, already existing technologies were used to the maximum extent in their design. The engine for the first stage of the RD-191 was made on the basis of the RD-170 engine of the Energia rocket, for the second stage the RD-0124 was taken from the Soyuz-2 project. To create a large range of rockets of different payloads for various purposes with limited funding, it was decided to make two types of universal rocket modules, from which carriers of different types could be assembled - from light to heavy. This approach led to not the most optimal parameters of the missiles and the deterioration of their flight characteristics in comparison with other carriers.

After a twenty-year period of the creation of 9 July 2014, the first flight tests of the light version of the "Angara" took place. The launch of the heavy version is planned until the end of 2014. The calls from competitors of the Khrunichev Center (the same “Energy”, “TsSKB-Progress”, etc.) calls to abandon the project and create the best version of the Roscosmos missile does not take into account: taking on an alternative project would mean losing another decade and billions of rubles. The relatively high cost of Angara missiles in the first launches will inevitably decrease.

Another quite expensive project of Roskosmos is the creation of the Vostochny cosmodrome in the Amur Region. It is considered as an alternative to Baikonur and partially to Plesetsk. The choice of location was largely dictated by the national task of developing the Far East, stimulating enterprises in this region. Obviously, taking into account this “supra-space” task, the government of the Russian Federation consciously went on increasing the cost of building the East and increasing the cost of its operation in the future. It is planned to allocate about 2016 billion rubles for the construction of objects of the Vostochny cosmodrome before 164. The first space launch using the Soyuz-2 rocket is to take place from East in 2015. And by 2018, the launch site for the Angara carriers is planned to be built at the cosmodrome.

Agency, holdings, corporation

Given this set of problems and challenges, the Russian rocket and space industry has long been faced with the need to restructure the industry to consolidate its resources and improve manageability. The possibility of the existence of a “space front” was also a consequence of the management weakness of the space agency. Roscosmos did not have the authority to conduct its pragmatic, although sometimes unpopular decisions.

These issues have been raised regularly since the beginning of the space agency. But neither Yuri Koptev, nor Anatoly Perminov, nor Vladimir Popovkin had enough weight to change the situation: the Russian space industry remained a set of several hundred self-sufficient firms. In the absence of sufficient state funding in 1990 – 2000-ies, these firms often competed with each other, invading other people's areas of work, without disdaining dumping. In addition, the poor implementation in these years of a whole series of space projects, which failed in whole or in part, demonstrated that almost all Russian space enterprises do not have sufficient engineering potential to carry out such developments at the required level of complexity and reliability. The integration of enterprises would allow to solve this personnel problem by redistributing work between the design bureaus on separate parts of one project.

Plans for the reorganization of the Russian space industry have been discussed for two decades. In 90-ies, Yuri Koptev sought to recreate the former Ministry of General Engineering based on the space agency, which was in charge of all the USSR rocket and space enterprises. At the end of 2006, Anatoly Perminov announced plans to integrate the industry under his jurisdiction into three or four large holdings, but only by 2015. Until that time, it was planned to create 12 – 15 integrated structures from design bureaus, serial factories and some cooperation enterprises working on some projects.

Vladimir Popovkin proposed in 2011 to form two large rocket and space holdings based on the Khrunichev Center and the Energia Corporation. However, other enterprises, with the support of a number of government officials, essentially blocked this project. This situation is generally similar to the problems that arose when creating other integrated structures in the Russian defense industry - the Almaz-Antey Air Defense Concern, Tactical Missile Weapons Corporation, the United Aircraft Building Corporation, the United Engine Building Corporation, the United Shipbuilding Corporation.

In 2012, Roscosmos launched an initiative to create a state corporation based on the agency, similar to Rosatom and Rostec. The Roscosmos State Corporation was to be empowered to develop state policy in the field of space activities, conclude government contracts, distribute budget financing among enterprises, and license their activities. All state-owned shares of space enterprises were to be transferred to the state corporation. The contradiction of this proposal was that if Roscosmos was reorganized into a state corporation in the government of the Russian Federation, the body responsible for implementing space activities on behalf of the state would disappear. The situation with Russia's participation in international space programs has also become uncertain: the state agency represented by the space agency also concludes agreements on them.

In order to solve the tasks of restructuring and consolidating the rocket and space industry, developing an optimal system of its management, in August 2012, on behalf of the Chairman of the Russian Government, an interdepartmental working group was established under the leadership of Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin. She eventually rejected the project to create a state corporation. Following the results of this work, Rogozin noted: “At the present stage, it is necessary to preserve and strengthen the role of the federal executive body - Roskosmos. And the simultaneous phased consolidation and organization of the rocket and space industry into large holdings in the form of open joint-stock companies, whose shares are wholly owned by the Russian Federation. ” Thus, everything remained in the position in which it was before.

Only 9 in October 2013, Vladimir Putin approved a plan for reforming the space industry. At a meeting with the President of the Russian Federation, Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin said: “In order for the industry to be managed, it is necessary to save it from parallelism. Today, unfortunately, we have different enterprises of the rocket and space industry concentrated in ten (integrated) structures and there are a lot of organizations that operate outside of them as independent ones. Each works according to its own plan, each uses its own element base, that is, universal technical, technological solutions are practically not visible. ”

Rogozin proposed to divide the functions of Roscosmos, which combined in its person both the state customer and the performer, and create two structures. The first, Roskosmos proper, will retain the functions of the federal authority responsible for implementing the space policy and forming the state order for the development and production of rocket and space technology. The second structure was the United Rocket and Space Corporation (ORKK), which will be responsible for the execution of the state order.

Already 10 in October 2013, Vladimir Popovkin, who insisted on a different version of the Roscosmos reform, was dismissed from his post. Colonel-General Oleg Ostapenko, deputy defense minister for science, was appointed head of Roscosmos, who from June 2008 to November 2012 was the commander of the Space Forces (in November 2011, they were transformed into the Aerospace Defense Forces). Ostapenko became the third former commander of the Space Forces, then appointed head of the civil space agency, for ten years. Such a commitment in appointing "space" generals to the post of head of Roscosmos is not exclusively a Russian tradition. The current NASA administrator is a retired United States Marine Corps Major General, former military astronaut Charles Bolden.

Igor Komarov was appointed head of the ORCC, in 2009 – 2013 he was AvtoVAZ’s director. 3 February 2014-th Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev signed a decree on the formation of an SQAR on the basis of the Research Institute for Space Instrumentation. 6 March 2014, the ORCC was registered.

ORKK - open joint stock company with 100-percent state participation. In the future, federal-owned shares of large enterprises and organizations of the rocket and space industry, as well as nine federal state unitary enterprises (after their incorporation with subsequent transfer of shares) will be made into the authorized capital of the corporation. Two years are given for holding all the events related to the creation of the corporation. Officially, the corporation declares as its goal “the comprehensive reform of the rocket and space industry, that is, the methods and methods of production”.

Prospects are foggy

Russia's space activities have long demanded a serious correction. The future of the whole industry depends on whether it is carried out according to the announced plan and in full.

A serious increase in the budget should contribute to the solution of personnel problems: the cosmonautics that has again become financially sufficient will apparently attract both young and already experienced personnel. Subject to the technical re-equipment of enterprises and the improvement of technological discipline, it is realistic to raise the level of quality and reliability of equipment to an acceptable level.

To speed up this process, Roskosmos seeks to participate in major international programs. Thus, the requirements for quality and reliability are immediately set at the level of world standards. These are the ISS projects already mentioned, the launches of the Soyuz-2 rocket from the Guiana Space Center, the supply of engines for US carriers (in addition to the NK-33 for Antares, the RD-180 engines for the Atlas V rocket family are also supplied). In 2013, the Roscosmos and the European Space Agency signed an agreement on cooperation in the field of exploration of Mars and other solar system bodies by means of robots. The program includes a joint study of Mars (the ExoMars program, which involves the launch of two automatic stations in January 2016 of the year and April of 2018) and Mercury (Russian equipment at the European-Japanese station BepiColombo, which is scheduled to launch in August of 2015), and also Moon (program delivery soil) and satellites of Jupiter (landing Russian probe on Ganymede). Thanks to the agreement, Russia will be able to return to the studies of other bodies of the Solar System after the Phobos-Grunt project, which ended immediately after the launch of the 2011 year in November.

There is also a need to develop a new Federal space program of Russia. It must meet the increased level of funding and become more pragmatic than the existing one. Thus, the disproportion between the manned space program and applied projects in which Russian consumers are really interested (communications, navigation, shooting of the Earth) should be corrected. In the end, having a space budget even more than Russia, Europe does not have at all its independent manned program, contenting itself with participation mainly in American projects. At the same time, the ESA does not feel injured and flawed.

However, the main guarantee for the success of space policy of Russia in the near future should be a change in the management of the industry itself, a departure from the Soviet principles that successfully worked in a planned, tightly regulated economy, but not effective in a free market.

Who will make these changes now is not yet completely clear, since the process of restructuring the industry is just beginning. Obviously, the head of Roscosmos, Oleg Ostapenko, must organize the process of developing a new state policy in the field of cosmonautics. The share of Igor Komarov is a change in the situation with the quality of the production of existing equipment and the organization of work in promising areas. Only decisive steps by Ostapenko and Komarov, aimed at changing the situation in the industry, and their positive results will be perceived by the state leadership as confirmation of the correctness of the chosen course of reforming the rocket and space industry of Russia.
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  1. pensioner
    pensioner 11 October 2014 08: 08 New
    +5
    I really want to live up to the Russian interplanetary expedition. Like American on Titan. Well, after all, we can !! It's time to stop the whole mess with the organization in the space industry. Well, or crush by force. And there are frames ...
    1. Giant thought
      Giant thought 11 October 2014 10: 00 New
      +3
      We hope that the lowest point of the sinusoid of the development of our cosmonautics has already been passed.
      1. Dormidont2
        Dormidont2 11 October 2014 13: 40 New
        0
        I wonder if it is possible to make the steps with the engines return to the ground by parachutes, to restart them
      2. Fregate
        Fregate 11 October 2014 13: 49 New
        0
        Who cares here are photos and panoramas of the launch of the Angara.
        http://www.airpano.ru/360Degree-VirtualTour.php?3D=Plesetsk-Cosmodrome-Angara-Ru
        ssia
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Very old
      Very old 11 October 2014 11: 08 New
      +7
      Wow, Pensioner Yuri!
      In the frames, that’s the whole thing. You don’t know how many Russian brains we have spent in the vastness of Europe, Asia, America ... We could not save .. For this, thank you very much to our fellow countryman and to Garbach-bitch
      Again, he escaped with a slight fright .. And how many times I raised a glass for the rest of his dirty little soul .. As soon as the media reported about the next death of a hunchback, I ran to the refrigerator
      State of the industry - full QC
      1. Andrey Yuryevich
        Andrey Yuryevich 12 October 2014 07: 22 New
        +1
        Quote: Very old
        how many times did I raise a glass for the rest of his dirty little soul ..

        Hi hello! he’ll die, I’ll take three days off, and you and I are peasants in the garage, say goodbye to this nits! wassat
    4. avg
      avg 11 October 2014 12: 54 New
      0
      Quote: retired
      I really want to live up to the Russian interplanetary expedition. Like American on Titan. Well, after all, we can !!

      Please accept the centenarians in your club. laughing
      But seriously, while effective managers will not be replaced by talented techies, we will not see a Titan. Well, I can’t imagine the Queen, Chelomei and so on. chief accountant.
    5. Reserve officer
      Reserve officer 11 October 2014 14: 54 New
      +6
      This is a very sore subject for me. I left the research institute in 1995, as the head of the R&D department, when there were two of the 52 employees in my department. Thirty-year-old engineers and researchers, graduates of brilliant universities, simply went nowhere to feed their families. Candidates of science and authors of dozens of inventions worked as loaders, sales agents, watchmen.
      It is these guys who are currently lacking in the space industry. The connection between generations is broken - now people who are for 70 and very young guys are working. The backbone of the 40-50 summer specialists, on whom everything has always rested, is simply not there.
      The reason for all this, in fact, is not only the general situation in the country, but the unsuitability in the new conditions of very many enterprise managers.
      There are examples when directors formed youth creative groups, created funds for economic incentives - and, as a result, some of the young guys managed to be kept.
      But there are other examples. When assembly shops were leased to discos, machine equipment was scrapped, and directors, who are the head of the company's expert council, took secrecy stamps from the forefront and sold it all to the Americans for their grandeur. But the employees did not receive money. When I saw how the chief economists of the enterprise came to work at the new Dodge, and they didn’t pay us salaries for six months, I simply could no longer keep my young engineers at the enterprise.
      Everything became very clear. Us engineers. But, for some reason, not to state security agencies.
      And my deep conviction that things in the space industry, especially now - with a serious increase in funding, can only be adjusted through 10, when the current young children get the necessary experience. And only with extremely tight control over directors by the FSB. As before, the KGB worked. In my time. I started when Valentin Petrovich Glushko and Mikhail Fedorovich Reshetnev were alive, with whom I was lucky to work with for several years ...
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 11 October 2014 16: 10 New
        +1
        Among other things, the answer lies in the fact that intelligence itself and counterintelligence have degraded. People who do not know the guidelines of the dominant line of their activity. Intelligence has always been oriented towards the extraction of industrially promising ideas and developments. Therefore, the collapse of the system. And in intelligence and training and in science. PVV is the only empirical hope of true patriots and specialists. Only by supporting your own and yours can you really become independent and strong
    6. Denis fj
      Denis fj 11 October 2014 21: 45 New
      0
      Daas! But you can shoot a film based on the above. How about that name "Moon Landing". It seems to me quite. In any case, in full accordance with the processes that are taking place in Russian cosmonautics to this day. It is a pity that the pumping of budgetary allocations to the space industry proceeded without its serious structural changes. As a result, the state, with its own hands, nurtured a frond of a cosmic scale. Whether Oleg Ostapenko has enough strength to feed the wolves and keep the sheep is an open question. In any case, the industry development strategy, which appeared after his solemn landing in the chair of the head of the department in charge of the development of the zone free from gravity, did not add optimism, but rather, on the contrary, strengthened the positions of skeptics. Who, among other things, are convinced that Roscosmos should be headed not just by a professional who understands "hardware", not just an apparatchik who knows the history of the "space wars" of the Russian spill, but also a person capable of offering and, most importantly, implementing the program reforming the industry. It would also not be at all superfluous if a candidate for this position in the government apparatus published the main provisions of this program even before her appointment to such a troublesome post. Otherwise, in our country, the appointment to responsible posts in the government is often not a consequence of the tasks facing a particular industry, but the result of apparatus wars. Accordingly, in such an environment, the achievement of any significant results can not be expected. The trouble with the current bureaucrats is that the time for simple solutions in the "Russian space" has been lost, and there is no clear program for the development of domestic cosmonautics, as a result, the industry will be in a fever for quite a long time and quite strongly
  2. bronik
    bronik 11 October 2014 08: 18 New
    +4
    In the USSR there was a "military acceptance" and no corruption schemes could harm it. For marriage could be imprisoned, and for theft - shot. But they paid for the work with dignity, maybe you should try?
    1. pensioner
      pensioner 11 October 2014 08: 31 New
      +3
      Quote: bronik
      In the USSR, there was a "military acceptance" and no corruption schemes could damage it. For marriage could be imprisoned

      And I was in Russia. And there is. For me, as a specialist in the region. non-destructive testing, statements about quality problems at the enterprises of the space industry are generally not clear. In the hardest time (early 2000) at the enterprises of "Almaz-Antey" everything was all right with this. A multi-level quality control system almost completely excluded the presence of defects in the final product. And since then, working conditions have changed incomparably, and the material base in general has been revolutionary. Yes, and "in space" quality requirements and control over it have always been very strict. I know firsthand. I had to communicate with experts from space. enterprises. I was friends with some ... In general: I don't understand ...
      1. ICT
        ICT 11 October 2014 08: 40 New
        +2
        Quote: retired
        at the enterprises of "Almaz-Antey" everything was in order with this

        oh well, in 95 - 99 talked closely with Ryazans, trash and you had enough
        1. pensioner
          pensioner 11 October 2014 08: 44 New
          +2
          Quote: TIT
          hacks and you had enough

          You talk to our family yes ... sin is ... repeat
        2. Very old
          Very old 11 October 2014 12: 09 New
          +1
          Quote: TIT
          Quote: retired
          at the enterprises of "Almaz-Antey" everything was in order with this

          oh well, in 95 - 99 talked closely with Ryazans, trash and you had enough


          I do not know organizations that did not have problems in those times. Mess and chaos everywhere
          1. pensioner
            pensioner 11 October 2014 12: 19 New
            +1
            Hi Valentine! drinks
            For more than 6 years that I worked there, there were no returns from the acceptance of finished products. Military Acceptance (Khe Khe ... repeat ) ... in all the cracks. God forbid. Funny sometimes it came, but what to do ...
            1. Very old
              Very old 11 October 2014 12: 59 New
              +1
              Our receiver didn’t get tired of repeating: your every mistake is someone’s life
              1. Andrey Yuryevich
                Andrey Yuryevich 12 October 2014 07: 32 New
                +1
                Quote: Old very
                Our receiver didn’t get tired of repeating: your every mistake is someone’s life

                Valentin came up and did you work at RMZ? il on RHZ? wink I’m at the factory after the army, I earned the first money (not small, up to 300 rubles, in the early 80s, it’s not very bad!) the military representative snooped around the shop like a ghost! I stood at the 105m order, so how did they work! rejected for any garbage! crying
            2. Andrey Yuryevich
              Andrey Yuryevich 12 October 2014 07: 38 New
              +1
              Quote: retired
              Hi Valentine! drinks
              For more than 6 years that I worked there, there were no returns from the acceptance of finished products. Military Acceptance (Khe Khe ... repeat ) ... in all the cracks. God forbid. Funny sometimes it came, but what to do ...

              Yura ! when the military representative walked into the dining room in sight, we even spoke in a whisper! crying
    2. ICT
      ICT 11 October 2014 08: 35 New
      +4
      this is a mess now, just the engineering link is now a manager (that is, he’s a techie for his duties, and his goals are to profit in one way or another), and not a person checking and managing a technician, that’s the whole point of all this mess
      for all my service and today's work, I don’t remember that someone checked me laziness for them all (not a lordly thing), that’s quiet and quiet, and the result is obvious
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. mazhnikof.Niko
        mazhnikof.Niko 11 October 2014 10: 16 New
        +3
        Quote: TIT
        that’s the whole point of all this mess for all my service and today's work, I don’t remember that someone checked me all of them for laziness (not a lordly thing), that’s quietly quiet, and the result is on the face


        Enough, REFORM already, especially what worked and worked well, and most often EXCELLENT!

        Throw it away, heal from the "Itch of reformism", leading to disorganization - of all engineering THOUGHT in particular AND the economy of ALL POWER in general!

        After carefully reading the article, I concluded (for myself): - In order for Russia to become Proud of the domestic cosmonautics again (and not only) - Russia needs to abolish all the LEGISLATIVE nonsense heaped up by the deputies of the State Duma - of all convocations and Return the USSR. Well, at least, instead of the TRP, first return the USSR.

        You look and rockets fly!
        1. ICT
          ICT 11 October 2014 10: 27 New
          0
          Quote: mazhnikof.Niko
          USSR first.

          this is a type of pathetics, specifically what to do so that the foam cutting machines were ours, not Italian
      3. Bayonet
        Bayonet 11 October 2014 12: 47 New
        +1
        Quote: TIT
        just an engineering link now it's a manager

        And how many oak blocks there are attached to doom! At my enterprise such stupid people take up positions - you wonder!
    3. Bayonet
      Bayonet 11 October 2014 08: 59 New
      0
      Quote: bronik
      maybe you should try?

      Try to shoot someone? If only it had not become a habit. Look at others, missiles fly without executions.
      1. Andrey Yuryevich
        Andrey Yuryevich 12 October 2014 07: 35 New
        +1
        Quote: Bayonet
        Quote: bronik
        maybe you should try?

        Try to shoot someone? If only it had not become a habit. Look at others, missiles fly without executions.

        here the question is: either a bullet or money .... we have no bullet in the head, no money in our pocket ... request
  3. sv68
    sv68 11 October 2014 08: 45 New
    +1
    well, instead of Protons, we’ll start operating the Angara, will something change? NO! until we start doing everything ourselves on our own equipment, and the state acceptance, we can restore it without any options.
  4. Bayonet
    Bayonet 11 October 2014 08: 56 New
    +2
    Again about the sensors installed upside down they remembered, but I can’t believe something. Everything is too simple and stupid. Well, for example - try to screw the light bulb on the other side smile . Even if it succeeds, the first test inclusion will show that it does not work, and in the rocket before launch, all systems undergo repeated testing until the launch.
    1. 225chay
      225chay 11 October 2014 12: 30 New
      0
      Quote: Bayonet
      remembered about the sensors installed upside down, but I can’t believe something. Everything is too simple and stupid.


      So sabotage, sabotage, and even more so need to be shot, or at least planted for long periods ... There is no fear among saboteurs, traitors among thieves and crooks
  5. bronik
    bronik 11 October 2014 08: 59 New
    +4
    Impunity works wonders of theft and crime. Poor salaries of workers, theft of theft, led to mass trash. Good work requires decent money, and the offender must be in prison. Then the equipment will fail.
  6. bronik
    bronik 11 October 2014 09: 02 New
    0
    Quote: Bayonet
    Quote: bronik
    maybe you should try?

    Try to shoot someone? If only it had not become a habit. Look at others, missiles fly without executions.

    Others have different earnings and working conditions.
    1. Bayonet
      Bayonet 11 October 2014 09: 28 New
      0
      Quote: bronik
      Others have different earnings and working conditions.

      I agree. Maybe it's worth starting with this?
    2. Tyumen
      Tyumen 11 October 2014 18: 02 New
      0
      Quote: bronik
      Others have different earnings and working conditions.

      That is, responsibility to your country, even in such a strategic direction, depends on salary? What walk in bast shoes, and hungry children roar? Crucifix ... it is, not s / n low.
  7. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 11 October 2014 09: 07 New
    +4
    The problems are not in production. Problems in the "top" management. The kickbacks in this industry are just off the charts. And the main thing is not that little money is allocated, but that "tears" reach production. And the counting chamber, under the guise of secrecy, is not allowed there. Yes, and techies who immediately see "getting on" in the reporting, in the inspection commissions, as a rule, are not. The fish rots from the head.
  8. valokordin
    valokordin 11 October 2014 09: 18 New
    +1
    The article is interesting and instructive, it is clear to everyone that the reasons for the collapse of the space industry is the oligarchic corruption system that has developed in our country. No injections of money will fundamentally change the situation. A systemic ideological and administrative reform of the industry is needed. I don’t think that the car manager Or, in Russian, the manager can effectively manage space. This is like Taburetkin-Minister of Defense. How much damage from him, how many broken fates, stolen money, and everything is covered. As Comrade Stalin said, who believes that the lack of responsibility for what we have done is the reason for our troubles in everything, including in space.
    1. saag
      saag 11 October 2014 09: 44 New
      +1
      Quote: valokordin
      A systemic ideological and administrative reform of the industry is needed

      does not help, in your sentence the word "industry" should be replaced by "country"
  9. Drunya
    Drunya 11 October 2014 09: 25 New
    0
    Well, I don’t know - but it seems to me everything is going as it should request
    http://www.tsenki.com/news/
    UPCOMING START
    Date: October 21, 2014
    Booster: Proton-M
    Acceleration block: "Breeze-M"
    Payload: Express-AM6 spacecraft
    Starting place: Baikonur, Pl. №81, PU №2
    TsENKI News
    The assembly of the space head for launching the Express-AM6 spacecraft was completed
    At the Baikonur Cosmodrome, specialists from the rocket and space industry continue to prepare for the launch of the Express-AM6 spacecraft (SC).
    Telecommunication spacecraft Express-AM6, created by the specialists of JSC Information Satellite Systems named after Academician MF Reshetnev, commissioned by GPKS, is designed to provide digital television, telephony, video conferencing, VSAT networks, Internet access, and data transmission for users of the European part of Russia and Western Siberia, the countries of Central Europe and the Middle East.
    The spacecraft was delivered to the Baikonur Cosmodrome on May 26 and passed all the necessary autonomous checks.
    Yesterday, in the assembly and test building of the 92A-50 site, the calculations of the GKNPTs im. M.V. Khrunicheva and Academician M.F. Reshetnyov Information Satellite Systems OJSC completed the assembly of the space head part (CSC) of the launch vehicle: a head fairing was installed on the spacecraft with an accelerating block. Today, the necessary components will be installed at KCH.
    In accordance with the schedule of specialists GKNPTS them. MV Khrunichev is also working on preparations for launching the Proton-M launch vehicle, and the Yuzhny Space Center calculations are preparing the launch complex for the site 81 of the cosmodrome.
    The launch of the Proton-M space rocket with the Briz-M booster block and the Express-AM6 telecommunication spacecraft is scheduled for October 21.
    The Express-AM6 spacecraft was commissioned by the Federal State Unitary Enterprise Space Communication based on the Express-2000 heavy-class platform and is designed to provide a wide range of communication and broadcasting services in Russia. The spacecraft has an active life of 15 years, and the payload includes 11 antennas, 72 transponders of the C-, Ku-, Ka- and L-frequency ranges.
    Press Center of the Yuzhny Space Center
    Date: 10.10.2014
    TsENKI News
    At Baikonur, work is underway on the assembly of the Proton-M LV and work with the Express-AM6 spacecraft
    Today at 14.00 hours work began on moving the GB into a horizontal position and the final work is being carried out on the Express-AM6 spacecraft.
    From 17.00 p.m., work is underway to assemble the head fairing (GO) of the Proton-M launch vehicle
    Press Center of the Yuzhny Space Center
    Date: 09.10.2014
  10. Dimy4
    Dimy4 11 October 2014 09: 26 New
    0
    A series of major accidents, regularly occurring in the industry in recent years and prettyly spoiling its image in the eyes of both the country's top leadership and foreign partners and customers, has become the impetus of serious changes in the national space industry

    Some countries that are trying to enter the "space market" are very beneficial to the loss of our country's reputation in this regard, and they do not spare money to spoil it.
    1. LvKiller
      LvKiller 11 October 2014 10: 01 New
      -1
      And with what, excuse me, will they enter the "space market"? With a million Chinese people throwing satellites into orbit? How many countries can carry people into space on an industrial scale? The disgrace of the United States with its "commercial space" alone is enough to tell exactly how it will end.
      1. saag
        saag 11 October 2014 10: 22 New
        +2
        Quote: LvKiller
        The disgrace of the United States with its "commercial space" alone is enough to tell exactly how it will end.


        And what kind of disgrace is there? The cargo has already been transported to the ISS by a dragon, and they will reach the transport of manpower, you just need time
      2. Dimy4
        Dimy4 11 October 2014 11: 15 New
        0
        And the joy here is not that your cow is milking better, but that my neighbor is dead. And the Chinese just need all the technologies to work for us, then they will update their copy machine. We are talking about another power, which our successes in this area are like a sickle in a causal place, since it disputes its leadership in this particular area, and this, in their opinion, cannot be done.
      3. The comment was deleted.
  11. Viktor Kudinov
    Viktor Kudinov 11 October 2014 10: 12 New
    +1
    good Of course, not everything is as we would like. But our space industry has an excellent chance - we can say that very soon a new complex will be connected to space exploration - the Vostochny cosmodrome. The military builders "Dalspetsstroy" are building it at a high rate. And we will surprise the world with our space achievements more than once. drinks
  12. fzr1000
    fzr1000 11 October 2014 10: 15 New
    +1
    True, it recently burned down in pl. atmospheric layers of a military satellite that launched 4 months ago?
  13. Vadim237
    Vadim237 11 October 2014 10: 33 New
    -1
    Unfortunately, rockets are already at a deadlock level in the development of the output of payload into the near-Earth orbit, the time has come for other equipment such as an aerospace plane, we have been working on this topic since the mid-sixties, but our leadership has thrown it all in a long box, but in the UK this their project is working at full speed Skylon should fly in 2025.
    1. Bayonet
      Bayonet 11 October 2014 12: 37 New
      +1
      Quote: Vadim237
      the time has come for another technique such as an aerospace plane

      This is what kind of air-space airplane can take 100 tons of payload into orbit? Their destiny is small devices.
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 11 October 2014 12: 52 New
        0
        Usually people think that a rocket is a tube compressed on one side in which fuel and oxidizer are separated and everything else is nonsense. The more components, the more proportional to the task. Alas, in order to lift 100 tons of cargo, it is necessary to solve such fundamental technical problems that are still unsolvable. The Americans will not build efficient rocket engines because. that they do not have one "idiot" who cannot tell anyone, but who sees and understands why "freezing" occurs on the exhaust nozzle on its outer shell. And these processes take place in places where it is impossible to explain these effects with modern scientific theories. They simply do not have a "unique", and the engine is already a derivative.
  14. da Vinci
    da Vinci 11 October 2014 10: 40 New
    +2
    In today's games with the Angara (the game of CJSC and other state monopolies + with Merdyukovtsy for cutting the budget), it is necessary to actively work on promising LV and TCS, satellite platforms, the Russian orbital station in cooperation with India, Brazil, etc. But only the period of creation is not 20 years, but 7-8 years. Yes, now there is no USSR with its scientific and industrial complex, but now they do not use slide rules!
  15. rotor
    rotor 11 October 2014 11: 00 New
    +1
    a new ship is created for the old, already achieved goals. If, soon after the start of the PTK NP flights (the first launch is planned for 2017–2018), the entire ISS will be taken out of orbit (this operation is still scheduled for 2020), then this goal for the new ship will disappear. Thus, the need for this project disappears altogether.


    The main task of the PTK NP is to ensure flights to the Moon while maintaining the possibility of transport and technical maintenance of near-Earth orbital stations.

    "From 2021 to 2023, the ISS is scheduled to launch one manned transport vehicle of a new generation in an unmanned version per year; in 2024, one launch to the ISS in a manned version will take place", - says the draft" Federal Space Program for 2016-2025 "(FKP), which Roscosmos sent for approval to the government.

    1. rotor
      rotor 11 October 2014 11: 07 New
      +1
      Earlier, RSC Energia CEO Vitaly Lopota stated several times that with sufficient funding the first manned flight on the NPP can take place in 2020. Unmanned test launches, according to Lopota, should begin in 2017-2018.
  16. rotor
    rotor 11 October 2014 11: 56 New
    +1
    The implementation of the Russian program for the exploration of the moon by automatic stations was postponed from 2016 to 2018., said Lev Zeleny, director of the Space Research Institute (IKI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

    "They have moved to 2018 since 2016. These are the Luna-Globe and the Orbital Moon. But we do not want to allow a more distant shift" to the right ". It is important that in this decade we have three lunar projects:" Moon -25 "," Luna-26 "and" Luna-27 ", - Zeleny told reporters at the" Days of space science "in Moscow on Friday.
    He noted that such dates were defined in the Federal Space Program proposed by Roscosmos.
    1. The comment was deleted.
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 11 October 2014 12: 21 New
        0
        It is necessary to say what number this amount is indicated. Because the costs of such programs should be tied to the total budget income, if it is a state program.
        The second one. Just flying and just sitting down is stupid and naive. Therefore, all this is expensive. If the link is to income from the flight, then the technology will strive for optimal criteria and the tasks will be set more reasonable.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. rotor
      rotor 11 October 2014 12: 36 New
      0
      A manned flight to the moon will cost Russia 100 billion rubles, Igor Mitrofanov, head of the nuclear planetology department of the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, told reporters at the COSPAR international scientific assembly.

      "The approximate cost of one project to create an automatic lunar station is 10 billion rubles, the project is being done for five to six years. A manned flight to the moon will cost 10 times more," Mitrofanov said.

      For comparison: the launch of one Proton launch vehicle costs 2,5 billion rubles.

      On the other hand, Roscosmos lays 60 billion 770 million rubles in the FKP for the development and testing of the PTK.

      + cost of Hangar-5P and Hangar-7V

      + interorbital tug

      + lunar landing module
  17. Everest2014
    Everest2014 11 October 2014 12: 07 New
    0
    "These Russians forgot more about space stations than we know" are the words of the Americans during the construction of the ISS.
  18. gridasov
    gridasov 11 October 2014 12: 07 New
    +1
    You need to very accurately identify the problem. If the tasks for Roskosmos remained at the same level, then the results would be positive. Technologies have been worked out. Production has been established. BUT!!! It turns out that the challenges are growing and the technology has its limits. That’s all stalled. And there is no need to dream and talk about everyone in fantasies. Neither the Russians nor anyone else has a future if the thresholds of fundamental technical solutions are not overcome. I am not even talking about the theoretical foundations. It takes hundreds of years to "break through" the consciousness and reformat it with new methods of analysis.
  19. 225chay
    225chay 11 October 2014 12: 28 New
    +1
    Quote: Bayonet
    Try to shoot someone? If only it had not become a habit. Look at others, missiles fly without executions.



    Why not? Your oligarchs and privatizers have stolen the country and are not going to invest in the economy and slaughtered agriculture ..
    Rest in Courchevel swim in champagne and smeared with black caviar.
    Until they begin to shoot these snickering cats, there will be no sense in the country
    1. Bayonet
      Bayonet 11 October 2014 12: 41 New
      +1
      Quote: 225chay
      Your oligarchs and privatizers dragged the country

      And your not? Where do you live?
      Quote: 225chay
      swim in champagne and smeared with black caviar.

      Where did such details come from the life of our oligarchs? Have you personally smeared his ass with his caviar?
    2. Tyumen
      Tyumen 11 October 2014 18: 07 New
      0
      Quote: 225chay
      and smeared with black caviar.

      Is that really nice? Can I have fat?)
      1. Bayonet
        Bayonet 12 October 2014 06: 12 New
        0
        Quote: Tyumen
        Is that really nice? Can I have fat?)

        Yes, even with shoe polish!
  20. Evilcat
    Evilcat 11 October 2014 12: 50 New
    -1
    If you criticize in full, then a comment the size of an article will work. Therefore, the most characteristic in my opinion.
    The conclusion of the commission was predictable: Proton-M has been in operation since April 2001. If the design of the carrier had a flaw, it would have appeared long ago. For 13 years of production of this modification of the rocket, its manufacturing technology should have already been worked out. However, Proton-M demonstrates low reliability: of the 79 rocket launches, only 70 were successful. In four cases, the carrier itself failed (September 5 2007, December 5 2010 of the year, July 2 of the year 2013, 15 of the year May 2014 of the year). Five times the launch tasks were not completed due to crashes of the Breeze-M upper stage, which brought the payload to an unplanned orbit (28 February 2006 of the year, 14 March 2008 of the year, 17 August 2011 of the year, 6 of August 2012 of the year and 8 of December 2012 of the year ). Thus, the reliability of the media is only 88,6 percent. Most of these nine accidents occurred not because of deficiencies in the design, but because of errors in the manufacture of elements of the carrier and their assembly, not "caught" by subsequent tests and inspections.

    As far as I know, Proton_M differs from the previous ones only in the control system (control system), just an on-board computer.
    By the way, I did not understand why the author wrote this at all? To codify the space industry of the Russian Federation?
    1. Bayonet
      Bayonet 12 October 2014 05: 37 New
      -1
      Quote: EvilCat
      To codify the space industry of the Russian Federation?

      What for? She sheats herself.
  21. Koronik
    Koronik 11 October 2014 13: 21 New
    -1
    "However, the main guarantee for the success of Russia's space policy in the near future should be a change in the management of the industry itself, a departure from Soviet principles, which worked successfully in a planned, strictly regulated economy, but ineffective in a free market."
    I want to cite as an example the achievements of the Chinese space industry based on Soviet principles of management, and why some large-scale changes should be made in our space industry, development plans have been revised. The construction of a cosmodrome in the far east of the country is in full swing, and the construction of new launch vehicles has begun. The only thing needed is a larger-scale attraction of Russian private capital.
  22. Justme
    Justme 11 October 2014 14: 31 New
    +3
    I am a former developer of the space industry (1983-1995, 2007-2012)

    What they finally noticed now and began to say that the mess in the control system of the space industry is good. True, the "rotting of fish from the head" was already evident in the 80s. The situation was always rescued by the fact that there were really talented and highly competent specialists, driven by their interest and self-motivation. I cannot say that their results helped them a lot to move up the career ladder.
    About my former beginner lab, someone in the know said - ".. yes, your boss is a talented person (he created the best direction in his parameters at NIIFI, many, many are really better than they have there now), but your boss is not supports none of the local clans (in the governing crowd), he is a stranger here ... ". It is curious that when my former boss was given an educational kick, humiliated and he quit, all this direction (and he was the main developer) "was covered with a copper basin." Moreover, there were heaps of design documentation, heaps of scientific reports, thieving candidates of science who wrote his results in their dissertations.
    Well, there’s not just one person - the author of the direction and - there is no direction itself ..
    And here the question arises
    And what should talented and highly competent specialists (age 30-50 years) in the space industry do now?
    What the article describes above is just the tip of the iceberg of the problems of the space industry.
    Just look at how the work is organized there.
    If the leadership is dumb, then the rate in the work is made on the regulation of everything and everything.
    Here is my advice and request (maybe to the TOPWAR.RU manual)
    It would be desirable to cover in one of the future articles
    What is the letter "O", RK-75 (and its further subsequent versions), what do you hope to get from the global regulatory control and standardization of everything and everything that is supposed to get from the work of military acceptance in the space industry ..

    Why is this relevant.
    When regulation goes beyond a certain threshold (and common sense), working in such an organization is problematic... Work turns into passing papers, "butting", an afternoon nap, ...
    And one of the main tasks of a competent specialist is that he should not degrade ... And now you can find a more adequate job ..
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 11 October 2014 16: 02 New
      +3
      In which centuries I heard a like-minded person. And the main idea is that the bearer of knowledge is a "pearl" to be found, and once found, cherish and use. After all, so Tesla left and took away the understanding of his vision and perception. It is understanding, not paper and diagrams. Therefore, I am humble about that. that no one understands my designs. But the conversation is about the fundamental principles of the organization of hydro-gas dynamic flows and the device that organizes it. This is the simplest device on which the entire industrialization of man is built. Or a spin-dominant inductor with a non-pushing force vector from a solenoid. It is simply radically different from all currently existing not in the form, but in the essence of the magnetic force currents created by it.
      You need to look for talents, and not just do anything. And money has nothing to do with it.
      1. Bayonet
        Bayonet 12 October 2014 05: 50 New
        0
        Quote: gridasov
        In centuries, I heard a like-minded person.

        One of my friends has been building a perpetual motion machine for what year, it looks like your soul mate! And I'm tired of him ...
    2. Bayonet
      Bayonet 12 October 2014 05: 43 New
      -1
      Quote: JustMe
      And what should talented and highly competent specialists (age 30-50 years) in the space industry do now?

      The simple answer is to go where you are needed, where you are valued!
      1. Andrey Yuryevich
        Andrey Yuryevich 12 October 2014 07: 13 New
        +1
        Quote: Bayonet
        Quote: JustMe
        And what should talented and highly competent specialists (age 30-50 years) in the space industry do now?

        The simple answer is to go where you are needed, where you are valued!

        that is: where is good, is there the homeland? negative
        1. Bayonet
          Bayonet 12 October 2014 11: 22 New
          0
          Quote: Andrey Yurievich
          that is: where is good, is there the homeland?

          Well then, if you are not allowed to do what you love, go into a binge. At least you will remain a patriot.
      2. Justme
        Justme 12 October 2014 08: 55 New
        0
        Quote: Bayonet
        Quote: JustMe
        And what should talented and highly competent specialists (age 30-50 years) in the space industry do now?

        The simple answer is to go where you are needed, where you are valued!


        I just found another - a much more suitable job, .. from a private trader ..
        moreover, he has even more production volumes than in a space office with 2 billion budget
  23. srha
    srha 11 October 2014 14: 45 New
    0
    "The main guarantee for the success of Russia's space policy in the near future should be" the development of new technologies for space exploration, as Korolev SP did for his time. with its rocket satellite and ship. Now it's time to take it a step further. ESA and NASA are working on this. And RK prefers to order a soft lunar landing system from ESA.

    And the rearrangement of people and goals in the offices under the slogan of changing management without new breakthrough technologies will not change the atmosphere of the institution.
  24. Bylynich
    Bylynich 11 October 2014 16: 30 New
    0
    They are going to carry out a reorganization for a long time. So not what money for flights and missiles is not enough.
  25. Justme
    Justme 11 October 2014 18: 12 New
    0
    Me "killed"the phrase at the beginning of the article
    The quick effect of a sharp increase in financial investments in the industry cannot be expected

    Here you just need to say
    Guys, well you just

    I saw, for example, how the "Diagnostics" program was made (beginning somewhere in 2008-9).
    At first, we were forced to write an enormous amount of scientific reports.
    Then again reports .. again reports ...
    Who needs them? What are they needed for?
    If at first I tried to offer something, then they explained to me that everything here is measured by kilograms of waste paper. And then we just put a "boy" connected to the Internet and sites with patent descriptions.
    Once, nevertheless, a ray of reality flashed.
    A very competent old man from NPO Energia came to us. There he was in charge of the rocket engine debugging bench economy. He verbally, competently and in half-hour figures set the task.

    .. It is necessary to make a system for measuring the operation of a rocket engine on test benches.
    Slow parameters (such as temperature) should be measured - a certain amount - there are no problems.
    Fast parameters should be measured - 16 bit resolution, 250 thousand measurements per second for one channel.
    A small stand has about 5-6 fast measurement channels, a large stand has 20-30 channels ...
    .. And please do not use off-the-shelf solutions from National Instruments since ..

    This old man made a very strong impression on me, because he very competently and with understanding answered my more complex additional questions (from checking for lice) ..

    And now I look in the process of this explanation, how my boss somehow more and more becomes abstract and looks more out the window ..
    The explanation for this turned out to be simple ..
    The office bought something from National Instruments, hitched a dozen thermocouples, and then the director ran with a lighter and showed the temperature in front of the High Commission from Moscow. However, everything should be clear with a rocket engine.
    -------------------------------------------------- -----------------
    10 thermocouples at 20 measurements per second - this is 3200 bits per second
    but need
    30 fast channels is 120 megabits per second
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 11 October 2014 18: 25 New
      0
      Somewhere I met with such a scientific action as the calculation of the coefficient of friction of air and the surface of the expiration of the rocket body during takeoff. If wrong, then correct. So what is it all about? This is nonsense. It is necessary to calculate the level of change in the polarization of the casing at various points from speed, density, air quality, etc., and to calculate this as an interconnected mathematical dynamic system. Moreover, to calculate the general parameters of the polarization of the casing with its total longitudinal polarization and spin, which has always been and is and also varies in relation to the longitudinal polarization and ionization at the ends of the exhaust nozzles.
    2. Bayonet
      Bayonet 12 October 2014 05: 57 New
      +2
      Quote: JustMe
      At first, we were forced to write an enormous amount of scientific reports.
      Then again reports .. again reports ...
      Who needs them? What are they needed for?

      My soul! You don’t know how many dolbaks are sitting above you ??? But in order to justify their sitting, which is extremely necessary for the country, they demand these tons of papers from you and us! I wonder where in Moscow they put it?
      1. Justme
        Justme 12 October 2014 09: 04 New
        0
        Quote: Bayonet
        Quote: JustMe
        At first, we were forced to write an enormous amount of scientific reports.
        Then again reports .. again reports ...
        Who needs them? What are they needed for?

        My soul! You don’t know how many dolbaks are sitting above you ??? But in order to justify their sitting, which is extremely necessary for the country, they demand these tons of papers from you and us! I wonder where in Moscow they put it?


        In fact, the program "Diagnostics" in practice gave some extremely inadequate crap. And about 400 million rubles were spent on this program (this is the initial figure)
  26. Concept1
    Concept1 12 October 2014 14: 38 New
    -1
    Even the title of the article immediately turns ..