"I remember that terrible voice
In those historical days.
He was a naked truth
And smoky tank armor ".
From a poem by Alexander Gorodnitsky "Yuri Levitan"
In those historical days.
He was a naked truth
And smoky tank armor ".
From a poem by Alexander Gorodnitsky "Yuri Levitan"
Yuri Borisovich, he is also Yudka Berkovich Levitan, was born exactly a hundred years ago - October 2 1914, in a poor Jewish family living in the city of Vladimir. His mother, Maria Yulyevna, led the household, and his father, Boris (Ber) Semenovich, worked as a artel at the artel, tailoring uniforms for city officials, firefighters and policemen. Already later, the party instances edited the biography of the Soviet announcer, arguing that he was born in the family of a worker — a similar occupation was ideologically more correct.
Yura's childhood was spent in Vladimir. His family lived in the house of a well-to-do merchant Varvara Koziorovskaya - there was a tavern on the first floor of a huge log hut, and second rooms for rent. The first voices of the future radio star were estimated by local women - grandmothers and mothers of the neighboring children. If it was necessary to click the playful boys from the street, then the easiest thing was to ask Yura. The shouts of “Jyrki-pipes” were heard all over the street, forcing young people to shudder, throw their affairs and run off at full speed home.
Unlike his father, Yuri Borisovich was educated. True, his school friends spoke more of him as a good friend than of a diligent student. It is known that Levitan was very fond of history among school subjects, but he was not friends with the other sciences, especially with the Russian language. The father wanted to see his son as a bridge builder or military engineer, but Yura himself never showed interest in such activities. Levitan devoted much time to extracurricular activities and classes in circles, in particular, recited poetry, sang in the choir, and even became interested in radio amateur affairs. Under the influence of a neighbor who worked as a theatrical hairdresser (according to other sources - his own uncle), the boy fell in love with the theater and spent hours in the local drama club.
In the 1931 year, after finishing nine classes of secondary school, Yuri received from the city committee of the city of Komsomol a ticket to the capital for admission to the State Film School (now VGIK). Having traveled to Moscow in the autumn of the same year, Levitan already saw himself as an eminent artist, handing out autographs at every corner. However, the entrance exams failed - the admission committee rejected the seventeen-year-old entrant, almost from the doorway, explaining that Levitan’s nondescript appearance and the “cursing” Vladimir accent is an insurmountable obstacle to penetrating the shining world of cinema. An attempt to get to the drama school was also not crowned with success - the examiners considered that the applicant was too young and did not have a charismatic appearance.
The first failures, however, did not cool the fervor of Yuri Borisovich, who firmly decided to stay in the capital and a year later try again his luck. To no avail, he tried to get a job at various Moscow factories. And then in the process of searching for work, Levitan, either he himself saw, or someone showed him (in this, biographers disagree) on an ordinary street pillar an announcement about recruiting into the staff of radio indicators. Levitan, having no idea about this craft, decided to try to go through the qualifying round.
The competition was attended by several hundred applicants, among whom were professional actors. The appearance among a sophisticated Moscow public of a Vladimir guy in a washed-up t-shirt and sweat pants caused smiles among commission members, including the popular Moscow-born actor Vasily Katchalov. However, Yurin's voice, fascinating, with amazing depth and timbre, impressed those present. Despite the provincial accent, after some hesitation, the commission decided to accept the guy as a trainee of the Radio Committee.
Professor Alexander Sherel, a famous radio historian, said: “At the Radio Committee in 1932, the main editorial board of the information was formed. In order to work in it was announced a set of speakers. The commission listening to the candidates consisted of theater actors and radio workers. And now the boy, shod in slippers and a striped bow tie, gets up in front of these "bison", and begins to read Krylov's fable, terribly pushing on "o". Send away? However, the voice is painfully good. All Mkhatovs were unanimous - there is something in the guy, it is a pity to lose him! And they took Yuri Borisovich on the radio - on duty at the studio. ”
Levitan still had no place to live. The authorities offered the young man to sit right in the workplace, that is, in the Radio Committee building, right in the small room where there was a warehouse of broken gramophones and old records. At first, Yura was engaged in working as a courier - delivering papers to his office, preparing tea for his colleagues, running to the buffet for sandwiches. However, his activities were not limited to this only. Levitan had naturally unique voice data, but to become a good speaker this was not enough. He stubbornly got rid of his provincial accent, worked on diction, posing his voice and read endlessly, both about himself and aloud. I read, by the way, everything: newspapers, magazines, books, satires, political reports, poems, advertisements. He was engaged in Levitan eight to ten hours a day, mostly in the evenings and at night. Yuri Borisovich also took lessons from artists of the Moscow Art Theater. Among his teachers were: the already mentioned Vasily Kachalov, Natalya Tolstova, Nina Litovtseva, Mikhail Lebedev. In addition to the correct speech, Levitan worked on the development of attention - in order to avoid any pauses or reservations in front of the microphone. He trained in the most amazing ways, creating for himself all sorts of extreme conditions. According to legend, Levitan stood on his hands and, being head down, recited texts that were put right in front of him on the floor by one of his comrades. Or another exercise - Yuri Borisovich read, and the assistant turned the sheet with the text upside down, then sideways…. At the same time, the agreement was the following: if Levitan was mistaken, he pays dinner to a friend in the dining room.
The Soviet actor Rostislav Plyatt, who fell into the announcer's group along with Levitan, wrote in his memoirs: “Young actors, including me, quickly became acquainted with each other and began to delve into the new profession. Soon a new one appeared among us - a very young, but not timid, sociable and cheerful, even playful, with some strange, yet unstable voice. However, most of all we were amused by how much he turned. It was clear that he was taken as a material for thorough processing. After some time, a trait opened in it that didn’t combine with his frivolity and boyish look — an enormous diligence. In the literal sense, he bit into the work. After finishing classes with teachers, until the evening I remained in the empty studio of the Radio Committee and did the assigned exercises or, perched in some corner, read avidly. Sometimes he ran into the announcer and eagerly listened to the conversations of the elders, then he rushed to help the sound specialists in carrying some weights ... He breathed radio air, grew into a radio, and it was unclear whether he had a home life of his own ... In programs he was not occupied, but he could listen to them from the studio. I will not forget one meeting. The broadcast was already under way, Mikhail Lebedev was reading at the microphone, one of our best announcers. Suddenly I saw out of the corner of my eye that something was happening with Yura - he stretched himself out, glared at the speaker, his lips moved synchronously with Lebedev's lips, it seemed that the sound was about to break out. At that moment, I realized: "This young man knowingly chose a profession for himself!"
After many months of internship, Yuri Borisovich was instructed to announce musical numbers on the radio and read out small issues News. After a couple of years, he was already broadcasting for housewives and was replacing the announcers who gave a review of the morning newspapers. At the beginning of 1934, Yuri Borisovich was instructed to read at night the grains of the main newspaper of the country, Pravda. Similarly, the texts of tomorrow's newspapers were transmitted to all corners of the Soviet Union at that time. Stenographers of regional publishing houses listened attentively and wrote down the text, and then sent it to the printing house. The work was rather tedious - the galleys should be read slowly, clearly, almost by syllables, so that, God forbid, there would be some typo.
On the night of January 25, 1934, Joseph Vissarionovich was preparing for his report at the next, XVII Party Congress, the opening of which was scheduled for the next day. In order to rest, Stalin turned on the radio. At this time, there were no broadcasts anymore - the broadcast was only occupied by a technical broadcast from the capital. The unknown announcer carefully pronounced each letter of each word. Not the greatest pleasure to listen to such a burden, however, the voice of the person who was working on the air had, as if, some kind of magic, attracted attention to himself ... Picking up the phone, the leader of the peoples ordered him to be connected with the then USSR Radio Committee Chairman Maltsev: “Tomorrow at the CPSU (B.) Congress I will deliver a report, and so, let him read it on the radio by the same person who is now setting the Pravda ". The radio command authorities were horrified by Stalin's whim. You will not begin to explain to the leader that a nineteen-year-old announcer, who has practically no experience, is currently working on the technical broadcast! And what can he do by reading the leader’s colossal report? What mistakes, reservations to make? However, there was nowhere to go. In the morning Levitan was summoned to the authorities: "Get ready, you will have to read the speech of Comrade Stalin." The text of the speech was delivered from the Kremlin in a sealed bag at noon, when the announcer had almost no time to look at it and rehearse it. A couple of hours later, Yuri Borisovich was struck by a white man in a studio in front of a turned on microphone.
The speech of the leader, Yury Borisovich, read as many as five hours. Without any break. Without making a single mistake, hesitation or reservation! At the end of the reading, Joseph Vissarionovich phoned the Chairman of the Radio Committee again and ordered that all his speeches, as well as other important state documents, be voiced only by Levitan. So the young guy received the title of "chief announcer of the USSR."
In a short time Levitan turned into one of the most popular and recognizable broadcasters of the All-Union Radio. He informed the citizens of the USSR about the rescue of the Chelyuskin icebreaker team, about the flight of the Gromov and Chkalov crews to the United States, about the successes of the Arctic campaign of Ivan Papanin, about the commissioning of the Dnieper Hydroelectric Station and about many other events taking place in our country and in the world. At the same time, despite the unconditional recognition of his talent, Levitan continued to work thoroughly on diction.
The living conditions of the capital’s life, Yury Borisovich, were gradually improving. After several years of wandering around the corners and corners, he managed to acquire his own living space. Not far from the Kremlin, Levitan bought a small room in a communal flat. In order to buy property in a prestigious area, he needed to get permission almost from the “top”. Shortly thereafter - in the 1938 year - Levitan married. His name was chosen by Raisa, and in those years she studied at the Institute of Foreign Languages. They were introduced to their general comrades who decided to arrange the personal life of the announcer. It is curious that on the first date Levitan made an indelible impression on the girl. Suddenly taking her hand, he said in his amazing voice: "I love you ...". Then, after a pause, he continued: “... Petra's creation! I love your strict, slender appearance ... ”And so until the very end he read the entire entry of the Bronze Horseman. In 1940, Levitan's daughter, Natasha, was born.
And then came the war. On that memorable Sunday morning, Yury Borisovich was at home. Suddenly a call came from the Radio Committee, they said on the phone: "Leave urgently, the car has already been sent for you." According to the memoirs of Yuri Borisovich himself, when he arrived, the first thing he saw was the anxious faces of his colleagues. Someone told him: "War ...". All morning in the Radio Committee there were phone calls from ordinary citizens. People shouted, blocking the noise: “What happened ?! Enemy aircraft over Kiev! Burn warehouses! Bombing Vilnius! Why is the radio silent? ” Finally, by noon they brought the text to Levitan, and he, sitting in front of the microphone, said as usual: “Attention, Moscow says!”. At that moment a lump in his trained throat. There was a pause, in the control room they began to stir: “What happened? Go on. ” And then, clenching his fists, Levitan, in a steady, rumbling voice on the air of the All-Union Radio, read a terrible report about the attack on the Soviet Union.
The role of Yuri Borisovich with the beginning of the war became particularly prominent. He read the orders of the High Command, the texts of the historical speeches of the government and party leaders, the daily updates of the Soviet Information Bureau, shared the contents of letters to the soldiers on the front and the articles of the Pravda newspaper. Among the other speakers, Levitan was distinguished not only by the beauty of the full dignity of his voice and the persuasiveness of his speech, he had a tremendous ability, reading even the tragic events at the front, to find such intonations that all listeners believed - our country would nevertheless stand and win. Professor Alexander Sherel said: “These words, this faith passed through his heart ... After many years I had a chance to talk with Konstantin Rokossovsky. When I asked him about Yuri Borisovich, the marshal replied: “For the front-line soldiers, Levitan was like a whole division that came at the most important moment of the battle to the rescue!”.
The first to inform Soviet citizens about victories and defeats, Levitan, as a close person, entered every family, every home. When he said the first phrases, everyone in the country, as if on cue, left the business and rushed to the radio point. Already according to the first words, millions of people understood the nature of the message - it will be sad or joyful. Actor Vladimir Yakhontov wrote in his memoirs: “... It was impossible to live without listening to the radio. It signaled, guided, alerted, connected us. The voice that spoke “Moscow speaks” reassured, riveted attention, inspired hope. He was listened to throughout the country. The soldiers listened at the front, the partisans listened in the forests, the wounded in the hospitals listened, they listened in surrounded Leningrad. ”
For four long years, the work of Yuri Borisovich at the microphone was not interrupted. Throughout the war, the legendary announcer had to sleep in fragments, he was summoned to the studio at any time of the day or night. Even on that terrible day, when the German five-hundred-kilogram bomb collapsed in the courtyard of the Moscow radio studio during the artillery attack, and the enemy command announced that the Bolshevik radio center was destroyed, after fifteen minutes the broadcasting was resumed, and a familiar voice was heard on the air - the bomb, fortunately, was not exploded. In the fall of 1941, Levitan, along with Olga Vysotskaya, also a Radio Committee speaker, was evacuated to Sverdlovsk (today Yekaterinburg). It was already technically impossible to broadcast from Moscow by that time - all radio towers were dismantled, since they were excellent landmarks for enemy bombers. The Ural studio was located in the basement, while Levitan himself lived nearby in a hut on the basis of absolute secrecy. Only occasionally was Moscow allowed to visit his friends. All information for radio releases was communicated by telephone from Moscow. The signal from the studio went by cable to the repeater (at that time the most powerful in the country), located near the lake Shartash. In turn, dozens of broadcast stations scattered throughout the country prevented them from swaddling out the central radio center. In addition to working on the air, Yury Borisovich managed to voice documentary films, which were also mounted at the same studio. Information about the stay of the famous broadcaster in Sverdlovsk was declassified only a quarter of a century later.
In March, 1943 Levitan was secretly transported to Kuibyshev (Samara), where the Soviet Radio Committee was already deployed. Secrecy was really necessary for “announcer number one.” For Levitan was hunting. As is well known, Hitler himself valued his skill and talent most of all, declaring number one to be the enemy of the Third Reich (Stalin was number two). A big reward was awarded to Yuri Borisovich's head - according to one data of 250 thousands, according to others - 100 thousand marks. The German propaganda minister personally wanted to hang Levitan, and the German intelligence authorities developed operations to kidnap or liquidate him. The enemy was well aware that the voice of an eminent speaker was the thread of hope that gives civilian strength in the rear and the soldiers at the front. To kill him meant to kill the voice of a whole nation, to crush its spirit.
Fortunately, none of these plans has been implemented. Protected Yuri Borisovich at the state level. The guards constantly accompanied him, and in the street crowd the speaker was generally forbidden to open his mouth, because at that time there was no more recognizable voice in the Soviet Union. Fortunately, only a few knew what Levitan actually looked like. In the conditions of lack of information, people complemented his image with their fantasies. According to the memoirs of Announcer Anna Shatilova, the majority of citizens, Yury Borisovich, seemed to be a broad-shouldered, tall man with a huge chest. Otherwise, where did the voice of such depth, power and timbre come from? By the way, in fact, the growth of announcer was only 180 centimeters.
There is a story that when someone asked Joseph Stalin: "When will victory come?", The commander joked: "When Levitan declares." Honor to read the act of surrender to Nazi Germany fell to Yuri Borisovich 9 May 1945. In the evening of that day he was summoned to the Kremlin and handed the text with the order of the commander in chief. Thirty-five minutes later, it was necessary to read it. The radio studio, from where there were broadcasts of this kind, was located not far from the Kremlin, in the GUM building. To get there, Levitan had only to cross Red Square. However, that day it was filled with crowds of celebrating and jubilant residents of the capital. The radio workers overcame five meters with the battle, but could not advance further. Levitan recalled: “In response to the words:“ Comrades, miss. We are on the case! ", We heard only:" What can be the case? Now Levitan on the radio will read the order of victory, there will be a salute. Watch and listen! ” Wow recommendation ... what to do? And then it dawned on me - after all, the Kremlin also has its own radio studio, we will read from there! We ran back, explained the situation to the commandant, and he gave the command to the guards not to detain people running through the Kremlin corridors. Now the radio studio, on the clock - 21: 55. "
It was at this time 9 May 1945, Levitan announced on the air about the victorious end of World War II. In total, over four years, Yury Borisovich voiced over 130 emergency messages and more than two thousand Sovinformburo reports. Recordings from the studio at the time were not made - only live broadcasts. Later, already in the fifties, he was asked to re-read some of them on tape in order to be placed in the archives.
After the war, Levitan continued to work as a leading announcer of the Soviet All-Union Radio. All the tragic and great events of that time continued to enter each family with the voice of a great announcer. His reading has become an integral part of the life of Soviet citizens, having a huge emotional impact on listeners. Unfortunately, the constant work in the studio, regular nocturnal absences and devotion to his beloved work affected Levitan's personal life. Having lived with Yuri Borisovich for almost eleven years, his wife Raisa met and fell in love with another man - a military officer who studied at that time in a military academy. Like a bolt from the blue, her desire to leave for another man sounded. Nevertheless, Yury Borisovich understood her and did not object. “I will not fix the obstacles. We'll be friends, ”he said, and he kept his promise. Their relations not only did not cease, but over the years became more and more close. They often called each other, met. For years, Yury Borisovich had a tradition of celebrating the New Year in the restaurant of the All-Union Theatrical Society, located on Gorky Street (Tverskaya). He ordered a table for ten or twelve people and invited his closest comrades. Including the former spouse with a new husband. It is curious that he represented her as a cousin to others, but he said about her military husband: “And this is one of my relatives”. After Raisa's new husband died suddenly, she tried to restore the old relationship with Levitan. But nothing came of it. Laughing, Yuri Borisovich offered to find a new husband for Raisa and said: “Do not worry, in the twenty-first century we will all be one and the same”. Also, he never married again, explaining: “I don’t need a young wife, because I understand that she’s marrying me by calculation, not out of love. As for Raisa, she is not young anymore, and the old women do not attract me. ” By the way, Levitan never complained about the lack of attention from the weaker sex. Very often the telephone rang in his apartment - women were actually soliciting a famous announcer. As a rule, Yury Borisovich used a proven and reliable method: he said that he was working from morning or night, and therefore he needed to sleep well, so that his voice would not get well ... Such tactics worked, and women did not take offense at him.
In the early spring of 1953, he was instructed to read bulletins about the shaky health of the leader of the nations, and on March 5 it was he who announced the death of Joseph Vissarionovich. 12 April 1961 Yuri Borisovich announced Gagarin's flight into space. Levitan met 17 on April 1961 with his star-namesake when Gagarin appeared on Central television live for the first time after the flight. Levitan approached the astronaut, dressed in full dress uniform, and shook his hand. The ceremony came out a little bit comical, as the radio announcer said: “Hello, Yuri! I am Yuri Levitan ”, and Gagarin answered him:“ Hello, Yuri. I am Yuri Gagarin! ”Both laughed. Levitan presented a pre-prepared gift to the Soviet pilot - a tape on which all one hundred and eight minutes of the historical radio program about the first manned space flight were recorded, including the famous Gagarin: "Let's go!". Starting the interview, Levitan craftily asked: “Well, Yuri Alekseevich, what, let's go?”. “Let's go!” The astronaut agreed, starting the story.
After the first general TV show, two Yuri became friends. Often in the apartment of Levitan the bell rang, and Yuri Alekseevich’s voice, familiar to the entire planet, said on the phone: “I have dumplings this Saturday. Come. ” At that time, the Gagarins of Chet lived in a new four-room apartment in Star City. Having arrived to Yuriy and Valentina, Levitan went to the kitchen, where, among other guests — people's artists, famous athletes, cosmonauts and their wives — took an active part in making dumplings. There is a case when Valentina once shouted from the kitchen: “Jura!”. In response, both Gagarin and Levitan came running. Laughing enough, Gagarin - at that time already a colonel - said to the civilian announcer: “You will be Yury the First, and I, therefore, the Second. Is it going? In general, Gagarin repeatedly told Levitan: “The fact that you read the message about my flight on the radio is a reward for me, equal to all medals and orders. Not less!". Despite the workload of public affairs, Yuri Alekseevich did not stop preparing for a new visit to the Earth’s orbit all the years after the first flight. And even as a joke, he promised to take Levitan with him: “Yuri I, just imagine how great it would be if your unique voice sounded from space!”.
Levitan lived with his mother-in-law Faina Lvovna and daughter Natasha in a separate apartment on Gorky Street, which he was assigned at the end of the war. Later, already under Brezhnev, the speaker was offered to improve their living conditions - they gave an eight-room mansion, but in another district, and Levitan refused. The announcer lived very modestly - he had neither expensive things, nor pictures of famous artists, nor antique furniture. He considered several bags of letters from radio listeners to be his greatest wealth. People of different ages and professions wrote to him from all over the vast country. They consulted and talked with him, confessed their love and thanked for their work, asked to help in everyday affairs. On some envelopes a very short address was indicated: “Moscow. Kremlin. Levitan. The mother-in-law also adored the former son-in-law and in every possible way tried to keep the house cozy. At one time, the Office of the Central Committee proposed Levitan to attach his family to a special table, located on Granovsky Street. But Faina Lvovna categorically refused. She knew how to cook amazingly, Levitan's favorite dishes were the vinaigrette, potatoes with herring and cabbage soup. Later, Natalia took over the culinary relay from her.
In the summer, they all moved to the state house, rented in Serebryany Bor. Yury Borisovich was a great swimmer, he quickly sunbathed. He also liked to walk in the country surroundings, and always in some in sports shorts and barefoot. Those who met him in this form did not believe their eyes: is this the famous Levitan ?! By the way, the all-Union fame and adoration was little concerned with the speaker himself. He willingly lent money, but spoke of his popularity with his usual humor: “Before, when no one knew me, I walked and spat left-right, but now, to spit, you need to look for an urn” or “My voice is not rated lower than the real T-34. "
At leisure, Yury Borisovich loved to listen to classical music and watch TV - he especially liked boxing fights, as well as the film “White Sun of the Desert”. And Levitan was an avid motorist. At the end of the war, he bought the Moskvich, and then, paying 16 thousand rubles, which was wild for those times, became one of the first owners of the Victory. Later, Yuri Borisovich acquired the Volga, and then Zhiguli.
A separate place in the life of Levitan was occupied by his daughter Natalia. After she got married, Yury Borisovich moved to another apartment on Medvedev Street, but they continued to see each other almost daily, especially after 1970, when she gave birth to her son Boria. When Levitan was sick, Natasha wore all kinds of dishes to his home. When he went to work, he announced to his colleagues: “Natalya saved me!” Every month the announcer gave her two hundred rubles - a huge sum then. When he was accused of indulging his daughter, he answered: “I am not helping her, but my grandson Borenka. I don’t feel sorry for him. ” It is unlikely that Yury Borisovich could have imagined how the life of Natasha would end - in the winter of 2006, Boris killed his own mother.
For nearly fifty years, Yuriy Borisovich read government statements and important political documents, conducted reports from the Kremlin Palace of Congresses and from Red Square, took part in creating newsreels, as well as voicing secret films about domestic military developments intended for a narrow circle of military officials, party nomenclature and employees of closed research institutes. Over the years, he spent about sixty thousand different radio programs. In 1973, Levitan was awarded the title of People's Artist of the RSFSR, and in 1980 - when he was already 66 years old - People's Artist of the USSR. This event was unique - for the first time a radio worker received the same honor. Friends made fun of him: “Yura, after death, your ligaments will be placed in the brain institute”.
In the last years of his life Levitan practically did not go on the air. The new era demanded new voices - less official, less solemn. The leadership believed that Yuri Borisovich’s voice among the population was associated only with extraordinary events, it’s impossible to allow the legendary broadcaster to read reports about the harvesting results. However, Levitan continued to work. He worked with young radio presenters on the art of speech, participated in the dubbing of documentary films, led the TV show “A Minute of Silence”, met with veterans, traveled to military units, factories and mills. He made over 200 recordings of sounding texts for military and historical memorials in Brest, Volgograd, Ulyanovsk, Sevastopol ....
In early August, 1983, Yury Borisovich, was invited to Belgorod for another meeting with war veterans. Before leaving Moscow, Raisa called him. In a conversation with her Levitan admitted that he feels unimportant. On the offer to stay at home, he replied: “Impossible. They are waiting for me. ” Upon arrival in Belgorod directly in the hotel room he became ill. The doctor, having examined him, recommended complete rest. However, Levitan was impossible to keep, soon he left for the village of Bessonovka, located thirty kilometers from the city, for a festive rally. The heat that day was forty centigrade. Immediately after the speech, Yuri Borisovich had a heart attack. He had medicines with him, he was quickly taken to the village ambulance station ... But everything turned out to be in vain. On the night of August 4, the country lost its main voice. Levitan was buried at the Novodevichy cemetery in Moscow, thousands of people came to say goodbye to him.
At the end of his life, Yury Borisovich once admitted that he remembers every intonation, every word of his military ethers. For half a century, devoted to radio, he never learned to read texts “without a soul,” not to let the sometimes hard truth into their hearts. And in the end, it could not stand it ...
According to the sites: http://www.retroportal.ru/ and http://www.tvmuseum.ru/