Military Review

I can see everything from above, and you know

74
Currently, the topic of satellite imagery has become very relevant. This topic attracts the attention of ordinary people. A surge of interest followed after a terrible catastrophe that occurred in the skies over the Donbas in July 2014. Then, not far from Donetsk, the passenger liner of Malaysia Airlines was allegedly shot down from the ground. All 298 people aboard the Boeing-777 died. Both sides of the conflict in eastern Ukraine blamed each other for what happened. Actually, it was this disaster that raised the degree of interest in satellite imagery.

Immediately after the crash, US officials said that their spy satellites had recorded the launch of a ground-to-air missile. However, things did not go further than the words, and the pictures were never presented to the public. In response, the Ministry of Defense of Russia organized a press conference at which it presented its satellite images, which proved the deployment of Ukrainian air defense systems in the conflict zone, in particular, the Buk air defense system.

Actually, from the pictures published by Russia, one can draw some conclusions about the capabilities of such a reconnaissance system. It's funny that at the same time on TV at this time retold the myths of the Cold War in every way. We have all heard these myths more than once. This is a discussion about the possibility of "reading the newspaper, car number and counting the stars on the officer’s uniform." However, not one country in the world has such capabilities and technologies today. Moreover, the pictures published by the Russian Ministry of Defense give us a rough idea of ​​the capabilities of reconnaissance satellites. They (primarily specialists) can distinguish BMP from tanktank from air defense systems and so on. There is no talk of any reading of automobile license plates from outer space, and this is not required.

NATO published images were taken by a private company DigitalGlobe


Moreover, there are no idiots in the military department. That is why the Russian army buys and is actively interested in inflatable mock-ups of various military equipment. Modern weight and size models can fool any adversary, because it is almost impossible to determine from a space which tank in front of you - inflatable or real. Modern pneumatic mockups, which are able to imitate even operating engines, effectively solve their problems. Namely, they distract the blows of the enemy from the present technology, mislead him about the amount of equipment, its location on the ground and the locations of its deployment.

Now we will look at real photographs of what modern space optics are really capable of, and whether everything is visible from above. It is worth saying a special thank you bloggerwho collected material with these photos online.

For a start, a small discovery. The popular Google Map map service does not publish images that would exceed 50 cm per pixel. Moreover, until recently, the commercial distribution of images of similar detail was prohibited in the United States. Therefore, if you got a picture somewhere where you can see people walking along the streets, as well as other smaller details, then you have aerial photography. Posting aerial photography is allowed. This contradiction has long worried private companies, and they still managed to lobby for the weakening of the law. Now they are allowed to sell images that have a resolution of 25 cm per pixel. This indicator is the limit for modern commercial shooting from space.

As it is easy to understand, satellite photography is photographing the surface of the Earth from satellites. And aerial photography is photographing the earth's surface from aerial cameras that are installed on atmospheric aircraft (airplanes, helicopters, airships, their unmanned counterparts). The first aerial survey was made in 1858 year, it was performed by a French photographer and aeronaut Gaspard-Felix Tournachon, who captured Paris from the air.

It is worth noting that even in order to take pictures with a resolution of 25 cm per pixel, you need a very expensive, extremely complex technique. For example, DigitalGlobe’s modern WorldView-3 satellite is able to take pictures at 31 resolution per pixel. At the same time, a satellite uses a telescope with a diameter of the 1,1 mirror meter, and the total cost of the satellite is nearly 650 million dollars. This satellite was launched into 13 August 2014 orbit.

Worldview-3 most advanced civilian remote sensing spacecraft


The satellite-observer Worldview-3 was designed by DigitalGlobe, which is a recognized leader among global providers of content for high-resolution earth surface maps. This company uses the services of NASA, as well as various US federal services. All cartographic Internet services, including Google Maps, Bing and Yandex maps, are also used by this company. At the same time, the more correct name of the Worldview-3 device is the Earth Remote Sensing (ERS) spacecraft.

This spacecraft consists of an 1,1-meter telescope equipped with an aperture filter, a shortwave infrared scanner (SWIR - Shortwave Infrared, technology allows you to shoot through fog, haze, dust, smog, smoke and clouds) and the CAVIS sensor specially developed by The Ball Aerospace (Clouds, Aerosol, water Vapor, Ice, and Snow), which allows for atmospheric correction of images. Every day, a similar remote sensing spacecraft can photograph up to 680 000 square kilometers of territory. The device is located in a solar-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 620 kilometers above the Earth's surface.

Already at the end of August 2014, the company DigitalGlobe presented the images taken by the WorldView-3 device - these are Madrid test shots with 40 resolution per pixel. To date, this is the most detailed images of the earth's surface, which have ever been published in the public domain. 21 August snapshots allow users to more easily determine the type of vehicles (trucks or cars, their models), as well as the direction of travel and speed. According to the company's specialists, for someone this can be very valuable information.

Fragment of the satellite imagery of Madrid using WorldView-3


On the published images of Madrid you can see a large number of details. Cars are easily distinguished from trucks, and in some places you can even see people swimming in pools, even if only in the form of small points. Madrid was not chosen by chance as a test survey: the closer the terrain is to the equator, the less cloudiness. It is also very often that the largest city in the UAE, Dubai, is chosen to demonstrate the capabilities of modern satellites. On the territory of the city a large number of interesting objects to observe, and the desert weather contributes to shooting.

The huge financial costs of developing such private spacecraft, which provide such quality of shooting, raise a reasonable question: how do they pay off? The secret is simple: more than 50% of orders from a private company DigitalGlobe - orders straight from the Pentagon. The rest is paid by companies like Google and individual customers. However, this is still a commercial private satellite. But what about the spy satellites that the CIA, for example, has?

Here everything is much more complicated, but quite predictable. Currently, the most famous and most powerful American spy satellite is a device belonging to the Keyhole-11 series. Key Hole in translation from English "Keyhole". A total of 16 satellites of this type were launched. The first launch took place 19 December 1976 of the year, the last - 28 August 2013 of the year. Reliably about these satellites almost nothing is known, even their appearance is not completely clear. Sometimes they can only be considered by amateur astronomers. It is worth noting that it was Keyhole-11 (KH-11) series devices that became the first US spy satellites to use an optical-electronic digital camera and that could transmit an image to Earth almost immediately after the survey was completed.

It is known that the most famous space telescope in the world, Hubble, assembled on the same production lines from which these spy satellites descended. A few years ago, the National Reconnaissance Office, the National Aerospace Intelligence Agency, donated two telescopes with a diameter of 2,4 meters to NASA, which they had in store. Taking this into account, as well as the fact that both the reconnaissance satellites and the Hubble telescope were put into orbit in identical containers, we can assume that the Keyhole-11 spy satellites also have an 2,4-meter mirror.

The most famous space telescope Hubble


If you make a simple comparison with the most sophisticated civilian satellite WorldView-3, whose telescope mirror size is 1,1 meters, you can determine by simple calculations that the quality of the spy satellite images should be about 2,3 times better (this is a rough calculation). And there is a difference. The WorldView-3 satellite orbits 620 km in altitude, while the youngest spy satellite Keyhole-11 (USA-245) flies from 270 to 970 kilometers above the surface of our planet.

It is known that, under ideal shooting conditions, the Hubble space telescope, located at an altitude of 700 kilometers, could have shot the Earth with a resolution of up to 15 cm per pixel if it were allowed to do so by technical capabilities. Accordingly, the Keyhole spy satellite at its lowest point could provide an image with a resolution of up to 5 cm per pixel. But It is worth noting that this is possible only under ideal conditions, in the absence of various atmospheric distortions, when there is neither smog, nor fog, nor dust, nor clouds over the subject. Due to the influence of the atmosphere and other factors, the actual resolution of the survey would hardly be lower than the same 15 cm per pixel as the Hubble telescope.

At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the fact that the higher the resolution issued by the spy satellite, the closer the spacecraft is to the earth's surface. And this means that it’s already a shooting line, and the opportunity to see what is happening on the sides is smaller. This method of shooting is most appropriate only when the party carrying out the shooting already has information about the objects being explored. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the weather (clear weather is desirable), and the time at which the device may be above the shooting location. That is, it is necessary to prepare for such a shooting in advance, already roughly presenting what exactly it is necessary to shoot and where.

It is for this reason that the US military and various intelligence agencies are willing to pay private companies for the photographs provided. They simply lack their technical means of control. It is much easier to buy the necessary images from private companies than to create a huge number of reconnaissance satellites, the cost of which is currently comparable to the cost of large warships fleet. The Russian MSTA-S self-propelled guns or the Grad MLRS can equally well be photographed by modern civilian satellites and spy satellites. Moreover, the resolution of the latter in this case may even be excessive.

Approximate resolution scheme based on aerial photography


In order to visualize the quality of images in different resolutions, the above is a picture that is based on data obtained using aerial photographs of the area. The picture gives a clear idea that even in the most ideal conditions, theoretically achieving the image resolution in 5 cm per pixel, just one spy satellite will help you see the license plate on the car. In this case, you will see the number plate in the form of a series of white pixels, that is, you will find out that it is there, but under no circumstances can you read the number on it, not to mention reading the newspapers and looking at the shoulder straps: such tricks are physically impossible for now.

Information sources:
http://zelenyikot.livejournal.com/47205.html#cutid1
http://sovzond.ru/products/spatial-data/satellites
http://www.securitylab.ru/news/456506.php
https://ru.wikipedia.org
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  1. Professor
    Professor 2 October 2014 10: 14
    +1
    Now they are allowed to sell pictures with a resolution of 25 cm per pixel. This indicator is the limit for modern commercial photography from space.

    Soviet specialists thought the same in the 1960s and were "killed" by the results of aerial photography of missile launchers in Cuba (the US Ambassador was shaking these photographs from the UN rostrum). It's not just the diameter of the lens and its focal length, but also the image processing algorithms. And there it is possible to extract information beyond the limits of the optical resolution.

    PS
    And how are things not with optics, but with radars in orbit?
    1. bmv04636
      bmv04636 2 October 2014 12: 59
      +2
      Is this why our spy satellites were film until the last because the quality is higher.
    2. aleks 62
      aleks 62 2 October 2014 13: 01
      +3
      manages to pull information from outside optical resolution ....
      ..... Proff !!! Have you thought what you wrote ???? Those. recreate something that does not distinguish (not visible) ...... what
      1. Professor
        Professor 2 October 2014 14: 02
        0
        Quote: aleks 62
        ..... Proff !!! Have you thought what you wrote ???? Those. recreate something that does not distinguish (not visible) ......

        Of course I thought. At the faculty .... in the Technion, for example, aerial photography of Syrian missiles hung before processing and after. After processing, the photo looked as if from a black-and-white TV of the 70s they switched to HD. Many years have passed, but I remember for sure that according to the lecturer's stories, when processing photos, the modulation transfer function was used (among other things). In other words, mathematically they pulled from each lens what it could give ideally. In this way, in the 1960s, Americans discerned what, according to Soviet scientists, is beyond the optical resolution of photographic equipment.

        Quote: kosmos1980
        Why excuse the Soviet specialists were "killed"?

        The fact that, according to their theoretical calculations, the African intelligence officers could not get such detailing with the existing optics and shooting height. And they (the bourgeoisie) also from the rostrum of the UN presented these pictures to the whole world.


        Evidence presented by the US Department of Defense, of Soviet missiles in Cuba. This low level photo, made October 23, 1962, of the medium range ballistic missile site under construction at Cuba's San Cristobal area. A line of oxidizer trailers is at center. Added since October 14, the site was earlier photographed, are fuel trailers, a missile shelter tent, and equipment. The missile erector now lies under canvas cover. Evident also are extensive vehicle tracks and the construction of cable lines to control areas. (AP Photo / DOD


        US Ambassador to the United Nations, Adlai Stevenson, second from right, confronts Soviet delegate Valerian Zorin, first on left, with a display of reconnaissance photographs during emergency session of the UN Security Council at the United Nations headquarters in New York, on October 25 , 1962. (AP Photo)
        1. bmv04636
          bmv04636 2 October 2014 14: 12
          +3
          However, the professor will not object to Persheng from Turkey, the "light elves" removed, as a result of which the incident was settled.
          1. saag
            saag 2 October 2014 15: 06
            +3
            Quote: bmv04636
            Pershing from Turkey

            There "Jupiters" stood
    3. kosmos1980
      kosmos1980 2 October 2014 13: 20
      +7
      How did you forgive the Soviet specialists? The capabilities of the technology were known to us, and the very possibility of photographing sufficiently large objects such as missiles with launchers. How can you process an image with a resolution of 25cm per pixel? You can put a lot in these 25 cm. The author wrote about shooting from a height of 270 km. from which images of the highest resolution are obtained, only this maneuver, called "dive", is very energy-consuming and greatly reduces the time of spacecraft operation in orbit. Reduces greatly. As for the radar reconnaissance satellites, I can say that the United States has the Lacrosse spacecraft with an orbital altitude of over 400 km. and below it does not go down in any way because of the high area of ​​solar panels. The device is very expensive and, as a rule, there are rarely more than one of them in orbit. Plus, the device itself is much easier and cheaper to deceive with the help of special means than a satellite of a view reconnaissance. And if you go deeper into the essence of the issue with the extraction of data from reconnaissance spacecraft, then radar and species reconnaissance give about 60% of the data. There is also radio-electronic radio engineering, etc. These devices are cheaper, more numerous than satellite and radar reconnaissance spacecraft, with a long period of active existence. Questions will be ready to answer.
    4. dzvero
      dzvero 2 October 2014 13: 39
      +9
      so then aerial photography (U-2 in my opinion), and not from space.
    5. gjv
      gjv 2 October 2014 14: 13
      +3
      Interestingly, what algorithm can be used to extract from the frame exposed on the matrix that "did not fall" into the focal length? How to distinguish between lens diffraction and matrix diffraction in one frame? M. b. need to compare several exposed frames? Those. most likely a correlation method? But then which frame to compare with? And where is the criterion, i.e. then the signal must be known spectrally, i.e. it is necessary to distinguish a known number (or read a newspaper read again), and even from a certain angle. What's the point?
      Or nafotkat on Earth everything that needs to be distinguished, from numerous angles, and then send the same camera together with a telescope into space and clutch its head and a large supercomputer. And when to fight?
      Those. What was so "elongated" in aerial photographs of 22-meter missiles? All service labels?
    6. gjv
      gjv 2 October 2014 14: 13
      +2
      Interestingly, what algorithm can be used to extract from the frame exposed on the matrix that "did not fall" into the focal length? How to distinguish between lens diffraction and matrix diffraction in one frame? M. b. need to compare several exposed frames? Those. most likely a correlation method? But then which frame to compare with? And where is the criterion, i.e. then the signal must be known spectrally, i.e. it is necessary to distinguish a known number (or read a newspaper read again), and even from a certain angle. What's the point?
      Or nafotkat on Earth everything that needs to be distinguished, from numerous angles, and then send the same camera together with a telescope into space and clutch its head and a large supercomputer. And when to fight?
      Those. What was so "elongated" in aerial photographs of 22-meter missiles? All service labels?
      1. Professor
        Professor 2 October 2014 14: 25
        -11
        Quote: gjv
        Those. What was so "elongated" in aerial photographs of 22-meter missiles? All service labels?

        See what the label is under the low level image. It means that there are also high level pictures. Nevertheless, the USSR, naively hoping not to be caught, deployed ballistic missiles in Cuba and was caught by the hand. And with shame they poked Zorin in the nose with photographs which should not have been. Of course, the Pravda newspaper modestly kept silent about this.
        1. i80186
          i80186 2 October 2014 15: 32
          +5
          Nevertheless, the USSR naively hoping not to be caught deployed ballistic missiles in Cuba and was caught by the hand.

          The development of the plan for the delivery and deployment of the Soviet group of troops in Cuba was led by Ivan Baghramyan, Deputy Minister of Defense of the USSR, Head of Logistics of the Armed Forces of the USSR and Deputy Chief of the General Staff, Colonel General Semyon Ivanov. In order to make a potential adversary think of preparing “measures” in the north of the USSR, the operation was given the name “Anadyr”; the personnel of the military units involved in the operation were given skis, felt boots and army sheepskin sheepskin coats. In the orders, it was announced that military contingents are sent to carry out "special events", without specifying the timing and place of the transfer. Units and units were immediately brought to the “wartime” states, personnel were given small arms and ammunition, and intensive training and exercises were conducted under conditions as close as possible to military units to put together units and verify the functional state of equipment and equipment. At the same time, sites were being prepared for loading the contingent into railway trains, rolling stock was allocated, the procedure and timing for the transfer of equipment and troops to loading sea ports were determined. The measures were accompanied by a strict regime of secrecy and disinformation measures of the potential enemy. US intelligence and NATO intelligence failed to timely and accurately reveal the purpose, objectives and scope of the operation. The information obtained by the US intelligence community and the intelligence services of NATO countries was incomplete and fragmented. The "de facto" in Washington clearly understood what was happening only after receiving the decrypted photograph taken by the U-2 reconnaissance aircraft on October 14, 1962.(C)
          The Americans woke up when the missiles were already in the positions of the fueled ones, 50 thousand people with their equipment were guarded at the same time, such are the things. And you, aerial photography, U-2, Americans can. laughing
          1. Professor
            Professor 2 October 2014 16: 42
            0
            Quote: i80186
            The Americans woke up when the missiles were already in the positions of the fueled ones, 50 thousand people with their equipment were guarded at the same time, such are the things. And you, aerial photography, U-2, Americans can

            Americans Pen about the operation leaked by the KGB arrested on October 22, 1962, Oleg Penkovsky, and photographs from the U-2 were needed as evidence.
            1. i80186
              i80186 2 October 2014 16: 57
              +5
              Quote: Professor
              Americans Pen about the operation leaked by the KGB arrested on October 22, 1962, Oleg Penkovsky, and photographs from the U-2 were needed as evidence.

              What are such evidence? Who needed them? It was necessary to reduce the flight time of missiles from one and a half hours to fifteen minutes. Actually the purpose of the operation was - by any possible means to place missiles near the borders of the United States. The operation was extremely successful for the USSR, the goals and objectives were fully achieved - the Americans, as a result, were left without missiles in Turkey, the direct threat of the USSR was eliminated, but they can wash their brains about how they actually were. The entire Cuban crisis is an epic failure of the CIA. laughing
              1. Professor
                Professor 2 October 2014 20: 05
                -4
                Quote: i80186
                What are such evidence?

                Evidence that the Soviets placed ballistic missiles in Cuba. Watch the performance again.
                When the Soviet ambassador Valerian Zorin, as Chairman of the Council, gave him the floor, there was a famous clash of two diplomats:

                STIVENSON:
                "Oh well. Let me ask you one simple question: do you deny, Ambassador Zorin, the fact that the USSR has deployed and is placing medium-range missiles and launchers for such missiles in Cuba? Yes or no? Do not wait for the transfer. Yes or no?"

                ZORIN:
                “I am not in the American court! And therefore I do not want to answer the question that is asked in the prosecutor's plan. You will get an answer in due time! ”

                STIVENSON:
                “Now you are in front of the court of world public opinion and you can simply answer“ yes ”or“ no. ” You denied the existence of missiles in Cuba. I want to make sure I understand you correctly. ”

                ZORIN:
                “Continue your speech, Mr. Stevenson. You will get an answer in due time! ”

                The assistants prepared a 65-page speech for Stevenson. But his famous answer, that same day hit all the newspapers in the world, was an impromptu:
                “If you want this, I am ready to wait for an answer until the netherworld freezes. I am also ready to present our evidence directly in this room. ”
        2. Rus2012
          Rus2012 2 October 2014 16: 46
          +3
          Quote: Professor
          Nevertheless, the USSR naively hoping not to be caught deployed ballistic missiles in Cuba and was caught by the hand.

          this is not quite so ...
          The Soviet Government, of course, took into account that sooner or later they would learn about missiles. Of course, better later than before. Therefore, there was a super-secret operation mode.
          Nikita himself was going to open a secret at the international assembly, it seems by November 7. I don’t remember exactly.
          But it's not that...
          It's just that Khrushchev really blinked first. He should have dumped the pictures of the missiles at the ready for launch. And say roughly: "any of your next actions, Mr. President, will send them flying ..."
        3. svp67
          svp67 2 October 2014 23: 18
          +3
          Quote: Professor
          Nevertheless, the USSR naively hoping not to be caught deployed ballistic missiles in Cuba and was caught by the hand.
          Professor, with all due respect, but here you argued nonsense. You are talking about something so shameful, for which the whole state should be ashamed ... Stupidity. A sovereign state, with the permission of the same sovereign state - the Republic of Cuba, deployed missile systems on its territory, just like that, but the United States and Turkey had acted before ... It seems to be an adult, but you use some kind of children's concepts.
          1. Professor
            Professor 3 October 2014 14: 59
            -1
            Quote: svp67
            It’s like an adult, but you use some kind of children's concepts.

            Watch for yourself the video where Zorin is "put in a corner" as a schoolboy. This situation is now being viewed in the universities of the world in this way. The triumph of Soviet diplomacy is not observed there.
        4. velikoros-xnumx
          velikoros-xnumx 4 October 2014 19: 09
          +2
          Quote: Professor
          And with shame Zorin poked nose photos

          You generally understand what you are writing. Of course, it is clear that the "gloutos" of the owner should not forget the kisses of lackeys, but there should be a certain measure for everything, especially among smart people.
          What do you think was a shame in this situation ??? The fact that the USSR dared to answer to deploy US missiles in Turkey to place their own in Cuba ???

          What is the fault of the USSR in the fact that before the presentation of the photographs of the USSR did not recognize the presence of missiles and military personnel on the territory of the republic, this was a closed military operation against potential adversary. I remember the United States did not very much recognize the U-2 flights over the territory of the USSR and China, and in the future the loss of one of them has not yet been shown to them in court.
          1. Professor
            Professor 4 October 2014 21: 10
            -2
            Quote: velikoros-xnumx
            What do you think was a shame in this situation ??? The fact that the Soviet Union dared in response to the deployment of US missiles in Turkey to place their own in Cuba ???

            The ambassador of a great power (and the scoop himself) was caught with his pants down.

            Quote: velikoros-xnumx
            That the USSR was guilty of not having recognized the presence of missiles and military personnel on the territory of the republic before the presentation of the photographs, it was a closed military operation against a potential enemy.

            What is the secret? Oleg Penkovsky has long told everything. there was no material evidence, but now they have appeared.

            Quote: velikoros-xnumx
            I remember the United States did not very much recognize the U-2 flights over the territory of the USSR and China, and in the future the loss of one of them has not yet been shown to them in court.

            Let's reference where they "did not recognize".
            1. gjv
              gjv 7 October 2014 12: 16
              +1
              Quote: Professor
              The ambassador of a great power (and the scoop himself) was caught with his pants down.

              Insolent American muzzles climbed into the pants of the ambassador of a great power. And the ambassador turned out to be a dude; he didn’t miss the p ... s.
              Quote: Professor
              Well, where is Israel? An article about intelligence satellites and discuss their resolution and historical incidents related to the resolution of intelligence snapshots.

              We say: "You ... don't confuse it with an incident." However, b ... in m. and for love. And when money and spheres of influence are divided, this is no longer b ... in, but prostitution and pimping. Is this in Israel?
              And, of course ("hurray"), Oleg P. was found - a traitor-hero (both are questionable from different points of view).
              However, aerial photography on film or is it fotosh S-N on a matrix of high level pixels - these photos should have been. And what more convinced amepIgosov, that nuclear war is premature - Penkovsky’s betrayal or the dignity of Zorin, who did not become in the appointed corner? Or is it bad that there was no nuclear war?
              And it is still interesting - Spy-Spy with a high-level matrix of pixels in 1962 - this is how many - a million, a billion, a trillion ... And how did this S-SH transmit pictures to the Pentagon. And what can be drawn from the "interpixels" of the one that once focused on the matrix through the lens? Give me a link please.
            2. The comment was deleted.
    7. IAlex
      IAlex 2 October 2014 16: 20
      +7
      You’re carrying crap, only interpolation is possible for a raster image, i.e. increasing resolution by adding additional pixels, calculating its color relative to the two adjacent between which it is located. But this method only gives a reduction in sharpness when enlarging the image ... I understand that your technology in Israel goes beyond physics, but you don’t have to tell the whole world about it, because it would be a shame for Ukrainians to even have their fairy tales turned into true shit ...
      1. Professor
        Professor 2 October 2014 16: 43
        -5
        Quote: IAlex
        You’re carrying crap, only interpolation is possible for a raster image, i.e. increasing resolution by adding additional pixels, calculating its color relative to the two adjacent between which it is located. But this method gives only a decrease in sharpness when enlarging the image ...

        The same "experts" as you said something similar in 1962, and then Zorin at the UN poked in the face with pictures.

        Quote: IAlex
        I understand that your technology in Israel goes beyond physics, but you don’t have to tell the whole world about it, because it will be embarrassing for the Ukrainians to even have their tales turned into true shit ...

        In Israel, we currently have more satellite reconnaissance in orbit than in Russia. This is for general information.
        1. IAlex
          IAlex 2 October 2014 17: 04
          +2
          Yeah, the United States pokes at everyone, I can also do a lot of things in Photoshop, and then poke, and what actually of this? By the way, do you want to get a great UFO photo? Take an old Soviet flat lamp, take a black fishing line, tie it to a bitch at night and turn it on, and then take a picture from a lower angle at 45 degrees against the night sky, then you can tell and tell the whole world that UFOs exist in the nineties suckers even for that paid ...

          And secondly, you have more trending in Israel than in the whole world - that’s really yes, and you really need satellites like a merkava cow ... You have so many treplovy in the mossad of Sayanim all over the world that American satellites would be envious ...
          1. Professor
            Professor 2 October 2014 20: 06
            -2
            Quote: IAlex
            And secondly, you have more trending in Israel than in the whole world - that’s really yes, and you really need satellites like a merkava cow ... You have so many treplovy in the mossad of Sayanim all over the world that American satellites would be envious ...

            Let's get the proofs in the studio.
        2. neri73-r
          neri73-r 2 October 2014 18: 20
          +3


          Quote: IAlex
          I understand that your technology in Israel goes beyond physics, but you don’t have to tell the whole world about it, because it will be embarrassing for the Ukrainians to even have their tales turned into true shit ...

          In Israel, we currently have more satellite reconnaissance in orbit than in Russia. This is for general information.


          Are you shrinking professor, like a "fool himself"?
        3. slavaslava556
          slavaslava556 6 October 2014 21: 19
          -1
          Bravo. Applause. There is someone to answer on the merits. Or will you boast of the largest Russian underground submarine constellation of satellites.! ??
      2. Net
        Net 2 October 2014 19: 38
        +2
        Astrophotographers use the RegiStax program, which adds up a certain number of images of one object and significantly improves the quality of the photo. Google samples after processing is impressive. But for this you need a very large number of images taken from one position which cannot be given by a satellite or aircraft.
        1. Professor
          Professor 2 October 2014 20: 43
          0
          Here is an example of how a free commercial program allows you to pull out photos. Now imagine what bourgeois spies are using.
          1. spech
            spech 3 October 2014 03: 36
            +1
            free commercial

            What is it like ? laughing
            1. Professor
              Professor 3 October 2014 15: 01
              0
              Quote: spech
              What is it like ?

              It's like drug dealers, the first dose is free, and then full "commerce". wink
    8. Rus2012
      Rus2012 2 October 2014 16: 34
      +5
      Quote: Professor
      Soviet specialists thought the same in the 1960s and were "killed" by the results of aerial photography of missile launchers in Cuba

      Well so AFA, but not space images ...

      To the author, about -
      Moreover, the images published by the Russian Ministry of Defense give us a rough idea of ​​the capabilities of reconnaissance satellites.

      those pictures that were published were deliberately "blurred", i.e. less distinct than the original. And the commissions were presented more clear, but without the right to publish in the media.

      As for the "komputerom" pulling - it's not so simple. It is not possible to make it clearer than the original. You can make it only digestible for the eyes, superimposing frames shot in different spectra and "shading" the uninformative part. We know, they ate the subject firsthand ...
      As for the "clarity of the number" - no one is ahead of the film yet :)))
      Waiting for ...
      1. Professor
        Professor 2 October 2014 16: 39
        0
        Quote: Rus2012
        As for the "komputerom" pulling - it's not so simple. It is not possible to make it clearer than the original. You can make it only digestible for the eyes, superimposing frames shot in different spectra and "shading" the uninformative part. We know, they ate the subject firsthand ...

        So not heard enough.

        Quote: Rus2012
        As for the "clarity of the number" - no one is ahead of the film yet :)))

        For a long time, the pixel size is smaller than the grain size. You do not equal your camera on a smartphone with a Kiev camera. Compare the same Kiev with a matrix of tens of millions of pixels.
        1. Rus2012
          Rus2012 2 October 2014 17: 59
          +4
          Quote: Professor
          Compare the same Kiev with a matrix of tens of millions of pixels.

          and you yourself compare with the number of grains of ultrafine film, which were never on sale ... :)
          Wait said b-nanogran ... :)))
          You can of course read articles by experienced photographers ...
          1. Professor
            Professor 2 October 2014 20: 09
            +1
            Quote: Rus2012
            and you yourself compare with the number of grains of ultrafine film, which were never on sale ... :)
            Wait said b-nanogran ... :)))
            You can of course read articles by experienced photographers ...

            I'm a photographer myself. What is the light sensitivity of such an "ultrafine-grain film"? And by the way, what's the grain size? wink
            1. Rus2012
              Rus2012 2 October 2014 21: 13
              0
              Quote: Professor
              What is the light sensitivity of such an "ultrafine-grain film"? And by the way, what's the grain size?


              I don’t remember ... but if I did, I didn’t say that.
              Here is the apparatus
              http://www.photohistory.ru/index.php?pid=1225743123971576
    9. IAlex
      IAlex 2 October 2014 16: 36
      +3
      Crap, for a digital raster image only interpolation is possible, i.e. increasing resolution by adding additional pixels, calculating its color relative to the two adjacent between which it is located. But this method only gives a reduction in sharpness when enlarging the image ... I understand that your technology in Israel goes beyond physics, but you don’t have to tell the whole world about it, because it would be a shame to Ukrainians to even have their tales turn into reality, though shitty ...


      And no algorithms will help to turn the picture taken in shitty resolution, on the shitty matrix, into a picture with a normal image, except for two options: 1. Take a picture with a normal resolution, 2. Draw it yourself.

      Those photos that you brought across Cuba, I’m absolutely sure they were made on an analog film with normal optics, and from the Lockheed U-2 plane that delivered it to the development base, for a satellite it is suicide.
      1. Professor
        Professor 2 October 2014 16: 46
        +1
        Quote: IAlex
        Those photos that you brought across Cuba, I’m absolutely sure they were made on an analog film with normal optics, and from the Lockheed U-2 plane that delivered it to the development base, for a satellite it is suicide.

        Yes, you, as I see it, are not at all in the subject. How do you think Russian spy satellites transmit information to the earth? Arkon can not remember.
        1. i80186
          i80186 2 October 2014 17: 01
          +2
          Well, you understand, we did not need missiles in Cuba, we did not need missiles in Turkey. smile
        2. IAlex
          IAlex 2 October 2014 17: 20
          +6
          But I’m in the know about computer technology since I developed it, and image processing software, so either you’ll bring at least one software package that allows you to do this (i.e. physically improve the image) for the raster or the name of the algorithm of what you wrote about, or is it just a real chatter, of which I am absolutely sure ...
          1. Professor
            Professor 2 October 2014 20: 15
            -2
            Quote: IAlex
            But I am aware of computer technology since I developed it, and image processing software

            Straight beat some gates. laughing Was the 4-f Vanerluht correlator also developed? My proofs are higher in the form of photographs that washed Zorin.

            Quote: IAlex
            therefore, either you bring at least one software package that allows you to do this (i.e. physically improve the image) for the raster or the name of the algorithm of what you wrote about, or it's just a real talk, of which I am absolutely sure ...

            Of course. Now I dig in torrents and throw off the link to the CIA software that they process digital photos from satellites that no one even knows what it looks like. wassat

            By the way. What "image processing" program did you develop? I wrote a dissertation on optical pattern recognition, and what scientific journal did you publish in? wink
            1. velikoros-xnumx
              velikoros-xnumx 5 October 2014 00: 00
              -1
              Quote: Professor
              which washed Zorin.

              I don’t like it and I condemn it myself, but bl ... my nerves cannot withstand such a flow of crap from someone who is not stupid. When will the Arabs wash you. Unfortunately, the reality is that the Arabs are unlikely in the foreseeable future, but "nothing lasts forever under the moon." Considering that Israel is practically surrounded by "friendly" states, as well as the slow but sure fall of the influence and power of the United States in the region, and indeed in general, Israel’s business is not going to be fixed in time.
              1. Professor
                Professor 5 October 2014 08: 13
                0
                Quote: velikoros-xnumx
                When the Arabs wash you.

                Well, where is Israel? An article about intelligence satellites and discuss their resolution and historical incidents related to the resolution of intelligence snapshots.
                1. Alexander Romanov
                  Alexander Romanov 5 October 2014 08: 56
                  -1
                  Quote: Professor
                  Well, where is Israel?

                  And Israel is to blame for everything! And if Israel is not at all to blame, then the Jews are to blame laughing
                  1. Professor
                    Professor 5 October 2014 09: 11
                    +2
                    Quote: Alexander Romanov
                    And Israel is to blame for everything! And if Israel is not at all to blame, then the Jews are to blame

                    Of course. The ancient Kyrgyz did not know about the existence of the Jews and attributed all their hardships to the dark forces of nature.
                    1. Normal
                      Normal 5 October 2014 09: 38
                      0
                      Quote: Professor
                      ... did not know about the existence of the Jews and attributed all their hardships to the dark forces of nature.

                      Which (dark forces) were actually yavery. Just the Kyrgyz did not know about it laughing
                2. velikoros-xnumx
                  velikoros-xnumx 5 October 2014 15: 04
                  +1
                  нquote = professor] [quote = velikoros-88] When will the Arabs wash you. [/ quote]
                  Well, where is Israel? An article about reconnaissance satellites and discuss their resolution and historical incidents related to the resolution of reconnaissance images. [/ Quote]
                  Nothing to do with. In the same way, nothing to do with "washed", "put in a corner", "
                  with shame "and so on. If we are discussing technical aspects, then we need to do without such phrases, and since the latter took place, if you please, here's Israel, here's the Arabs for you.
                  1. Professor
                    Professor 5 October 2014 15: 11
                    0
                    Quote: velikoros-xnumx
                    Nothing to do with. In the same way, nothing to do with "washed", "put in a corner", "
                    with shame "and so on. If we are discussing technical aspects, then we need to do without such phrases, and since the latter took place, if you please, here's Israel, here's the Arabs for you.

                    No, let me. laughing It was washed precisely with intelligence images of which, according to Soviet experts, physically could not be. It is about this article, about the physical capabilities of reconnaissance equipment, and not about the Arab Israeli wars. In these wars, by the way, there is also something to discuss from the point of view of intelligence. But that's another story.
                    1. gjv
                      gjv 7 October 2014 13: 12
                      0
                      Quote: Professor
                      No, let me. It was washed precisely with intelligence images of which, according to Soviet experts, physically could not be.

                      What kind of specialists, give a link.
                      And, well, you can't see the inscriptions "Soviet rocket. To Washington !!!" on your proofs.
                      And here is also a modest newspaper, and also Pravda

                      http://topwar.ru/uploads/posts/2014-10/1412516588_pravda_adolf_hitler.jpg
                      Was that supposed to be?
                      And what “modest man” needs this to be repeated over and over again?
                  2. slavaslava556
                    slavaslava556 6 October 2014 21: 24
                    -1
                    But we are talking about Russia and America. WHAT ISRAEL ????
        3. The comment was deleted.
    10. opus
      opus 2 October 2014 21: 46
      +5
      Quote: Professor
      Soviet specialists thought the same in the 1960s and were "killed" by the results of aerial photography of missile launchers

      1.Well, there were not satellite imagery, but aerial photography
      and 10-20 (lateral) km, yet not 200-300-400km, agree?
      Still, an order of magnitude greater distance + shooting from another medium (almost a vacuum) + with light / shadows / clouds / haze, etc.
      Flies over the Moon (30 / 216 km) Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, no atmosphere, no wind, no magnetic field.
      And what does he see?

      This (top right) is like a Chinese lunar rover

      And this is like Apollo 17.
      WHAT WAS NOT "PROCESSED"?

      2. moreover, U-2 with a side-view camera discovered "sho something similar" SP SAM on the S-75
      102 flight over Cuba, while losing 3 aircraft
      They discovered this.

      (This is after processing)

      3. And the photo that you show below seems to have been made either by the F-101A / C Voodoo, or by the tactical scouts of the RF-8A Crusader, being bombarded from the ground




      Quote: Professor
      And there it is possible to draw information from outside the limits of optical resolution.

      Yes, but when shooting digitally

      it is possible so, but it is possible differently.


      And for photos, except for optics (Angular resolution), the resolution of the photographic film (Mikrat-200, Mikrat-500)
      1. gjv
        gjv 7 October 2014 13: 42
        0
        Quote: opus
        And for photos, except for optics

        Anton, and m. You have the opportunity to take a picture on a b / w aerial photo or on a satellite (on Mikrat or on a super-duper digital matrix) and send it to the professor.
        And he will "pull" information from there: What color are the eyes? What is written on the tattoo (if any)?
        That will be a "demonstration" of technologies!
      2. gjv
        gjv 7 October 2014 13: 42
        0
        Quote: opus
        And for photos, except for optics

        Anton, and m. You have the opportunity to take a picture on a b / w aerial photo or on a satellite (on Mikrat or on a super-duper digital matrix) and send it to the professor.
        And he will "pull" information from there: What color are the eyes? What is written on the tattoo (if any)?
        That will be a "demonstration" of technologies!
    11. Alekseev
      Alekseev 2 October 2014 22: 16
      0
      Quote: Professor
      The indicator is the limit for modern commercial space imagery.

      Quote: Professor
      Soviet experts thought the same in the 1960s

      And what do you think?
      What is the chapel of permission now? what
      I’m thinking that if the lens is bad, then no mathematics can ...
      But if certain interference is present, but the resolution is high nonetheless, it is possible to improve the quality of the image using software methods.
      1. Professor
        Professor 3 October 2014 14: 48
        -2
        Quote: Alekseev
        What is the chapel of permission now?

        IMHO matchbox in good weather they will see.
  2. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 2 October 2014 10: 14
    +12
    It turns out, if I "fuck" show amers in the sky, they won't see him ???? what It's a pity... negative
    1. evgenii67
      evgenii67 2 October 2014 15: 03
      +1
      Quote: Rurikovich
      It turns out, if I "fuck" show amers in the sky, they won't see him ???? what sorry ...

      I remembered the Russian TV series "Spetsnaz", where one bandit raised his face out of anger and shouted something, as a result his muzzle was in the picture and fell into the hands of the spetsnaz (well, there, like, in that series, Amry collaborated with ours) ... liars.
    2. IAlex
      IAlex 2 October 2014 16: 38
      +2
      They will send a rocket in response, because they will guess who in this case is against democracy and what is this undemocratic terrorist possibly expressing to the saints of the USA ...
  3. An-mi
    An-mi 2 October 2014 10: 49
    +6
    So the myths die that you can’t shit in the open so that your satellite will not find you.
    1. kosmos1980
      kosmos1980 2 October 2014 13: 30
      +1
      And still it is impossible to "hang" the satellite of the view reconnaissance over a certain area of ​​the terrain. crying
  4. ALEXX.
    ALEXX. 2 October 2014 11: 18
    +1
    A very interesting article, learned a lot.
  5. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 2 October 2014 11: 28
    +1
    In addition to optical shooting, there is radar: it’s night, all-weather,
    determines at the same time the speed of movement of objects on the ground.
    1. Moore
      Moore 2 October 2014 12: 30
      +2
      And besides it, an infrared image and data on radio emissions are also analyzed.
      When all this is superimposed on a plot of reconnoitered terrain, a picture is at least very close to the truth.
      The false target must be able to "work" in all fields and spectra of the real target, otherwise they will burn.
      And further. Once, according to one of the agreements on limiting strategic nuclear forces, it was this:
      a signal was received, according to which the Topol APU had to be turned and driven away from the Krona by a certain number of meters. If I am not mistaken, 8-10. Then a Keyhole flew with another, who had a radar, and filmed everything. I guess these meters are the resolution of satellite reconnaissance.
      1. kosmos1980
        kosmos1980 2 October 2014 13: 26
        +1
        The Keyhol spacecraft do not carry a radar. This spacecraft is called Lacrosse; it does not look like Keyhol at all. And the IR radiation is tracked by Keyhol-12 using a special system, the author has a mention of this in the article, but it is extremely unreliable.
      2. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 2 October 2014 17: 46
        0
        "And besides it, the IR picture and data on radio emissions are also analyzed" ////

        That's right: therefore, a powerful optical camera will see the tank, and the radar will confidently say:
        n-e-e-t is an inflatable pacifier. You cannot see an underground void with a photo camera - but with an "ultrasound" radar - you can. Electronics gives many times more information than optics.
        1. adept666
          adept666 2 October 2014 19: 06
          +1
          That's right: therefore, a powerful optical camera will see the tank, and the radar will confidently say:
          n-e-t is an inflatable dummy.


          The fact is that simulators just imitate not only the external picture, but also a set of signatures comparable to the real sample of radar. So maybe a regular radar could handle a dummy / not a dummy filter (and that is not a fact), and a locator with a synthesized aperture is unlikely yes

          You cannot see underground voids with a photo camera - but with an ultrasound radar


          I'm sorry, what? Ultrasound ??? What kind of sky radar is this? laughing Sonar put on a satellite is strong ...
        2. opus
          opus 2 October 2014 23: 39
          +1
          Quote: voyaka uh
          and the radar will confidently say:
          n-e-t is an inflatable dummy.

          1. and if the film is metallized?, And even with "insulation"

          what will he see?


          2. and if there is a sandwich:
          1 layer, inner - polymer film (well, or "rubber").
          2 layer, intermediate - mineral wool, impregnated with something like drying oil with graphite dust mixed in it
          3 layer, outer - camouflage coating of natural fabric
          ?
          Won't "see" anything at all?
          Quote: voyaka uh
          - and by the "ultrasound" radar

          Excuse me, but the ultrasound radar is WHAT?
          Ultrasound is an ultrasound, ultrasound is more simply put.
          The history of the development of ultrasound diagnostics in obstetrics and gynecology
          ==================
          Did you mean subsurface sounding (RPG) radars with US signals?

          Type: "OKO", "HERAD." "DEFECTOSCOPE", "GROT", "DOL"
          You can’t put them on a satellite ....
        3. kosmos1980
          kosmos1980 3 October 2014 10: 07
          0
          With a single inflatable mockup, no normal military man will insult himself. I took classes on the creation of false targets on earth in the 1st year of the military university. The false target is not only an inflatable crocodile, but the corresponding radio-reflecting picture, infrared radiation and much more.
    2. kosmos1980
      kosmos1980 2 October 2014 13: 23
      +1
      Yeah corner reflectors and in the forests of Siberia is a nuclear submarine wink How does the radar determine the speed of movement?
      1. adept666
        adept666 2 October 2014 15: 28
        +1
        Actually it’s possible, but it’s rather post-processing methods and they relate more to pattern recognition. As for the implementation in the metal at the moment, it is difficult to say something specific, rather NO than YES smile
    3. adept666
      adept666 2 October 2014 14: 49
      +1
      There is a radar, but by resolution it will be worse than optical-electronic.

      determines at the same time the speed of movement of objects on the ground


      In practice, this is not such a trivial task. Do not confuse high resolution ("synthetic aperture") radar mapping with conventional radar.
  6. ivanovich
    ivanovich 2 October 2014 11: 31
    +5
    [quote = professor] [quote] It's not only the diameter of the lens and its focal length, but also image processing algorithms. And there it is possible to pull information from outside the optical resolution. [/ Quote]

    The simplest "image processing algorithm" is given by Photoshop, which from an incomprehensible spot on a photo can depict anything at the request of the customer. Unfortunately, it was this trick that we watched as Mrs. Psaki passed off the harvesters edited in the pictures in the wheat field as Russian tanks near the border with Ukraine, since there even did not have to be drawn a barrel ... In general, gentlemen, the Americans have already filled their hands in this matter, suffice it to recall their Hollywood opus on the "landing" of actors-astronauts on the moon, the most curious thing is that today there is not a single original film of filming that "event"! only a few copies are kept at NASA and all after German journalists asked them for an examination. These are the algorithms for processing images.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 5 October 2014 18: 19
      +1
      Only on the corner reflectors that they installed
      in places of 6 landings, so far - 50 years already - calibrate instruments on Earth
      all countries, including Russia. wink
  7. Nitarius
    Nitarius 2 October 2014 11: 44
    +1
    it’s long ago necessary to make a mini UAV so that they fly under the clouds ... otherwise it’s not visible!
  8. ISKANDER25
    ISKANDER25 2 October 2014 11: 45
    +1
    Hello! THANKS TO THE COGNITIVE! good
  9. brn521
    brn521 2 October 2014 12: 36
    +1
    On the theory. Physics remembers something we were thinking about the maximum resolution, based on atmospheric fluctuations. I don’t remember what happened there. A few centimeters. But it is in ideal conditions, without cloud cover, dust and smog. So it seems that things will not get to reading the numbers, information of this kind is lost due to the properties of the atmosphere itself.
    1. I read the news
      I read the news 2 October 2014 15: 21
      0
      Information is not lost, but distorted. Moreover, according to well-known laws.
  10. bmv04636
    bmv04636 2 October 2014 13: 05
    +2
    Yes, because of these pixels, the figure loses to the film. When increasing the number, we simply increase the square.
  11. bmv04636
    bmv04636 2 October 2014 14: 25
    +1
    and it’s easier to hack the security system of the "light elves" and it gives you all the video data on the requested object from street video cameras, from drone security cameras. And recently, the entire territory of the "light elves" is controlled by security cameras because of the fight against terrorists.
  12. Aleks95
    Aleks95 2 October 2014 14: 29
    +2
    I remind you that in the 60s, scouts also shot down American planes over Cuba, and it was from them that the launchers were discovered.
    1. Professor
      Professor 2 October 2014 14: 32
      -5
      Quote: Aleks95
      I remind you that in the 60s, scouts also shot down American planes over Cuba, and it was from them that the launchers were discovered.

      From the height where they flew, in the opinion of Soviet specialists, the scouts should not have removed "nothing of value" with the existing optics, but they did. Otherwise, the Soviet military would have been more careful to mask the PU and Soviet diplomats would have had to lie less.
      1. bmv04636
        bmv04636 2 October 2014 14: 40
        +2
        And who was lying Professor Cuba was only a response to the deployment of nuclear weapons in Turkey, that's all. The "Light Elves" removed their missiles, so did we.
  13. Caudate
    Caudate 2 October 2014 14: 39
    +1
    The analysis is rather superficial. In fact, image processing algorithms can work wonders. If you take a large number of photographs of the same object, taken from one point and, roughly speaking, "merge" them together, the image quality can be significantly improved. It's like taking photographs of a stationary object with different shutter speeds on film - the longer the shutter speed, the clearer the picture.
    1. kosmos1980
      kosmos1980 2 October 2014 16: 26
      +2
      The device flies at a speed of 28000km / h, how many costs are needed to improve the image. We shoot not a flower in the field from different angles, but a very large surface area. Yes, it is theoretically possible, it’s practically not worth the effort
  14. The comment was deleted.
  15. dzvero
    dzvero 2 October 2014 17: 33
    +4
    Quote: Professor
    From the height where they flew, in the opinion of Soviet specialists, the scouts should not have removed "nothing of value" with the existing optics, but they did. Otherwise, the Soviet military would have been more careful to mask the PU and Soviet diplomats would have had to lie less.


    In 1960, the U-2 was shot down; The Caribbean crisis occurred in 1962. It is unlikely that Soviet specialists for two years could not get acquainted with the remains of U-2 and estimate the capabilities of the equipment ...

    PS minus is not mine
    1. Professor
      Professor 2 October 2014 20: 18
      -1
      Quote: dzvero
      It is unlikely that Soviet specialists for two years could not get acquainted with the remains of U-2 and estimate the capabilities of the equipment ...

      Gold words. good
      It is for this reason (knowing the performance characteristics of the optics and the flight altitude) that the Soviet specialists realized that the Americans had the technology of image processing that allowed them to "look behind the resolution." There will be time, I will write an article about it.
    2. Shur
      Shur 2 October 2014 21: 03
      +1
      I have no doubt that among the Cubans there were very loyal US citizens. Here the situation is in political blackmail, and not in great secrecy. It is clear that an argument was needed for bargaining. The missiles were seen on time, just when they were already of interest for political bargaining. In opposite cases, the khrushch would break off and nothing but a stink, etc. not received. This is not the most important thing, nothing will help either the United States or the allies in their exploitative aspirations. Do you lie down gentlemen.
  16. Captain cook
    Captain cook 2 October 2014 23: 56
    +2
    Quote: kosmos1980
    Yeah corner reflectors and in the forests of Siberia is a nuclear submarine wink How does the radar determine the speed of movement?

    With the help of the Doppler effect, on ground locators this is how signals from aircraft are separated from interference - reflections of the earth and clouds. The technology is called SDS - selection of moving targets. And vice versa, the picture from the aircraft locator determines the speed of the aircraft and its drift. Technology of the 60s.
  17. kosmos1980
    kosmos1980 3 October 2014 09: 45
    +1
    That with the help of the Doppler effect it is clear, HOW? Forgive him not a nuclear reactor, but just a solar panel, which is enough for a locator only. A spacecraft is not an airplane and it is not a matter of speed or altitude. The aircraft has a safety margin when calculating at least 2 times more than that of a spacecraft, not to mention other functions. And "Lacrosse" spacecraft is clearly not made in the 21st century.
  18. ttv-cfo
    ttv-cfo 3 October 2014 17: 52
    +2
    Quote: aleks 62
    .Prof !!! Have you thought what you wrote ???? Those. recreate something that does not distinguish (not visible) ......

    Not to recreate, but to finish what seems necessary)))) (just kidding)
  19. Prager
    Prager 3 November 2014 15: 21
    0
    the technology has taken a long step, I cannot believe it myself!