Military Review

Stabilizer tank armament of a new generation

37
Stabilizer tank armament of a new generation


Since the fifties of the XX century, all domestic Tanks equipped with stabilizers of weapons (guns and a machine gun coaxial with it). Regardless of the fluctuations of the tank’s hull that occur when driving over rough terrain, the weapon stabilizer allows you to keep the gun’s position in space unchanged, as well as to direct the weapon at the target. The use of an arms stabilizer allows targeted shooting when the tank moves with a high probability of hitting a target.

The weapon stabilizer is a system of two drives - a drive for pointing and stabilizing a gun in a vertical plane (vertical guidance - HV) and a drive for guidance and stabilization of a tower with a gun in a horizontal plane (horizontal targeting - GN). Both drives are associated with the gunner’s or commander’s sight, while the sight may have an autonomous stabilization of the field of view (line of sight) in one or two planes. With a rigid connection of an unstabilized sight with armament drives (a dependent line of sight), the field of view of the sight stabilizes with the same accuracy as the gun. Stabilization of the sight itself (independent line of sight) makes it possible to increase the accuracy of the stabilization of the gunner’s field of view and at the same time implement the introduction of ballistic and meteorological corrections into the contour of shooting, thereby significantly increasing the probability of hitting the target.


Lifting mechanism with synchronous motor



Planetary gear with long threaded rollers (HPHT). 1 - screw; 2 - threaded rollers - satellites; 3 - running nut; 4 - support nut; 5 - gear rims of the rollers; 6 - screw gear rims; 7 - toothed ring gears.




In recent years, the global tank building industry has clearly seen the tendency to abandon the hydraulic drive in the high-voltage channel used previously in most foreign tanks and to use vector-controlled electric drives based on synchronous electric motors in both channels (high-voltage and low-water).

Modern electric drive with vector control of a synchronous motor has significant advantages compared with a hydraulic drive, in particular:

• long service life and high efficiency;

• lack of flammable working fluid under high pressure;

• less labor and maintenance;

• high stability characteristics;

• low power consumption, especially in the parking lot (“quiet observation”).

The modern domestic enterprise “VNII“ Signal ”is actively working to create new types of equipment with a wide use of the latest achievements of scientific and technological progress. One of the important developments of this organization in recent years has become the electromechanical stabilizer of tank weapons of a new generation. Thanks to new advances in electronics, such as microcomputers, IGBT power switches, drive technology and mechanics, it is now possible to reach a qualitatively new level of development. As a result, a modern high-precision and reliable electromechanical stabilizer 2E58 was created, intended both for the modernization of production tanks and for use in new experimental design designs.

To date, an experimental sample of the stabilizer 2E58 has successfully passed bench and field tests as part of the T-72 tank manufactured by Nizhny Tagil UKBTM.

A comprehensive analysis of the options for the implementation of HV electric drive, taking into account foreign data, showed that the use of a traditional cylindrical gearbox with a toothed sector as a mechanical elevator would not provide promising requirements for stabilization accuracy and smoothness of guidance speeds. The reason is that the mechanical connection between the gun and the tank turret in this case is a long kinematic chain, in which variable backlash, increased kinematic errors and reduced rigidity are unavoidable. The use of backlash-pickers leads in turn to significant and non-constant moments of resistance, which are quite difficult to compensate. It became clear that a high-precision, low-inertia, reversible, high-rigidity mechanical lift with a progressive displacement of the output link, installed in place of the hydraulic power cylinder, is necessary. The latter circumstance is very important when upgrading tanks in service.

In the process of development, various transmissions of progressive displacement (screw, ball screws, roller screws, etc.) were analyzed. As a result, a mechanical lift was developed on the basis of a planetary roller screw drive with long threaded rollers (TPR) that meets the necessary requirements.

The RAWP turned out to be better than other gears of progressive displacement in such indicators as specific load carrying capacity, moment of resistance, moment of inertia, accuracy and smoothness of movement.

The technical reserve created at JSC “VNII“ Signal ”allows the modernization of various types of combat vehicles, thereby expanding their tactical and technical characteristics: increasing the effectiveness of fire, reliability and performance. Modernization of armored vehicles can be carried out with minimal modifications and costs - the EST 2E58 is installed on the regular places of the previous generation stabilizer.
Author:
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http://otvaga2004.ru
37 comments
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  1. wanderer_032
    wanderer_032 6 October 2014 10: 32
    +4
    The stabilizer is far from new.

    Information sources

    1. Automated electric drive. / Under the total. ed. N.F. Ilyinsky, M. G. Yunkova. M., Energoatomizdat, 1990, pp. 333-337.
    2. Stabilizer 2E58. Technical description. Archive of the State Unitary Enterprise "VNII" Signal "1999

    It’s good that hydraulics are being replaced from BM by electromechanical drives, a necessary thing.
    1. theadenter
      theadenter 6 October 2014 12: 35
      0
      What is worse hydraulics? I'm not special.
      1. Argon
        Argon 6 October 2014 13: 19
        +2
        It’s difficult to try to read the article, but try, but you’ll own the question. In essence, I consider the need to switch to direct electric drives overdue, but in my opinion it will be rational to use them on the developed technology, modernization will inevitably affect all the electrical equipment of the machine, first of all It will require an increase in the power of sources with all the ensuing, i.e. replacing all electrical equipment. The procedure is quite time-consuming. Given the quantitative indicators of the mobilization reserve we need (for example, for tanks), this is a lot of money. Of course, there are smart heads who will undertake to ensure the integrity of the sheep and the satiety of the wolves, but I’m afraid the reliability of the modernized machine will suffer as a result .
      2. Alekseev
        Alekseev 6 October 2014 18: 20
        +2
        Quote: theadenter
        What is worse hydraulics?

        Hydraulics is oil under pressure, during the stay there is a high probability of explosive oil mist.
        Well, and the efficiency, the electric pump shakes the oil, but here the electricity works directly.
        Another thing is that, in all likelihood, it was technologically difficult and expensive to create high-precision and powerful electromechanical drives for heavy guns, especially VN. GN have been used for a long time in MBT.
        1. uwzek
          uwzek 6 October 2014 19: 44
          +4
          Here, you are a little mistaken. There is the inertness of the designers. It’s extremely light to swing a tank gun in a vertical plane - it is hung out on trunnions. Turning a tower quickly is a lot harder. In aviation and rocket science, electric steering assemblies have been used in series since the 60s of the last century in similar stabilization systems ...
          By the way, the hydraulic drive hardly works worse in the gun stabilizer, it simply complicates the design by adding a foreign drive.
          In general, the exchange of experience between designers of various types of weapons is extremely weak. The disadvantage is old, still Soviet. Naturally tied to money ...
          1. Alekseev
            Alekseev 7 October 2014 16: 26
            0
            Quote: uwzek
            It’s extremely light to swing a tank gun in a vertical plane - it is hung out on trunnions.

            Yes, on the pins.
            And it is necessarily balanced. But, inertiayou understand. request The angular and linear accelerations during the movement of the tank over rough terrain are very significant, and, despite the fact that it is not extremely difficult to swing the gun, modern drives cannot afford it ... In particular, they put the gun on a hydrostop (not to be confused with a GM stopper ). That's it, sir. yes
        2. Bad_gr
          Bad_gr 8 October 2014 20: 32
          0
          Quote: theadenter
          What is worse hydraulics?

          Alekseev
          Hydraulics is oil under pressure, during the stay there is a high probability of explosive oil mist.

          It depends on the hydraulics. At Abrams, this fluid (in the gun control system) is based on water. Not combustible, in general.
    2. Aleks tv
      Aleks tv 6 October 2014 16: 09
      +1
      Quote: wanderer_032
      The stabilizer is far from new.

      Good day, Sasha.
      hi

      Absolutely.
      VNII The signal from Kovrov has long been concocted by him.
      2E42 and 2E58 - nothing new, this is still the Soviet backlog.
      request
      Of course it is better than 2E26M and 2E28M.

      It would be interesting to try to work as an electric stabilizer without hydraulics ...
      How much other things?
      And to maintain - of course it will become easier, even though you don’t add oil to the refill tanks and don’t expel air from the system ...)))

      We still have the same disadvantages - it takes at least 2 minutes to spin up three-degree gyroscopes, otherwise the VN will not be stabilized, and you will not keep the "Drive" spinning forever, you still turn it off on the march.

      Good luck to Signal and ZiDu designers.
      drinks
      1. goose
        goose 6 October 2014 17: 26
        +1
        Quote: Aleks tv
        We still have the same disadvantages - it takes at least 2 minutes to spin up three-degree gyroscopes, otherwise the VN will not be stabilized, and you will not keep the "Drive" spinning forever, you still turn it off on the march.

        But can not be replaced by laser gyroscopes? benefit from all sides.
        1. Aleks tv
          Aleks tv 6 October 2014 19: 21
          +2
          Quote: goose
          But can not be replaced by laser gyroscopes?

          Mladá Husa ...
          Electronic stabilizers?
          request
          This is Nuna to ask the redhead, because he is sculpting something out of plasticine under the "nano" signboard ... but for some reason it doesn't show anything ... probably these are invisible devices)))
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Alekseev
        Alekseev 6 October 2014 18: 34
        +2
        Quote: Aleks tv
        Of course it is better than 2E26M and 2E28M.

        My respect for the honest company! hi
        To be honest, 2E26M (T-64B, T-80) is better than 2E28 (T-64A, T-72 of the old versions), but subjectively, the STV did not feel the difference between 26 and 42 (GN electric drive), maybe I already forgot. yes
        I think that electric stabilizers do not surpass hydraulics in accuracy, degree of damping and rigidity, but in technology, simplicity, weight characteristics, price, which is not unimportant, yes.
        1. Aleks tv
          Aleks tv 6 October 2014 19: 20
          0
          Quote: Alekseev
          To be honest, 2E26M (T-64B, T-80) is better than 2E28 (T-64A, T-72 of old versions),

          Hello, namesake.
          Glad to hear that.
          hi

          I don’t know 2E26M, but if you remember the conversations in the "smoking room", then it will probably be better than 2E28.
          Thank you, Alex, for correcting.
          yes
      4. uwzek
        uwzek 6 October 2014 20: 09
        +1
        About the sensations. Most likely, you will not feel any difference ...
        In service, such a stabilizer is clearly simpler.
        Gyroscopes on the tank are desirable, like on airplanes, to be extruded into a separate system that works constantly and simply provides information to the FCS, then you will not have to wait for the gyroscopes to spin up after turning on the stabilizer.
        1. Aleks tv
          Aleks tv 6 October 2014 20: 44
          0
          Quote: uwzek
          About the sensations. Most likely, you will not feel any difference ...

          Thanks for the comment, Andrei Ivanovich.
          Rarely appear.
    3. Civil
      Civil 6 October 2014 18: 40
      0
      I wonder why, our tankers turned off the stabilizer at the Lend-Lease Sherman?
  2. Forest
    Forest 6 October 2014 11: 48
    0
    Yes, a good stabilizer would not hurt the 72 engine.
    1. Max_Bauder
      Max_Bauder 6 October 2014 12: 23
      +1
      The backfill question, who knows how many seconds a cannon shell flies over a distance of 4 km from a T-72 tank? And is there a difference in speed bb and cumulative?

      Yes, and does anyone have information to compare the same with Abrams and Merkava?

      thank you in advance.
      1. Aleks tv
        Aleks tv 6 October 2014 16: 20
        0
        Quote: Max_Bauder
        how many seconds does a cannon shell fly at a distance of 4 km from a T-72 tank? And is there a difference in speed bb and cumulative?

        Max_Bauder,
        Tank gun 2A46M.
        Initial projectile speed for the following shots:
        ZVBM17 - 1715 m / s,
        ZVBK16 - 905 m / s,
        ZVOF36 - 850 m / s,
        TOOTH20 - 400 m / s.
  3. Terner38
    Terner38 6 October 2014 13: 03
    0
    Hometown, neighboring factory, nice, however ...
  4. MahsusNazar
    MahsusNazar 6 October 2014 14: 44
    +1
    And especially pleased with the opportunity to upgrade existing machines.
    This is the approach, I understand !!! good
  5. airborne forces
    airborne forces 6 October 2014 17: 46
    +1
    Biathlon showed who has the best stabilizer, ours are a little behind the Chinese
    1. Alekseev
      Alekseev 6 October 2014 19: 12
      +1
      Quote: Airborne
      Biathlon showed who has the best stabilizer

      And what about biathlon compare the characteristics of the PTS? Are they reporting on TV?
      Without going into varying degrees of damping and resolution zones, I want to inform you that having a modern, highly efficient STV does not at all mean solving all the problems of a tank gunner ...
      When driving fast on potholes, the stabilizer generally blocks the VN guns. Keeping a mass of 2,5 tons, which sways with solid accelerations, is difficult even for hydraulics (and the electric drive too) ...
      Therefore, when firing, immediately before the shot, the m / in should lead the tank as smoothly as possible, without interfering with the aiming with sudden movements of the tank.
      And this is the coherence of the crew. yes
    2. Aleks tv
      Aleks tv 6 October 2014 19: 25
      +1
      Quote: Airborne
      Biathlon showed who has the best stabilizer, ours are a little behind the Chinese

      Dmitry, accurate shooting is a complex of factors.
      An arms stabilizer is just one of these factors.
      And he is quite good with us.
  6. alex86
    alex86 6 October 2014 18: 02
    +1
    Excuse me if I didn’t see it in the article due to natural laziness and dullness, but do our stabilizers keep the barrel parallel in space or provide constant guidance on the chosen target? A similar principle in Western tanks was considered a very long time (and, I think, has long been introduced).
    1. Alekseev
      Alekseev 6 October 2014 18: 41
      +1
      Quote: alex86
      on natural laziness and dullness did not see in the article, but our stabilizers remain parallel

      Parallel trunk to what? laughing
      They, stabilizers, maintain the position of the barrel in space (aimed at the target yes) quite roughly, as well as the position of the stabilized mirrors in the sight (this gyroscopic drive of the sight itself tries) quite accurately. And there is also a resolution zone for the shot, i.e. when the position of the barrel almost coincides (now in parallel) with the aiming line, then the electric release can work.
      but this is on relatively new machines, on the T-55, etc. simpler thing.
      1. alex86
        alex86 6 October 2014 19: 52
        0
        Sorry again.
        Quote: Alekseev
        They, stabilizers, preserve the position of the barrel in space (hovering on the target yes) rather roughly

        So, in this case two technologies are possible: 1.
        Quote: Alekseev
        Parallel trunk to what?
        - parallelism of the barrel to the chosen direction to the target - it is clear that it is rough, since it does not take into account the movement of the tank in space - that is, having set the direction at some point, the stabilizer will support this direction 2. The stabilizer monitors, incl. moves the tank and keeps the direction to the target. Thus, aiming when moving the tank is much easier. Judging by your commentary, we do not have such technologies (in the "Foreign Military Review" they talked about them in the 80s).
        1. Passing
          Passing 6 October 2014 20: 37
          +2
          Maintain constant guidance on the target at least starting with the T-90.
          Whip up video:

        2. uwzek
          uwzek 6 October 2014 20: 40
          +1
          Any stabilizer is designed to perform your second technology. It is just designed to track the movement of the tank and preserve the direction of the barrel to the target. Of course, there are limitations. related to stabilizer type and machine design. Incidentally, various corrections are introduced into the coordinates of the target (projectile ballistics, weather conditions), but this is done by the tank’s fire control system.
          And the stabilizer must support the guidance parameters, despite changes in the spatial position of the machine. Nobody came up with other stabilizers, not with us, not with them ...
        3. Alekseev
          Alekseev 6 October 2014 21: 51
          0
          Quote: alex86
          The stabilizer monitors including moving the tank and keeping the direction to the target.

          Something I do not understand the train of your thoughts ... request
          Without going into technical details, we can say that any 2-plane STV is designed precisely to keep the direction to the target ... That they all do with varying degrees of success.yes Those. if the tank turns 180 degrees and, at the same time, raises the bow to a hill, the gun will still look at the target. (with varying degrees of accuracy) Ie. STV does just that, which "takes into account" the movement of the tank in space.
          Perhaps you meant that the STV, under the command of a tank ballistic computer and not only it, automatically changes the position of the gun’s barrel, taking into account various corrections: target movement, wind, barrel bore wear, tank movement in the sense of changing range (delta D ), etc.?
          All this has been applied since the 70s and 80s of the last century.
          Perhaps you did not notice that the mirrors in the sight (aiming line) are stabilized separately from the gun barrel and with very high accuracy. There is no mechanical connection in modern systems.
          The shot is fired only when the longitudinal axis of the gun has a slight misalignment with the perfectly stabilized "line of sight".
          As a result, the accuracy of shooting is quite high.
        4. Lopatov
          Lopatov 6 October 2014 23: 00
          +1
          As I understand it, you are talking about a target tracking machine. And we have such technologies. You just painfully tricky described everything.
    2. uwzek
      uwzek 6 October 2014 20: 22
      +1
      All stabilizers always and everywhere preserved the gun’s aiming parameters (with a natural correction for the number of stabilization channels and natural restrictions: limiting angles of reduction-elevation of the gun).
      1. alex86
        alex86 7 October 2014 18: 48
        0
        Thank you all, I understand. With some comment
        Quote: uwzek
        All stabilizers always and everywhere kept gun aiming parameters

        Quote: Alekseev
        that any 2-plane STV is precisely for this purpose intended to maintain direction to the target ...

        - i.e., not all and not always (but only with the T-90), while
        Quote: Spade
        we are talking about a target tracking machine.
        - i.e., it’s not about a 2-plane stabilizer.
        Thanks again, sorry for the wisdom, I do not know professional terminology with some theoretical reading.
  7. Bugor
    Bugor 6 October 2014 21: 19
    0
    But in general, tell me, please, at a speed of about 15 km / h if you shot at biathlon, what were the chances of getting into the target? Subject to movement on level ground.
    1. Alekseev
      Alekseev 6 October 2014 21: 58
      +2
      Quote: Bugor
      what were the chances to hit the target?

      High odds. yes
      Roughly speaking, on a level ground, a trained crew from a tank brought to normal combat, naturally with a well-tuned, operational SLA, should
      hit target number 12 10 times out of 10. True, when performing the control shooting exercise, the mark is "excellent" and with two hits out of three possible, but you also need to hit all machine gun targets.
      1. Aleks tv
        Aleks tv 6 October 2014 22: 14
        0
        Quote: Alekseev
        the score is "excellent" and with two hits out of possible three, but at the same time it is necessary to also hit all machine-gun targets.

        Yeah, Alexey.

        For example, one of the UKS:
        - Tank (target No. 12) Moving target. Three shots are fired.
        - BZO. (target No. 17) Moving target.
        - RPG. (target No. 9)
        The last two machine-gun targets, 35 cartridges with tracers are issued for their defeat.

        First shot time no more than 15 sec.
        The distance between the opening and ceasefire lines is about 700m.
        Own movement at a speed of 20 km / h.
        UKS run time is just over 3 minutes.

        The conditions are quite tough, but almost everything was shot perfectly after a year of service.
        Pilots shot at fours - this is 2 of hitting three of them in a tank and one littered machine-gun target.
        So - biathlon is not an example to us. )))
  8. Bugor
    Bugor 6 October 2014 22: 03
    0
    Thank you.
    I sit down to write a letter to Kuzhugetich, let the tanks shoot on the go at the next biathlon. For it is spectacular.
  9. TOR2
    TOR2 6 October 2014 22: 46
    +2
    Quote: uwzek
    By the way, the hydraulic drive hardly works worse in the gun stabilizer, it simply complicates the design by adding a foreign drive.

    You are absolutely right. There will be no difference whatsoever. Each type of drive has its own design advantages and disadvantages. Apparently they decided to exclude damage to the oil system. So you can damage anything.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 6 October 2014 23: 09
      +2
      And the response time to the control signal? As far as I know, hydraulics have more
      1. Prager
        Prager 1 November 2014 09: 32
        0
        absolutely true, totally agree with you!
  10. Lopatov
    Lopatov 6 October 2014 22: 57
    0
    The stabilization of the sight itself (independent line of sight) improves the accuracy of stabilization of the gunner’s field of view and at the same time implements the input of ballistic and meteorological corrections into the firing line, thereby significantly increasing the probability of hitting the target.


    Somehow they were too clever in an attempt to make the article more scientific. Corrections can be entered regardless of whether the sight is stabilized separately from the gun or not.
    Another thing is to stabilize a separate sight easier. A shot can be fired precisely at the moment of pairing the sight line of sight and the axis of the bore with the amendments. That is, gunner’s convenience and accuracy are enhanced.

    In general, it's time to move on to the active suspension in tanks. This will not only simplify the stabilization of the guns, but also increase the speed at which it is possible to fire. Which will have a very positive effect on survival.