Military Review

The myth of the "mad emperor" Paul I

45
“I wish it is better to be hated for a just cause than beloved for a wrong thing. ...
I hope that the offspring will treat me more impartially. "

Emperor Paul.


Russian история, which is the basis of the self-consciousness of the Russian people, its spirit, is constantly under attack. The enemies of Russian civilization create the so-called. black myths that destroy the images of Russian rulers, commanders, devotees, blacken the exploits and achievements of our people. So, it is difficult to find in the history of large-scale fraud, similar to that which was subjected to the figure of the Russian sovereign Paul I. This puts him in a row of such historical figures as Ivan the Terrible and Joseph Stalin, who cry out the most from hatred among the conductors of the will of the masters of Western civilization.

Paul ruled more humanely than his mother Catherine II, especially in relation to the common people, the soldiers. A.I. Turgenev, evaluating the activities of the emperor, wrote: “The people were enraptured, delighted, honored his orders with a blessing sent from heaven ... I allow myself to say boldly and fearlessly that in the first year of Paul’s reign the people were blissful, found judgment and reprisal without no one dared to rob, oppress him ... ”However, he was called a“ villain ”because he dismissed careless dignitaries, bosses, and even sent from the capital (!) to other cities of the European part of Russia (this is a villain!) several hundred people .

The myth of Paul's “madness” was written. He was accused of tyranny. So, on the second day of the reign, the police suggested that residents of the capital take off round hats, tailcoats and vests. However, this was nothing "crazy". The action of Peter the Great, when the residents of Moscow were ordered to change from a Russian dress into a German dress for several days, for some reason he was not blamed. Emperor Paul I ordered to take off round hats, vests and cut off collars from coats, because all this symbolized the French Jacobin revolutionaries. If Paul only ordered to take off his hat, then the French revolutionaries for such things (a manifestation of commitment to a fallen monarchy) removed their heads, and shed rivers of blood. Therefore, the order of the emperor was not “wild”, he defended the “symbolic field” of Russia (symbols are of paramount importance in the life of society, although the majority do not see this).

Another “clear evidence” of Paul’s alleged abnormality is the sending of a regiment to Siberia. They tell a historical anecdote, when Pavel once at a parade commanded a regiment that did not please him with a drill: "Step march ... to Siberia." However, this is not a historical fact, but a blatant lie, an invention. There is no data on such an order, the researchers were unable to establish the name of the regiment to which Emperor Paul I allegedly gave such an order.

The enemies of Paul during his lifetime, and especially after his death (trying to cover up his involvement in the conspiracy and murder of the legal ruler of Russia), spread rumors that he had lost his mind. Each act of the emperor was supplemented with such details, retouched to make him sick. As a result, the notoriety quickly spread to the noble salons of Russia. And in Europe, she gladly picked up. In the West, it was always with particular joy that any bad news from Russia was received, they distorted the facts (this has not changed even now). So the situation was that even now, for most ordinary people, the emperor Paul is a “little fool on the throne”, a royal madcap or a “gloomy and suspicious tyrant” who choked all manifestations of freedom.

It is clear that Paul was not holy. He had a hot-tempered and irritable temper. In anger, he allowed sharpness. However, he was not a tyrant. In addition, he was constantly deceived and provoked by secret enemies who wanted to kill him. Prince P. P. Lopukhin noted that Paul was an outspoken, unusually kind and noble man (as evidenced by the absence of executions of even outspoken pests and thieves). Also noted his courtesy and very sharp and sharp mind. In a good mood, it was harder to find a more pleasant and brilliant conversationalist, and even his son, Alexander Pavlovich, could not compare with Pavel.

High-ranking conspirators not only provoked Paul into outbursts of anger, but often carried out ridiculous events on his behalf that were supposed to affirm the public opinion about his abnormality, “tyranny”. The conspirators could not tell the truth that they want to eliminate Paul for his desire to be a “people's king”, pursuing a course in the interests of the whole society, and not just a narrow noble stratum, and also for breaking off relations with England. Therefore, the conspirators left only the path of deception, the most brazen slander, provocations and intrigues. The example of modern Ukraine shows that with skillful propaganda, the most blatant lie will be accepted by society and will become a reality.

Petersburg military governor Peter Palen (lead conspirator) served as the main provocateur under Pavel. He knew that it was necessary for the emperor to calm down, how he would change his mind and would cancel the instruction given in the heat of anger. Therefore, Palen tried to immediately fulfill the instructions expressed in a fit of anger, pretending to be "faithful servants." Paul, reassured, canceled the order. As a result, people had the impression that the sovereign himself did not know what he wanted. So, once, standing at one of the windows of the palace, Pavel noticed a drunken peasant and said: “He’s walking past the Royal Palace and will not take off hats”. After some time, he noticed that there were people without hats on the square in front of the Mikhailovsky Palace, in the winter in severe frost. Pavel asked why people without hats, because there is a strong frost outside. He was told that at his command. “I have never ordered this,” the sovereign protested.

As an undoubted proof of the emperor’s insanity, they like to give his order to repaint all the houses and fences of St. Petersburg with stripes, like barriers were painted at that time. However, this order was given by the St. Petersburg General Governor Nikolai Arkharov, the closest assistant to the organizer of the murder of Paul I - Palena. Any sound order, if desired, can be distorted so that it seems an act of a sick person. Pavel was discredited during his reign by exposing the abnormal and despot. This assessment migrated to historical works and became dominant in the public consciousness.


Portrait of paul i with family

About Paul

The Russian historian V. Klyuchevsky gave a correct assessment of Pavel’s activities. The historian noted: “Having collected all the jokes, you will think that all this is some kind of motley and rather incoherent tale; meanwhile At the heart of the government policy (Emperor Paul), both external and internal, lay serious thoughts and principles that deserve our complete sympathy. ” Klyuchevsky wrote that Pavel Petrovich was the first “counter-noble king” of this era, and “the rule of the nobility and rule based on injustice was a sore point for a Russian hostel in the second half of the century”. Guiding the work of Paul was a sense of order, discipline, and equality. It was a kind of “knight on the throne” who tried to restore order and social justice in the empire. In fact, Emperor Paul I was the first king who tried to go off the wrong path, which Peter I had laid for Russia, “having cut through a window to Europe”. He planned to return Russia to the original political structures.

The personal life of the sovereign was very unfortunate. After the birth of October 1, the city of Paul 1754 was taken from his mother. He was brought up by the Empress Elizabeth. The teacher of the young heir was N. I. Panin. After the death of Elizabeth and the murder of Peter III, the situation of an impressionable and talented child has changed little. He still lived separately from his mother. Catherine did not pay attention to him. Apparently, she did not like a child from a hated husband. Paul felt this and avoided his mother, closed in himself. Over the years, the alienation between them has only grown. He was strengthened by the knowledge that the mother’s desire to gain power was the cause of his father’s death. Rumors that Catherine wants to deprive of the right to the throne and his, strengthened hostility. Catherine, who did not take part in the formation of Paul's personality, was to blame for this.

When Paul came of age, he was surrounded by spies. In that century of palace coups, he was suspected of wanting to seize power. When Paul had a son, Alexander, the relationship deteriorated further. Catherine II took away her son from Paul and began to raise him herself. There was a feeling that she wants to transfer power to her grandson, not her son. However, Alexander grew up a noble young man and did not want his father’s legal rights violated. He said that he would rather leave Russia than put on a crown belonging to his father.

Thus, up to 42, Pavel Petrovich lived a quiet family life in Gatchina and Pavlovsk. He was in the ambiguous position of the legitimate heir to the throne, who could be deprived of legal rights at any time. Such an ambiguity of almost any person will deprive of peace of mind.

Paul was a high flying person. Studying his biography, it is worth remembering that Russian historiography for almost the entire period of its existence was based on the point of view of Westernizers, people who believed that Russia is part of Western civilization and should follow the "advanced powers." The main measure of personality of the Russian rulers and statesmen for them is their political course. If the king acts for the good of the people, then he is stigmatized as a "tyrant", "crazy", an overwhelming "freedom" of a small stratum of the population, whose existence is closely connected with the West. The figures deserving a positive assessment are those whose activities lead to the destruction of Great Russia, who lead Russian civilization along an alien historical path, destroying the traditions and foundations of the Russian people and statehood.

Therefore, it is necessary to be very careful with the estimates of the personality of Paul. Obviously, Paul was not abnormal. Before the hard life undermined his mental strength and began to cause frequent periods of irritation, it was a noble man. Many of those who knew the Emperor Paul close, unanimously noted his knightly qualities. Princess Liven claimed: "At the basis of his character lay greatness and nobility - a generous enemy, a wonderful friend, he could forgive with greatness, and he would correct his guilt or injustice with great sincerity." Contemporaries noted the generosity, openness and nobility of Paul. The statesman and writer Jacob De Sanglen noted in his memoirs: "Paul was a knight of the times that had passed."

Pavel knew Russian, Slavonic, French and German perfectly, knew Latin, knew history and mathematics well. Contemporaries noted Paul's erudition, his brisk, sharp mind. Pavel loved children and willingly played with young students of the Smolny Institute. He had fun with them from the heart, having rare hours of fun and sincerity in his hard, full of painful experiences, life.

Accession to the throne. Internal policy

In the 1796 year, after the sudden death of Catherine, Paul came to the throne. The sovereign immediately restored the ancient order of inheritance of royal power. The Petrovsky law of 1721 of the year, which allowed the sovereign to choose a heir from among persons belonging to the royal family, was repealed.

Of great importance was the fact that Pavel Petrovich was going to be a national king. Even before his accession to the throne, in 1776, he wrote: “... If I had to form a political party for myself, I could have been silent about the riots in order to spare famous people, but, being what I am, for I have no parties, no interests other than the interests of the state, and with my character it’s hard for me to see that things are going at random and that this is caused by negligence and personal views. I wish it was better to be hated for a just cause than to be loved for a wrong cause. ” Paul was a guardian for a common, just cause.

The negative attitude towards Catherine was based not only on personal experiences and the tragedy of the death of her father, but on the manner of actions, the behavior of the mother empress. According to Paul, Catherine was only the "noble queen" and was completely dependent on the nobility. This led to a distortion of the political system of the Russian kingdom.

Having assumed the throne, Pavel Petrovich decided to base his state activities not on abstract philosophical and political ideas of Western thinkers and their Russian imitators, but on the interests of the Russian people. He sought to improve the social and political position of most of his subjects. The chartered diploma to the nobility of 1784 of the year, which created the privileged position of the nobles not only in personal rights, but also in local government, was canceled. Pavel tried to crush the privileges of the estates, to restore the truth and the rule of law in the Russian state. Hence the indication that the serfs would swear allegiance to him along with the rest of the Russian Empire. It is clear that a narrow group of higher aristocracy, accustomed to parasitizing on the people, could not forgive the sovereign. He became her enemy. The higher strata of the nobility expected further privileges, and not the restoration of a healthy hierarchy, order and law. They did not want to serve, but only wanted to enjoy the fruits of their high position.

As noted above, Pavel Petrovich was a noble and kind man, he had a sincere desire to bring good to people. The task was difficult. The Russian state, despite the visible success in foreign policy, was in an upset state. In the highest circles, the sprouts of a “freedom-loving” ideology (then liberalism) made their way, part of the nobility decayed and did not want to serve. Russia's finances were completely upset, the country had huge debts. Many commanders used the disenfranchised position of soldiers and recruits, took them into service, turning the soldiers into practically their serfs. In 1795, out of 400, thousands of soldiers around 50 thousand were in such “private service”. During the reign of Catherine II, the situation of the peasants sharply deteriorated. The peasant war led by Yemelyan Pugachev was a good indicator of popular sentiment.

If under Catherine the peasants were even forbidden to complain about the nobles, then Pavel Petrovich ordered the serfs to take an oath. By this he showed that they were for him the same subjects as the landlords. The governors were instructed to monitor how the owners treated the serfs and immediately report all abuses to the sovereign. In one of the windows of the Winter Palace, they even put an iron box in which everyone could throw a complaint or petition. This "iron box" has become a symbol of the era. The first nobles and dignitaries feared him.

Pavel respected the peasantry with great respect, understanding its importance for Russia. In his Manual to the children, he noted that the peasantry contains all the other parts of the state with its works, therefore it is "worthy of special respect." In February, 1797, the emperor Paul banned the sale of yard people and serfs without land. He forbade to force the peasants to work on holidays. State-owned farmers received self-government, on 15, acres of land, they were forgiven for 7 million arrears. The grain duty, which was a heavy burden on the peasants, was replaced by monetary. To reduce the price of bread, the sovereign ordered him to sell it at special prices from state-owned bread stores. The price of bread fell.

Researchers note that these decrees have caused great gratitude among millions of people in Russia. Even a century after the murder of Paul, the peasants came to worship the tomb of the people's king and put candles to him. The people remembered Paul as a benefactor, despite the brevity of his rule. It is clear that Paul managed to do a little. However, the peasantry (the overwhelming part of the population of Russia) in this short time received more than all the long reign of Catherine II.

In the realm of religion, Paul also showed himself to be a tolerant and kind person. He stopped the persecution of the Old Believer Christians, who, despite the heavy repression, preserved the identity of the Russian way. At the beginning of 1798, in the Nizhny Novgorod region, which was considered the center of the Old Believers, they even allowed to open their churches. When one of the schismatic hermitages on Kerzhents burned down, the Old Believers asked for help from the sovereign and received it. Pavel allocated benefits from his personal funds.

The pressure on the Orthodox Church, which in the XVIII century was turned into a "spiritual ministry", was also stopped. When the church became a seedy appendage of the state, Paul began to return the selected property and estates to the church. Partially returned rights and privileges. First of all it concerned the monasteries.

To be continued ...
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  1. Gardamir
    Gardamir 1 October 2014 09: 53 New
    +8
    Heirs always try to insult their predecessors. It is enough to recall the alleged tyrant Stalin.
    1. Apologet.Ru
      Apologet.Ru 1 October 2014 22: 46 New
      +2
      hi
      The winners write the story!
    2. goose
      goose 2 October 2014 09: 31 New
      +2
      If you do not read any lyrics, but look at the dry facts, the rating list for the best tsar will be pretty rebuilt, and against this background, "Saint" Nicholas II will look outright squalor, the assessment of the reign of Peter I and Catherine will be somewhat controversial.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. Karabanov
      Karabanov 2 October 2014 10: 53 New
      +2
      Quote: Gardamir
      Heirs always try to insult their predecessors. It is enough to recall the alleged tyrant Stalin.

      Well, yes, yes ... Vissarionitch is such a darling.
      In assessing the activities of our kings from Vladimir the Red Sun to Vladimir Solntselikoy, there is no way to be unequivocal. The same Stalin can be praised for the creation of a powerful Soviet empire, or can be blamed for the millions who died in the Gulag. Estimates may be different, but you need to look at history objectively.
      But for example, the reign of EBN, will you also justify?
  2. Alex_on
    Alex_on 1 October 2014 09: 59 New
    +3
    A portrait of Paul I hangs in the Irkutsk Art Museum
    A portrait is not a photo, much can be seen there ....
    He does not make the impression of a mad tyrant (the face and look are not the same), rather a lively active person.
    1. GDP
      GDP 1 October 2014 16: 18 New
      +4
      Even Pavel 1 introduced into the Russian army - overcoats, which saved many lives of Russian soldiers in the winter of 1812 and allowed soldiers to complain about the arbitrariness of officers. Created new types of units in the army: engineering, courier and cartographic.

      Although not everything that he did was right, he also did stupid things ...
      1. shershen
        shershen 2 October 2014 09: 50 New
        0
        Nonsense in his name was done by excessively zealous lackeys.
    2. shershen
      shershen 2 October 2014 09: 49 New
      -1
      From century to century, Europe has been trying to make Russian fools, and from century to century in fools remains itself.
  3. creak
    creak 1 October 2014 10: 35 New
    12
    The article is undoubtedly a plus for trying to give a balanced, unbiased assessment of such an outstanding and tragic personality as Paul. It is a pity that through the efforts of his ill-wishers he was never appreciated by the descendants. And is Paul alone?
    1. Sergey Krymsky
      Sergey Krymsky 1 October 2014 19: 03 New
      +2
      That's exactly what he is not alone. For some reason, the history of ancient Russia is still being studied according to Miller (nemchura lousy). And the work of Lomonosov "History of the Russian State" - the professors-contemporaries (his) generally almost anathematized.
      1. shershen
        shershen 2 October 2014 09: 53 New
        0
        I read somewhere that Lomonosov even beat Miller in the face for deliberately distorting the facts about Russia and Russian people (alas, it did not help).
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 1 October 2014 10: 41 New
    +4
    When a person thinks soberly, he is usually called a madcap .. And if the sovereign, they kill, they kill like "patriots" and moreover for foreign money ... As in the case of Paul ..
  5. Alexander
    Alexander 1 October 2014 10: 53 New
    -4
    It’s not in vain that the people called him Prusak. So, I don’t know if I’m crazy or not, but there were clearly shifts.
    1. shershen
      shershen 2 October 2014 09: 56 New
      0
      Rather not "shifts", but the inability to find a common language and excessive perfectionism.
      Paul was not insane - he simply was not understood by anyone.
  6. Oleg_W
    Oleg_W 1 October 2014 11: 04 New
    +7
    The fact that history is the writings of historians and storytellers was long guessed. After I went to St. Petersburg (more than once) and looked with my own eyes what was built and how, reconciled the images I saw with historical tales, I just became convinced of the complete nonsense that they are bringing us.
  7. Severomor
    Severomor 1 October 2014 11: 35 New
    23
    Thank you so much for the article, it's time
    Add about the army:
    1.Pavel introduced the real disciplinary and criminal liability of officers for maintaining the life and health of soldiers.
    2. Introduced the concept of "immaculate service" for the lower ranks. For the immaculate 20 years of service, the lower ranks were forever exempt from corporal punishment.
    3. He regulated the corporal punishments of the lower ranks, emphasizing that "... they should be allowed in extreme cases, bearing in mind that they serve to correct negligent soldiers, and by no means for their mutilation."
    4. Introduced for the first time in Europe the rewarding of the lower ranks with insignia of the orders "St. Anne" and "Donate of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem".
    5. He dismissed from the service all the lower ranks of the nobility, who were listed on the shelves, but who were on long vacations.
    6. He ordered that all newly opening officer vacancies be occupied only by graduates of military schools or experienced noncommissioned officers from nobles who had passed literacy examinations and knowledge of the statute.
    7. He forbade officers and generals to leave more than one month a year.
    8. Introduced holidays to the lower ranks on 28 days a year.
    9. For the lower ranks, he introduced a woolen overcoat with sleeves for winter and cold time for the lower ranks (until that time, the soldiers had only a uniform for all seasons, under which they would hook who could). Soldiers wear this piece of military clothing to this day!
    10. Introduced for winter time for sentry guard sheepskin coats and felt boots, and in the guardroom, felt boots should be as much as required for each change of sentry clothes to wear dry felt boots. This rule of guard duty exists today !!
    11. Dismissed from service 333 generals and 2261 officers who failed to answer elementary simple questions on military affairs.
    12. He ordered that only those who passed the medicinal exam at the Medical College were allowed to join the regiment by doctors.
    13. Under the penalty of hard labor, he forbade him to make deductions from the soldiers 'wages and, on pain of death, not issuing soldiers' salaries.
    14. Established infirmaries at each regiment.
    15. He introduced retired soldiers who left the service because of injuries or soldiers who had served more than 25 for years with the maintenance of such soldiers in mobile or garrison disabled companies.
    16. He ordered the dead and dead soldiers to bury with military honors, to hand over the graves for the care of the disabled garrison companies.
    17.Has prohibited the production of non-commissioned officers of the illiterate.
    18. He forbade the use of soldiers as a labor force in officers 'or generals' estates.

    taken from http://army.armor.kiev.ua/hist/pavel_1.shtml
    1. Moore
      Moore 1 October 2014 13: 18 New
      +3
      Quote: Severomor

      9. For the lower ranks, he introduced a woolen overcoat with sleeves for winter and cold time for the lower ranks (until that time, the soldiers had only a uniform for all seasons, under which they would hook who could). Soldiers wear this piece of military clothing to this day!

      Well, not really like that. There were serious squabbles about the overcoat at that time.
      They were either introduced (1797 for regiments with expired socks of the Potemkin epanche), then again returned to epanche (cloaks).
      Why this was done is still not clear. Either for reasons of cheapness of the latter, or out of imitation of the Prussians, but one way or another, in the new states and tables of field infantry and cavalry regiments, "Most Highly from His Imperial Majesty, confirmed on the 5th day of January 1798", were again for all combat lower ranks coats of white cloth were introduced, with the exception of only the combatant and non-combatant ranks of the jaeger regiments and the non-combatant musketeer and grenadier regiments, to which the greatcoats were left, the first dark green, and the last white cloth.
      But already at the beginning of 1799, His Imperial Highness Grand Duke Alexander Pavlovich, who presided over the Military Department, presented new models of overcoats for testing to the emperor, which were supposed to have all ranks instead of raincoats. After the positive decision of Paul I, Alexander Pavlovich sent these samples directly to the commander of the Commissariat expedition, General of Infantry and cavalier Vyazmitinov, and announced on January 30 to the State Military College:
      "His Imperial Majesty All-Highest deigned to indicate that henceforth all the troops, which, according to the latest approved states and tables, were put on cloaks made of white cloth, instead of those cloaks had overcoats according to the highest approved again samples, assuming the proportion of cloth was the same as on the cloaks. ie: in cavalry regiments 5, and in other foot troops 4 arshins 4 vershoks for each overcoat. "
    2. Anatole Klim
      Anatole Klim 1 October 2014 20: 20 New
      +2
      Quote: Severomor
      Add about the army:

      It is somehow strange, against the background of these quite progressive reforms, that the conflict between Paul I and Suvorov looks and the link of the latter to the family estate, it seems, even without the right to wear a uniform.
      “Russian Prussians have always beaten, so what can I learn from here?”, “Powder is not gunpowder, bukl is not gun, braid is not a cleaver, and I am not German, but a natural Rusak.”
      Only after the appeal of England and Austria to Paul with a request to place Suvorov at the head of the allied army, did Paul call him from exile. He was forced to say to Suvorov: "Fight as you know."
  8. Los alomas
    Los alomas 1 October 2014 11: 40 New
    -26
    "and willingly played with the young pupils of the Smolny Institute." So he was also a pedophile. The article is interesting. But the author also noticed that he was indignant on the way .. that they were denigrating "angels" like Ivan the Terrible and Stalin. Samodur is a tyrant and this is what the people remembered regardless of the class. During the "presidency" of M *, I very often remembered Pavel.)
    1. Severomor
      Severomor 1 October 2014 13: 11 New
      +6
      And this tyrant was killed by the true patriots of Rodin. So?
      And who left written evidence that he was tyrant? Weren't those generals and officers (LOUCHERS) who were driven into the neck?
      1. predator.3
        predator.3 1 October 2014 13: 26 New
        +5
        Quote: Severomor
        And this tyrant was killed by the true patriots of Rodin. So?

        And they killed him by order of the British, for what? for refusing an alliance with England and rapprochement with France.
        . Paul I was killed by officers in the Mikhailovsky Castle in his own bedchamber on the night of March 12, 1801. The conspiracy was attended by de Ribas, Vice-Chancellor N.P. Panin, commander of the Izyum light-regiment L. L. Bennigsen, Count Nikolai Zubov, commanders of the guards regiments: Semenovsky - L. I. Depreradovich, Kavalergardsky - F. P. Uvarov, Preobrazhensky - P.A. Talyzin. The British ambassador Whitworth, who was in a love affair with Olga Zherebtsova (sister of the disgraced Zubov brothers), in whose house the conspirators gathered, also supported the dissatisfied. It is believed that the conspiracy was subsidized by the British government, thus trying to avoid a war with Russia over Malta [28]. The soul and organizer of the plot was P.A. Palen, St. Petersburg Governor-General and head of the secret police.
        from wikipedia.
      2. Tyumen
        Tyumen 1 October 2014 13: 38 New
        -3
        And they strangled him with the scarf of the poet Sergei Marina.
      3. avt
        avt 1 October 2014 17: 28 New
        +2
        Quote: Severomor
        And this tyrant was killed by the true patriots of Rodin. So?

        Moreover, for the Aglitsk money transferred through the mistress of the Aglitsk ambassador and under his supervision, when Pavel tied up with the war in Europe for the benefit of Austria and England, when the Russian fleet together with the Turks drove Franks to the Mediterranean, and even sent the Cossacks to India after the reconciliation with francs. Having preliminarily processed the St. Petersburg population with rumors that it was not difficult - he really was an eccentric comrade, however, as Petya was drunk, while resting from state affairs, "he did not jump on tables and chop dishes with a sword. Well, how could such" patriots "of the fatherland endure that! He's their officers - the janissaries of the Guards really made them serve! The satrap is crazy in one word. Well, a normal person would force the guards shakuns in the barracks to be and perform their service! ?? wassat
        1. Severomor
          Severomor 1 October 2014 18: 03 New
          +2
          Quote: avt
          He’s their officer, Ov — the janissary of the guards really made him serve! Satrap crazy in a word. Not a normal person would make the guard sharkuns in the barracks to be and perform the service! ?? wassat

          Well, yes, and also swung at the sacred - at the noble children. When Catherine recorded newborn noble sons by soldiers in the guard regiments. These undergrowths, without serving a single day in the ranks, by the age of 16-17 received the rank of guards lieutenants.
    2. Nestor Petrovich
      Nestor Petrovich 1 October 2014 16: 08 New
      +3
      Not respected, you ??? Learn real Russian history, otherwise it will teach you. What does pedophile have to do with it ??? Minus to you from me for baseless nonsense.
      1. 11111mail.ru
        11111mail.ru 1 October 2014 19: 12 New
        +1
        Quote: Nestor Petrovich
        Less to you from me for groundless nonsense

        He also "minus" the messenger. However, you are lazy too, my friend! Next time to designate "adversary", select his text to be challenged (by holding down the left mouse button), and use the "Quote" icon, then after "Enter" enter your comment. Then everyone will understand who you are addressing. hi
    3. Dart2027
      Dart2027 1 October 2014 19: 23 New
      +2
      Nobody accused him of pedophilia. Even his killers.
  9. Velizariy
    Velizariy 1 October 2014 12: 00 New
    0
    It can be the same with any ruler of Russia who will be truly popular ... The answer to those who yell that Putin is "anti-popular." It's just that the Guarantor knows the fate of Ivan IV the Terrible and Paul I ... and many others who tried to take the Russian people out of the clutches of their enemies.
    1. Los alomas
      Los alomas 1 October 2014 12: 15 New
      -10
      Ivan the Terrible is all right, he himself died under power .. sort of like syphilis. During his reign, the first official contact at the court with the British took place
      1. dmb
        dmb 1 October 2014 12: 36 New
        +3
        As Cord says in the famous film about elections: "Everything was written for this." This is me on the comment preceding yours. Well, Samsonov, assessing the historical figure (even from the times of Gostomysl), cannot fail to recall the "dill", the villainy of the United States, Bolotnaya, the white ribbons, and of course Putin, Shoigu and "the prosperity of Russia that came with their advent". There is no doubt that Pavel is an ambiguous person, but it is not worth making a fighter out of him, like Putin, for the people's happiness.
        1. 11111mail.ru
          11111mail.ru 1 October 2014 19: 16 New
          +1
          Quote: dmb
          it’s just not worth making a fighter out of him, like Putin, for national happiness.

          Is it due to the lack of proletarian descent?
      2. 11111mail.ru
        11111mail.ru 1 October 2014 19: 14 New
        +1
        Quote: Los-Alomas
        Ivan the Terriblehe died in power ..sort of like syphilis.

        Well then you similar well-being!
    2. The comment was deleted.
  10. alovrov
    alovrov 1 October 2014 12: 37 New
    +7
    Respect to the author, it is necessary to return the historical truth about Russia and about Paul as well. The main trouble of Pavel, in my opinion, was that he was absolutely unable to create, in modern terms, a team. At least a few influential like-minded people would help him. And to take it all alone at once is wrong and impossible. What are only tens of thousands of unread notes and reports. That's due to the lack of a team including and hurt.
  11. qwert
    qwert 1 October 2014 12: 47 New
    +8
    Quote: Los-Alomas
    Ivan the Terrible, everything is safe, he died under power .. sort of like syphilis.

    Peter-1 died of syphilis. And Ivan the Terrible from arsenic and mercury. And the peasants in the villages for a long time met portraits of Ivan the Terrible painted as icons, and honored him as an official saint.

    Now, if Putin suddenly takes property from the oligarchs, he nationalizes it. He will increase the salaries of state employees, put reasonable prices for gas and put some officials and oligarchs in prison, rumors will also go that he was damaged by reason. And then some Radzinsky will spin it up and tell various jokes smartly as real facts, and most of the people will listen and believe him. And a similar story was already more than once or twice. History is written by those who have power and write as they please. Any ruler pinching officials, oligarchs, bribe takers and thieves in power will be declared crazy, as well as a libertine and a sadist.
    1. Moore
      Moore 1 October 2014 13: 29 New
      +5
      Is prostate adenoma a symptom of syphilis? Yes Yes.
      Peter did not suffer a monastic disposition, this is true. Like the fact that arsenic from him
      periodically pounded by the reviews of others. Only this very arsenic then
      not only treated shameful diseases, but also used in small doses as a tonic,
      and in large - poisoned opponents for a sweet soul.
      Wide scope for fantasy, right?
  12. Pafka
    Pafka 1 October 2014 12: 51 New
    +2
    Just trudge on such articles! Thank!
  13. Kushadasov
    Kushadasov 1 October 2014 14: 17 New
    +1
    Maybe not in the subject, but when you raise Paul's coins from the ground, you understand that you are "sweeping a thing", such beautiful solid money, it is dear to watch!)). Thank you for the article. Very informative.
  14. kind
    kind 1 October 2014 15: 42 New
    +5
    The history of Russia during the time of Bironism was written by the Germans, naturally in such a way as to show the stupid and wild Russian people. Meanwhile, M.V. Lomonosov wrote the history of Russia, relying on the primary sources, Old Russian books. That is why at all times Russian cultural monuments were destroyed. Europe needed to make Russians an obedient herd. Only to hell with them all over the face!
  15. Lenar
    Lenar 1 October 2014 16: 30 New
    +2
    Paul 1 was uncomfortable for many and was very disturbed, they also killed and slandered forever.
  16. Not hearing
    Not hearing 1 October 2014 17: 24 New
    +5
    Well, Paul, of course, was not crazy, although some of the symptoms of neurosis in him are visible. However, this is understandable, in the article what and why it is well shown. But the ruler’s wisdom was clearly not enough, not flexible — too direct, too impatient, and oddly enough — kind. For all his impulsiveness, sharpness, he is still a kind person. This conspiracy when he was killed, it was not the first conspiracy, before that two more were revealed and he didn’t chop heads to anyone, he sent him into exile. Which ultimately killed him.
    But I didn’t understand the author’s thesis that Pavel allegedly tried to leave Peter's false path. There is almost a contrast between Peter and Paul. Actually, for Pavel, great-grandfather was an absolute authority, this is the ideal to which he strove. In my opinion, Paul is no less a Westerner than Peter. He received a European education, he considered himself a knight (and there is a difference between a knight and our hero). In the end, he is a Russian Orthodox Tsar (in fact the head of the church - there is no patriarch) becomes the head of the Catholic Order. Therefore, the thesis of a return to original political structures seems to me a very big stretch.
    1. prio124
      prio124 1 October 2014 19: 08 New
      +2
      Here I agree with you very much, and Prussia do not forget
  17. fvandaku
    fvandaku 1 October 2014 18: 57 New
    +2
    For the short reign of Paul 1, several THOUSAND decrees were issued.
    The man worked a lot and hard and forced others.
    By the way, the English footprint and the money in the murder of the Emperor are clearly visible.
  18. 11111mail.ru
    11111mail.ru 1 October 2014 19: 34 New
    +1
    V.V.Mayakovsky
    Listen up! Listen up!
    After all, if the stars are lit, then does anyone need this?
    So - someone wants them to be?
    An insidious conclusion: "extinguish" the star! Who needed it - the author explained.
  19. ruslan207
    ruslan207 1 October 2014 22: 02 New
    +1
    PavelI did not have time to make reforms so that the nobles served the state and not walked in taverns
  20. ruslan207
    ruslan207 1 October 2014 22: 02 New
    +1
    PavelI did not have time to make reforms so that the nobles served the state and not walked in taverns
  21. Venier
    Venier 1 October 2014 23: 42 New
    +1
    The myth of the "mad emperor" Paul I
    Alas, we have many such myths, and not only about Paul.
  22. RoTTor
    RoTTor 2 October 2014 01: 45 New
    0
    No less slandered by "historians" and "writers" the Empress Anna Ioannovna, the last truly Russian empress. I'll post an article about it in a couple of months.
    And as depicted in Soviet times, Nikolai Pavlovich, one of the most prominent emperors.
    However, everywhere in the world it is so despicable: Richard the Third was neither a hunchback, nor a freak, nor a murderer. The task to distort his image to disgust was given to Shakespeare by the Tudor dynasty, which had dubious rights to the British throne.
  23. fairmen
    fairmen 2 October 2014 08: 04 New
    0
    As a child, I either read or watched on TV that Pavel 1 was a member of the Masonic lodge, but after he became emperor he disowned them and for that he was removed
  24. goose
    goose 2 October 2014 09: 33 New
    0
    Quote: GDP
    Although not everything that he did was right, he also did stupid things ...

    Most importantly, the first of the kings, whom he saw all the negativity from serfdom in the state.
  25. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 2 October 2014 10: 51 New
    0
    From the article:
    "In fact, Emperor Paul I was the first king who tried to get off the wrong path,
    which was paved for Russia by Peter I, "having cut a window to Europe" "////

    Peter "opened a window to Europe" with the sole purpose of gaining access to
    technology. And he received them.
    Trying to close the window to Europe, Pavel guaranteed to doom Russia to technological
    lagging behind. Later, the same was done by another "original" conservative - Nikolai the First.
    And the reckoning was very cruel in the Crimean War.
    1. ruslan207
      ruslan207 3 October 2014 09: 44 New
      -2
      voyaka uh - don’t carry it a little. Pavel went to make reforms in Russia so that the nobles owned the land but for this they served the state and didn’t drink in taverns. The Russian government needed the reform. How did the Crimean war end then the revolution we all saw it. And you are talking about technology.
    2. ruslan207
      ruslan207 3 October 2014 09: 44 New
      0
      voyaka uh - don’t carry it a little. Pavel went to make reforms in Russia so that the nobles owned the land but for this they served the state and didn’t drink in taverns. The Russian government needed the reform. How did the Crimean war end then the revolution we all saw it. And you are talking about technology.
  26. The comment was deleted.
  27. Tasmanian
    Tasmanian 3 October 2014 21: 57 New
    +1
    Was he not the one who introduced the so-called "Prussian step" into the Russian army? The marching step that our army is marching to this day.
    1. Aleksander
      Aleksander 3 October 2014 23: 22 New
      -1
      He introduced FOR SOLDIERS bukli, braids, wigs and powder, for campaigns and battles and a meaningless drill ....
    2. Aleksander
      Aleksander 3 October 2014 23: 22 New
      -1
      He introduced FOR SOLDIERS bukli, braids, wigs and powder, for campaigns and battles and a meaningless drill ....
  28. Prager
    Prager 3 November 2014 15: 42 New
    0
    But he returned the overcoat, BEFORE him, the soldiers simply did not have them. And what about a servant without a greatcoat in winter in Russia?
  29. YaMZ-238
    YaMZ-238 11 February 2015 12: 15 New
    0
    Rather, he was peculiar than crazy, etc. And he brought considerable benefits to the Russian Empire!
  30. Turret68
    Turret68 26 February 2015 16: 42 New
    0
    I completely agree with the previous speaker!
  31. Turret68
    Turret68 26 February 2015 16: 49 New
    0
    Bukli and drill, yes, there were, but the Prussians were really good soldiers, and drill in the army is needed, as our foreman said, "a seated soldier criminal," you know, out of boredom, all sorts of bad thoughts creep into my head, and again for discipline it is useful!) )
  32. Papin
    Papin 26 February 2015 17: 30 New
    0
    I haven’t registered for a long time or written comments, but after reading several articles on this site and reading the comments, I wanted to participate. Very interesting people are sitting here.
    Regarding Paul 1 - not strong, thoughtful, I will study the issue,
    and according to the article - there is still a lot of lyrics and few facts and analysis.