"Germans" and "Knights" in the joint service
ИSometimes, the design of a new submachine gun was returned, but without apparent success, as happened, for example, in the beginning of 70-s with a bouquet design theme (the goal is to create a small-sized submachine gun on the instructions of the Ministry of Defense). It is worth noting that in the armies of most of the leading countries of the world, submachine guns were gradually replaced by automatic rifles, assault rifles and carbines.
It was dashing nineties
The opinion that was widespread in 30-ies about pistols and machine guns as a “police weapon” was actually confirmed some time later - their main consumers were various law-enforcement structures, as well as special-purpose units. Even where the submachine guns remained in military service, a certain regularity could be traced - the army was more involved in police and counter-partisan operations, and did not fight with the regular troops of the enemy.
At the beginning of 90, the situation in our country changed dramatically. The collapse of the state, growing like a snowball, internal conflicts and an unprecedented rise in crime naturally increased interest in “police arms". The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, which has become a more attractive partner for a number of defense-industrial complex enterprises than the military, against the background of a fall in the state defense order, has issued tasks, including the development of submachine guns. They were designed mainly for a standard pistol cartridge 9x18 PM, which for these weapons was still weak, especially given the need to defeat the targets in personal armor, in cars, etc. But in the same period, experimental design work on the new fighting gun on the instructions of the Ministry of Defense, and in 1993 year in the conditions of the competition included the use of the cartridge type 9х19 of domestic production with increased penetration of the bullet.
The official appearance of a more powerful ammunition, designated 7H21, promised and improve the performance of submachine guns of Russian development. Although the path to the system of domestic weapons and foreign models was facilitated, let us recall that the Parabellum cartridge of the 9x19 for almost half a century has remained regular pistol ammunition in NATO countries and is widespread throughout the world.
Anyway, 14 July 2006, the government of the Russian Federation adopted a decree according to which, at the request of the Department for Combating Organized Crime and Terrorism, several types of weapons of foreign manufacture were adopted by the Ministry of Internal Affairs. We have to admit that a great deal of experience has been gained abroad in creating and improving several types of “police weapons”. Among these are submachine guns of the MP5 family of the German company Heckler und Koch, perhaps the most popular in the world. And the inclusion of the Hexler und Koch MP5, MP5K and MP5SD caliber 9 millimeters in millimeters in the aforementioned decree is not accidental. Yes, the Russian-German "weapon" ties have a long-standing, albeit complicated history.
However, one can argue about the effectiveness of spending money on the purchase of foreign samples instead of supporting Russian enterprises with their own worthy designs, moreover unified with the already used weapon models. By the way, there are no open statistics on the use of German samples in Russia yet. Nevertheless, take a look at what they are.
Famous all over the world
The construction of the 9-mm submachine gun from the West German firm Heckler und Koch began in the 1964 year based on the design of the 7,62-mm G3 assault rifle already produced by it. The submachine gun first received the name "Project 64", NK 54, then - MP64. In 1966, it was adopted under the designation MP5 (Maschinen Pistole - 5) by the police, border guard and customs service of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Mr5 quickly gained popularity. Its various modifications are used in more than 30 countries, including Belgium, the United Kingdom, France, and the United States, and after all in these countries a lot of high-quality weapons are produced. MR5 is produced in Turkey, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Greece also purchased a license. He confirmed his qualities by participating in many police and counter-terrorism operations.
The most interesting feature of the weapon was the automation system, borrowed from the base sample and operating at the expense of the recoil energy of a semi-free shutter. Slowing the unlocking of the bore after a shot occurs due to the transfer of a significant part of the movement energy from the combat larva of the bolt to its massive stem through two rollers squeezed out of the grooves of the receiver when the bolt moves back. The return mechanism is mounted in the tube above the barrel, which made it possible to compactly place a sufficiently long return spring. The reloading handle is located on the left side of the tube; it remains stationary when fired.
Tactical and technical characteristics of MP5 submachine guns
|Cartridge||9х19 "Parabellum"||9х19 "Parabellum"||9х19 "Parabellum"||9х19 "Parabellum"|
|Weight without magazine (kg)||2,45||3,5||1,99||2,79 (with butt)|
|Weight of empty 30-local store (kg)||0,17||0,17||0,17||0,17|
|Weight of empty 15-local store (kg)||0,12||0,12||0,12||0,12|
|The length of the weapon with a butt (mm)||680||780||-||603|
|The length of the weapon with the butt removed (mm)||-||610||325||368|
|Barrel length (mm)||225||146||115||140|
|Rate of fire (rds / min)||800||800||900||900|
|Magazine capacity (cartridges)||15, 30||15, 30||15, 30||15, 30|
The receiver box is stamped from steel sheet and reinforced with stiffeners. In the barrel bore six rifling holes are made, three radial protrusions on the muzzle of the barrel are used to attach the muzzle devices - flame arresters, silencers.
The trigger-type trigger mechanism is assembled in a separate case (trigger box) and allows for single and automatic fire. The translator-safety box is located on the left side above the pistol grip and is accessible to the thumb holding the pistol grip. It has three positions marked on both sides of the weapon. Combat rate of fire reaches 40 – 50 rds / min when shooting single and 100 - bursts. The trigger mechanism was repeatedly refined. It is performed with a one-way or two-way flag translator-fuse. By special orders on all models of Heckler und Koch, a trigger mechanism can be installed, allowing firing with a cutoff of the queue length of three shots.
The open aiming device includes a fly with a safety device and a variable diopter sight in the form of a tiltedly mounted drum with openings of different diameters corresponding to the distances 25, 50, 75 and 100 meters. The receiver is adapted for installation using optical brackets, night, and later collimator sights. Food - from box-shaped double-row stores with a capacity of 15 or 30 cartridges.
The weapon has a plastic pistol grip, made at the same time with the trigger guard, and the forearm. The handguard initially had a metal perforated base, then it was made entirely of impact-resistant plastic and, moreover, of increased size for greater convenience. The form and material of the pistol grip control also changed. MP5 can be equipped with a fore-end with a built-in illuminator, laser target designators.
Tactical and technical characteristics of the PP-19-01 "Vityaz-SN"
- 9x19 (Parabellum, 7H21, 7H31) Cartridge
- 2,9 kg Mass without cartridges
- 705 mm Length of arms with folded butt
- 480 mm Length of arms with folded butt
- 237,5 mm Barrel length
- 370 m / s (7H21) Initial bullet speed
- 700 rpm Rate of fire
- od / auto Types of fire
- 40 / 120 rds / min Combat rate of fire
- 200 m Target shooting range
- 30 cartridges Store capacity
MP5 A2 and A3 modifications differ only in the butt. In A2, the back plate of the receiver is connected to a permanent hollow plastic butt, in A3, the butt is retractable metal. The comparative complexity of the system and many small details - axes, cotter pins, screws are a disadvantage of the MP5. However, the high quality of production made it possible to adjust the reliable operation of the system, and the use primarily in “professional” formations ensured an adequate level of operation. The advantages MP5 include good accuracy of fire, including due to the production of a shot with the shutter closed and the balance of the weapon, ease of operation.
The MP5SF modification is a self-loading version of the MP5A2. In the Heckler und Koch family, we note there is also an 10-mm “branch” - at the beginning of 90's, the FBI chose the 10-mm pistol cartridge .40 “Smith and Wesson” and in 1992-m ordered “Heckler und Koch” 10 mm MP5 submachine guns.
Very popular and compact model MP5K (kurz), created in 1976 year. Shortening the barrel caused the unlocking of the barrel to be accelerated, so that the firing rate of the MP5K reaches 900 rds / min. The shorter forearm is provided with an additional hold handle. Instead of the butt, the back plate of the MP5K has a hinged swivel for the belt loop, with which the weapon is worn under the arm. MP5K can be placed under outerwear, in a case.
Modifications MP5K A4 and A5 trigger mechanism with the ability to fire in fixed queues. On the release weapons after 1990, the flag is usually two-sided.
Sights MP5K, MP5KA4 are similar to MP5. Modifications of the MP5KА1 and MP5KA5 have low-profile fixed front sight and sight, slightly protruding on the smooth surface of the receiver.
The “silent” modifications of the MP5 appeared in the 1970 year and received the designation MP5 SD (ShallDampfer). Their main difference is the integrated silencer. Since 9x19 cartridges are used for firing with an initial bullet speed higher than the speed of sound, the speed is reduced to subsonic (285 m / s) by diverting a portion of the powder gases from the bore into the surrounding chamber through holes drilled along the bottom of the rifle. There is a separator in front of the muzzle of the barrel, which separates and inhibits the flow of gases through the muzzle orifice. The barrel with a silencer is surrounded by a plastic hood. If for “normal” MP5, the effective range of 200 meters is indicated, for MP5SD it is 135.
Six basic SD modifications were created: MP5 SD1 without butt, SD2 equipped with a permanent butt, and SD3 with a retractable one, similar to MP5 A3. SD4, SD5 and SD6 differ from SD1, SD2 and SD3, respectively, by the possibility of firing in fixed-length bursts.
Apparently, due to the significantly increased size of the MP5, the SD did not receive as much popularity as other MP5 models. Many users prefer the MP5 with a removable silencer.
MP5K also has variants with a removable silencer. Thus, according to the "American" requirements, a modification of the MP5K-PDW (Personal Defense Weapon) was created, which can be considered a "German-American" weapon. A number of structural elements developed by US companies: easy folding right plastic butt, two-way flag translator-fuse, removable silencer. According to the Heckler und Koch, about 130 various modifications of the X5 were released.
Now let's look at the domestic model, which has considerable chances for further development and practical application.
The experience of the use of submachine guns by the Ministry of Internal Affairs teams was reflected in the issuance of a tactical and technical assignment for 2003 for the new 9-mm sample, designated “Vityaz” (as it was reported, this name is associated with the participation of the officers of the Vityaz special unit) weapons).
The submachine guns of the Vityaz series of the Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant are made for 9x19 cartridges. The design of the weapon is not less than 70 percent unified with the AK74M assault rifle and the Bison-19 PP-2 submachine guns previously developed. More specifically, the 7,62-mm version of the Bison-2 PP-19-2-07 chambered for the 7,62х25 cartridge took the basis: the other versions of the Bison-2 had a screw shop, while the PP-19-2-07 had a set of diaphragm magazine, while the PP-19-01 had a set of logs, and the PP had a set of diaphragm magazine, then the PP had a set of blanket magazines, then a set of blanks was used, but a set of blanks were used. According to the “origin”, the “Vityaz” model, represented by the Izhmash Weapons Design Center, was designated as PP.
PP-19-01 "Vityaz" was presented at the army competition on the subject "Baskanets", which did not give a result so far. Vityaz, however, was put into mass production for delivery to the units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
Automatic submachine gun works by using the recoil energy of the free shutter. The stem of the bolt serves as a room for the return spring. The reloading handle is rigidly connected to the shutter. The hammer-type trigger mechanism with a flag-fuse-translator is almost similar to the machine gun and allows for single and automatic fire.
For shooting, 7H21, 7H31 cartridges (with a light bullet of high initial speed), as well as other 9xXNNXX cartridges of foreign and domestic production can be used. It is worth noting that the calculation on 19Н7 and 21Н7 with a high penetration effect of a bullet is a noticeable advantage of domestic samples. Powered by cartridges - from the detachable box-shaped double-row store of the sector shape, the fastening of which is reinforced by the neck at the bottom of the receiver. With the help of a special clip, stores can be connected in two to speed up the shift. You can equip the store with a clip on 31 cartridges.
A slit flame arrestor is attached to the muzzle of the weapon barrel. Instead, it can be installed silencer (device silent and flameless shooting). When firing cartridges with a bullet speed higher than the sound silencer plays the role of a low-noise firing device, besides eliminating the flame of a shot.
The submachine gun has a folding metal frame butt similar to AKS74U or PP-19. Sighting device includes a fly with a fuse and a sector sight. To install an optical or night sight, Vityaz received a standard bar on the left side of the receiver with dovetail mount.
Later, the variant “Vityaz-SN” (“Vityaz-Special Forces”, as it is also called) appeared, more unified in details and assemblies with AK “100th” series manufactured by Izhmash. Pistol grip, handguard and barrel flap - from cast polyamide in black. "Vityaz-CH" can be supplied with a standard strap on the left side of the receiver or a stepped strap like "Picattini" on the cover of the receiver. The Pikattini slats are widely used on modern hand-held small arms for mounting various types of optical, collimator, night sights. On the straps "Picattini", made on the shank, you can mount a lantern-illuminator, laser designator, front hold handle. Since special units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs use a wide range of sighting and auxiliary devices, the installation of such slats is not a superfluous method.
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