Military Review

TB-3 - heavenly slug

82
At first, the enemy was very skeptical about this aircraft. Already on the 4th day of the war, Halder noted in his diary: "The Russians are moving towards the use of obsolete low-speed four-engine bombers." The record implied that the affairs of the Soviet aviation went really bad. Relatively little time will pass, and well-trained night-time fighters will be involved in intercepting the TB-3. After each night battle, the pilots of the Messerschmites will draw marks on their fighters about their “victories”, but night will fall, and the “downed” giants will bomb the enemy again. The bomber walked over the target so slowly that it seemed that it was just hanging in the air - “anchored” - and continued the bombing, despite the shelling, indifferently passing dozens of fragments, and sometimes even large-caliber shells, through its corrugated body.


In combat conditions, the Tupolev aircraft showed real miracles. He could take off from the plowed fields, sit down in the snow to a meter deep. I carried heavy oversized cargoes on my outer suspension — GAZ-AA trucks, artillery, T-38 wedges. The aircraft continued to be actively used, despite its age, very actively. By the end of the first year of the war, a large number of crews had made combat sorties on 100, and by the end of the Battle of Stalingrad some crews had already 200 flights.

Before the German attack on the western borders of the USSR, there was an 4 air regiment armed with TB-3: the 7 th heavy bomber air regiment (TBAP) in the north-west direction - the 44 aircraft, including the 18 serviceable, the 1 and 3 th TBAP in the west direction - 94 TB-3, in addition, around the 3 TBAT base there were 14 malfunctioning machines, 14 th TBAP of the south-west direction had 1.06.1941 operational aircraft and 32 bombers under repair.

TB-3 - heavenly slug


The main focus during the combat training of TBAP was airborne landing. In the 3 and 7 TBAP, part of the crews had experience in transporting heavy equipment on an external sling. The relocation of air regiments to new aerodromes did not do without TB-3, since the aircraft had the greatest carrying capacity at that time. Pilots studied and night bombing, the crews of the 3 and 7 air regiments had night bombing experience during the Finnish war. In general, the combat training of the crews was at a fairly high level.

The outbreak of war

The first TB-3 from 1 and 3 TBAP were already in battle on 22 on June 1941 of the year, launching bombing attacks against the enemy forces. By the beginning of July, all the aviation regiments on the Soviet-German front, armed with TB-3, participated in night bombardments. At first, the results of the bombing were affected by the lack of lighting bombs, which is why the bombing was almost blind.

Despite the fact that the TB-3 was not perceived as a long-range bomber in 1941 (material wear and tear, along with operational limitations), long-range bombers were set as the first tasks. On the night of June 24, the TB-3 of the Western Front aviation struck bombardment of the transport hubs in Poland: Biala Podlaska, MalkinTura, Ostrow, Sedlec, Tsekhonovets. With the beginning of the war, the bomb reserve, created in warehouses as early as in peacetime, actively went into action. So, for example, 7-th TBAP had a supply of bombs for solving all possible combat missions - from the destruction of bridges to the destruction of objects in the squares. At the same time, the 1 and 14 air regiments had machines equipped with old engines, and basically they were to be used as transport and landing aircraft. The 14 th TBAP before the war was even renamed “landing bomber”, with an emphasis on the first word. Some of his aircraft met the war disarmed, therefore, served as transport workers and were engaged in scattering campaign materials in the rear of the German troops.



Much is known about the chaos and confusion in the early days of the war on the Western Front. Communication was very unstable, the headquarters did not have fresh intelligence, and if they received it, it was most often already outdated, due to the rapid advance of the Germans. The third TBAP turned out to be the most unlucky. The absurd orders of the command tormented him from the first day of the war. So, on the afternoon of June 3, the regiment lost 23 of 1 TB-4s, which were sent to ... tank columns. As a result, by June 30, 1941, the regiment had lost 11 bombers, and 7 of them were shot down by fighter fire.

Many of us are familiar with the famous novel The Living and the Dead by Konstantin Simonov and remember the episode of the destruction of the TB-3 group by a German fighter perfectly. Described in the novel in detail repeats the incident that occurred on July 10 1941, near Zhytomyr. On that day, 12 TB-3 from the 14-th TBAP were forced to fly to the bombardment without fighter jets and in the area of ​​the target were attacked by a pair of Messerschmitts Bf 109. One of them managed to shoot down with bombers, but the second fighter continued to attack and destroyed the 7 bombers, whose crews escaped by parachute. Described by Simonov has similarities with the case on the Western Front, which occurred on June 29 1941 in the area of ​​Bobruisk. On that day, the 3 TBAP received an order to conduct a bombardment with a great delay and did not have time to fly out before dawn. It was unreasonable and dangerous to launch airplanes into the air during the daytime, but under pressure from above, the takeoff was made in the morning. Above the bombing of the object appeared in bright sun. After the bombing, the planes set off backwards, apparently out of habit, over the settlements occupied by the Germans. The aircraft were calculated and shot down one by one.



Fortunately, these two cases are the exception. At the same time, it is regrettable that the case described in the novel, generally truthful, later became a dogma, which formed in public opinion an image of the irrational use of TB-3 in wartime, and also testified to the work of the entire Soviet bomber aircraft in 1941. By day, any enemy aircraft, even a bomber, became the enemy for TB-3. At the same time, a significant part of the crews were prepared for night combat flights, therefore there was no need for daytime departures. Fortunately, the high command quickly enough was able to understand this, and the TB-3 began to make combat missions only at night. Thus, in 1941, the aircraft for a long time by military standards, was in relative safety.

Tactics of combat use

The tactics of combat use of TB-3 during the war years was based on the maximum use of its positive qualities, as well as the activity of the German air defense on one or another sector of the front. The exit to the goal was made at different heights, from different directions and with a time delay.

These bombers flew mostly "old" crews with solid experience, which allowed them to confidently reach the target, follow the course and understand the navigator's signaling about the amendments "without words", since most TB-3 had no internal communication system. It was possible to achieve high precision bombing due to the very low flight speed (cruising speed 182 km / h) and good visibility from the navigator's cabin. At the same time, a large bomb load (normal - 2000 kg, maximum - 5000 kg) allowed the use of all available types of bombs on TB-3, in various combinations. After the first year of the war, the front commanders emphasized that the TB-3 fully justified itself as a night bomber.



Large-scale and area targets became his main targets: enemy troop accumulations, railway stations, and airfields. When striking them, they used mainly large-caliber bombs (250-500 kg), which were able to destroy the target not only with a direct hit, but also with a blast wave. For greater destructive power, high-explosive bombs were used along with fragmentation, incendiary bombs and RRABs (rotary-dispersing aerial bombs, a prototype of cluster munitions), which were filled with CS glass balls. The area of ​​the lesion, which was covered with balls thrown out by centrifugal force from the RRAB, reached 1 ha or more, depending on the height of the discharge. The disadvantage of these bombs was that part of the glass beads collided even in the air and ignited before falling to the ground.

This may seem strange, but the sighting of anti-aircraft guns at TB-3 showed its complete inefficiency. In this even something mystical was peeping. The ship, illuminated by searchlight beams and subjected to anti-aircraft fire, continued to remain in the air, dropped bombs and was not going to fall. In the German units, which were subjected to raids of TB-3, there was even a rumor that the plane was protected by strong reservations. Of course, about any booking and the speech was not. The salvation of the aircraft was its low speed, which was not calculated large-caliber German anti-aircraft guns. The situation with the biplane U-2 was repeated, in addition, it should be noted that some pilots muffled the engines when approaching the target and the aircraft speed did not exceed 145 km / h.

Most of all TB-3 was disturbed by a barrage when shells exploded chaotically at different heights, and it was very difficult to protect themselves from their breaks. But even in this situation, the car was saved by the fact that she had a minimum number of electric and pneumatic units, so numerous fragmental damage was not critical for her. In addition, the aircraft rescued great strength of the airframe.



Much more dangerous for the aircraft was the speed MZA. The fire of rapid-fire artillery forced the crews of the TB-3 to resort to bombing from a height of more than 2 km, but even here the TB-3 had a trump card in front of other bombers - low speed of flight, which reduced the spread of bombs.

Also, to reduce the effectiveness of anti-aircraft fire when approaching the goal, the crews tried to stick to non-circular heights. The calculation was made on the fact that the remote tubes, installed in large-caliber anti-aircraft shells at a round height, will not allow them to explode even with a direct hit on the plane. In addition, to deceive the anti-aircraft gunners and enemy fighters, the pilots lit the Holt suspended under the wings. The bright flames of the rockets created the illusion that the plane was on fire and the anti-aircraft gunners stopped firing.

Despite the skepticism about the low-speed giant, which prevailed on the eve of the war, even in the Soviet army, TB-3 proved to be very worthy and made a significant contribution to the victory. It is no coincidence that the aircraft was not decommissioned after the war. Crews of the 52 Guards Regiment continued to carry out combat training plans on these machines until the fall of 1946.

Used materials of the article “Fighting account TB-3” by Vladimir Ratkin, Mir Avitsiai magazine №2 1997,
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  1. avt
    avt 28 September 2013 09: 59 New
    21
    good The old man, when used correctly, showed himself very strongly as a night bomber and a transport - landing. I read the memories of the pilot who fought on it right up to 43go, Reshetnikov if memory serves. +
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 28 September 2013 12: 03 New
      13
      Quote: avt
      The old man, when used correctly, showed himself very strongly as a night bomber and a transport - landing. I read the memories of the pilot who fought on it right up to 43go, Reshetnikov if memory serves. +


      Welcome hi .
      With all due respect to the author - Kutsay article.
      ... the beginning of the war
      The first TB-3 of the 1 and 3 TBAP fought already on 22 on June 1941, delivering bombing strikes against enemy troops ...
      and it's all? request

      TB-3
      combat use


      TB-3 first took part in combat operations in the summer and autumn of 1937. They acted against the "internal enemy" - the Basmachi in the Pamirs. To support the operations of border guards and units of the Red Army, 30 P-5 and three TB-3 were then involved. The latter transported people and goods to hard-to-reach areas.
      And the first war that hit these cars was the Sino-Japanese. Unlike the I-16 and I-15 bis fighters and SB bombers, for a significant part of which Soviet pilots were to fight, the TB-3 were intended for operation by the Chinese. Our crews acted only as drivers and instructors.
      Soviet identification marks were already painted over in Alma-Ata, after which white twelve-rayed stars were painted on a plane and fuselage against a blue background, and a blue-white “zebra” - four blue and three white horizontal stripes — on the rudder.
      For its intended purpose, the Chinese did not use heavy bombers. Together with S.72 purchased before the war in Italy, they transported people and goods.
      The first real combat targets of the TB-3 had to be hit in their native land. In the summer of 1938, they participated in battles near Lake Hassan in the Far East. At the end of July, the Japanese took up positions on the Zaozernaya and Bezymyannaya hills on the Soviet side of the border. To knock them out TB-3 with M-34 engines ready for take-off from there, concentrated the Red Army units that supported 250 aircraft. These included 60 TB-3 under the command of A.V. Konovalova. In the evening of August 6, all this armada hit the trenches, artillery batteries and the rear of the Japanese group. TB-3 walked in the first wave.
      This was the first and only case when four-engine giants were used as it was originally conceived - in the afternoon, in large groups, with multiple-launch volley bombing from medium heights, with complete air supremacy.
      TB-3 were also used at Khalkhin Gol. True, there were few of them. Initially, all TB-3 at Khalkhin Gol served as transport, but when the Soviet-Mongolian troops began preparations for the offensive, TB-3 from Obo-Somon switched to the role of night bombers. The bombing was aimed at the psychological exhaustion of the enemy, and sometimes - noise masking the movements of troops on our side. On the whole, the experience of nighttime use of TB-3 was quite successful.
      As soon as the fighting in Mongolia ended, the TB-3 was again at the forefront.
      1. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 28 September 2013 12: 06 New
        13
        On 17 of September 1939 of the year, the Red Army crossed the Polish border. A large aviation force was gathered for this operation. In the bordering Belorussian and Kiev military districts, there were 157 TB-3, but the equipment was pretty worn out, and about half of this number of aircraft was combat-ready. TB-3 was assigned exclusively transport functions. The pace of advancement of the Red Army was much higher than planned, and the advance detachments were far ahead of the supply bases. This is where TB-3 came in handy.
        So, for the horse-mechanized group them. For four days, from 3 to 20 of September, Dzerzhinsky, who was moving to Grodno, was parachuted or delivered 24 tons of fuel for four days, from 100 to 18. The headquarters of the Belarusian Air Force after relocation to Volkovysk for 14 days was fed with products dropped by parachutes. On the Ukrainian front, the XNUMX-th Tbap was engaged in similar transportation. He delivered people, ammunition, food. Operations in Poland ended by mid-October.
        Already at the end of October, the units of the Air Force that completed the Polish campaign began to be transferred to the Leningrad Military District. A month later, the war with Finland began. It also could not do without TB-3.
        At first, four-engine giants flew out for bombing in the afternoon, under the guise of old I-15bis fighters. Bombed settlements, railway stations, factories. But they tried not to let them into the areas of Finnish fighters' vigorous activity — they were mainly used on secondary sectors of the front. So, in the strip of the 9 Army until January 1940, enemy aircraft were not seen at all.
        However, as the skills of Finnish anti-aircraft gunners and fighter pilots improved, and enemy aircraft were replenished with more modern types of aircraft, Tupolev’s planes increasingly switched to a "night lifestyle." As night bombers, four-engine giants were used until the end of hostilities. In particular, they were used during the breakthrough of the Mannerheim line. They dropped bombs on 250, 500 and 1000 kg on fortified areas. But in general, they made more sorties for transport than bombing. In winter and off-road conditions, aviation was often the only means of supplying troops on the front line.


        On photo:

        I.V. Stalin personally inspects the TB-3 bomber.
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 28 September 2013 12: 12 New
          +7
          The aircraft played a particularly large role in providing the 54th Infantry Division, cut off by the Finns from their own. 45 days it was supplied only by air. All cargo was transferred to SB and TB-3. The latter turned out to be much more profitable for such operations. Passing the TB-3 at low altitude in front of the enemy was the most dangerous part of the task, and it was the operations to supply the surrounded units that made the greatest contribution to the loss of the TB-3. One damaged TB-3 was forced to land at the command post of the 54 division, the crew remained alive. Another did not reach his airfield and sat in the forest: one crew member died, two were injured. Two more cars were badly damaged.
          On February 13, the 7 TBAP aircraft was damaged by anti-aircraft artillery after the release of cargo. The bomber sat on the ice of a frozen lake. Finnish soldiers rushed to the car. Her crew took the fight. Only two wounded survived, who were captured. Himself a bomber finished off with mortar fire.
          The prewar years, when exercises with the participation of the airborne troops were regularly held, paid off. During the annexation of the Baltic States and Bessarabia to the USSR, large landings were planted in combat. And they landed them with TB-3.
          The 214 Airborne Brigade (Airborne Forces) operated in Lithuania and Latvia. 16 June 1940 g. 63 TB-3 transferred to the airfield near Šiauliai the first wave of landing - 720 people. Bombers escorted fighters of two squadrons of the 17 Fighter Regiment (IAP). Each aircraft took 16-24 people plus two or three bags of PDMM. 160 machine guns and 36 mortars were also transported. From Šauliai, the paratroopers moved on the armored tanks to Latvia.
          TB-3 also provided the supply of mechanized columns rushing from the borders into the interior of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. At the same time, 1983 people and 768 tons of cargo were transported, 402 tons had to be dropped with parachutes.
          In preparation for a similar operation in Bessarabia in June 1940, the 1-th (from Minsk to Gogolev), 3-th (from Reblitz to Boryspil), 7-th (from Reblitz to Boryspil and were transferred to reinforce the Air Force of the Kiev and Odessa military districts) Odessa) and 14-th (from Palestine to Borispol) tbap. In total, there were 136 TB-3 in them.


          On photo:

          TB-3 heavy bombers and P-6 multipurpose aircraft (to the right) at the airport. The presence of P-6 in the frame suggests that the picture was taken at the airport of one of the special forces air forces (GA), which began to form in 1937.In 1940, after the Soviet-Finnish war, GA were converted into long-range bomber aircraft. The aircraft in the foreground and the 2 board is a modification of the TB-3-4M-17, light in the background is probably the TB-3-4M-34.
          1. Karlsonn
            Karlsonn 28 September 2013 12: 14 New
            +7
            Initially, the command of the Southern Front (which had the 201, 204 and 214 airborne forces) planned to organize one major landing in the Tirgu-Frumos region, 20 km from Iasi, blocking a large road junction to prevent the evacuation of material assets. 120 TB-3, which were supposed to cover with five regiments of fighters, were supposed to land.
            In reality, two troops landed on the situation. On June 29, a landing took place in the Bolgrad region. At dawn, two P-5 were sent to the selected site for further exploration. The 99 TB-3 flew behind them, taking on board the 1436 people. 97 aircraft flew to the place, two made emergency landings due to malfunctions. The site was small for landing TB-3, so the landing was thrown by parachutes. A strong wind upon landing caused several accidents. One soldier died (the dome caught on the stabilizer of a bomber), another got a concussion and then died in a hospital, five broke their legs.
            By the next day, Bolgrad was completely captured by the soldiers of the 204-th Airborne Forces. One battalion moved to Cahul, and after a small shootout with the Romanians, Reni took the city.
            The second landing took place on June 30. 44 TB-3 in a combined way was transferred to Izmail 201-th airborne forces. The brigade was given the task of taking the city, blocking roads and preventing the departure of ships from the port.
            The landing was supposed to be landing. 43 aircraft came to the goal, one lagged behind and got lost. The site was small for TB-3, but the pilots decided to take a chance. 12 cars got in, but three of them got damaged and cluttered the landing strip. Then they started throwing with parachutes. 240 people landed from earlier bombers, unloaded a pickup car and cargo. 509 paratroopers landed on parachutes. There were no victims, one fighter broke his leg, and ten more received minor injuries. Two TB-3 returned to the base loaded: on one they brought radio equipment that could not be dropped, and on the other a music team flew, which, as it turned out, could not jump with parachutes.


            On photo:

            The crew of the bomber TB-3 21-th separate heavy bomber air squadron. On the back of the picture is the inscription:

            "In memory of a dear friend, Tole Litvinenko from Sasha Svechnikov
            Combat crew number 2 which smashes the fascist scum
            I hope Tolya you also do not lag behind
            You know this crew.
            Kesova Gora
            November 25.11.41, XNUMX
            Sasha. "
            1. Karlsonn
              Karlsonn 28 September 2013 12: 17 New
              +6
              At 22 June 1941 years in the ranks of the Soviet Air Force was 516 TB-3. More 25-th machines had naval aviation. Located at relatively distant airfields from the border, these machines avoided catastrophic losses from the first German attacks. As a result, at the initial stage of the war, they made up a fairly significant part of the bomber aircraft that participated in the hostilities.
              In the conditions of the superiority of the Germans in the air, slow-moving giants were very vulnerable during the day, but rather successfully worked in the dark. Already on the night of June 23, the first heavy bombs fell on German tanks. The planes of the 3-th squadron without loss struck the enemy troops in the areas of the Sejm, Sopotskin, Radin and Vengrov. On the next night, the 1 and 3 th explosives and cluster bombs attacked German airfields in Suwalki, Mozhedovo, Biala Podlask and Ostroleka.
              But TB-3 at first flew in the afternoon. The fact is that the main targets soon became the advancing German troops, and it’s not easy to detect and hit these targets at night. During the day sorties, which were usually carried out without cover then (there weren’t enough fighters), heavy bombers suffered heavy losses, especially when bombing from small and medium altitudes. So, in the afternoon of June 26, three TB-3 tried to bomb the ferry across the Berezina - and all were shot down. True, at night, the pilots of the 1 thpb did all the same. Gradually, TB-3 switched to operations only under cover of darkness. They acted on the communications of the Germans east of Minsk, on the front near Mogilev, Galich and Smolensk. On the night of July 12, the 1 and 3 thbb organized deep raids on enemy rear airfields. The surprise of this raid made it possible to inflict heavy losses on the German bombers. The intensity of combat operations was very high for vehicles of this class. 30 and 31August TB-3 made up to three sorties per night!
              Night flights required more advanced crew training and better navigation equipment. When it was cloudy, it became very difficult to find a target, and on clear moonlit nights the slow-moving TB-3 became vulnerable to anti-aircraft artillery. Radio ammunition was still a rarity, as were special night bomb sights.
              There were times when the planes wandered for a long time, trying to restore orientation. On 13 on July, a machine from the 3 Tbp mistakenly began to bomb Mozhaysk, was attacked and shot down by its fighters. The plane exploded in the air, the crew died.


              On photo:

              The arrows of the Soviet bomber TB-3 with Tur-6 turrets for the 7,62-mm twin aircraft machine gun DA-2 (Degtyarev aviation).
              1. Karlsonn
                Karlsonn 28 September 2013 12: 28 New
                +6
                TB-3 turned out to be a very "tenacious" machine. Its durable and reliable glider possessed the ability to hold even with very significant combat damage. Sometimes a bomber with a meter hole in the skin sometimes calmly returned to his native airfield. Four engines, two pilots, a huge wing with good planning qualities kept the car in the air. Even with very "severe" emergency landings on the forest, stumps, ditches, the crew usually remained alive. The main danger was fires - the gas tanks on the TB-3 were not protected and did not have a neutral gas boost system.
                Due to the influx of reinforcements from the rear, the number of corrugated giants at the front, despite the losses, did not decrease, but increased. In the rear, new units were formed from hastily repaired vehicles. From the TB-3 assembled “from the pine forest” in Nezhin at the end of summer, an entire regiment of heavy bombers was formed - the 325.
                The aviation of the Black Sea Fleet used the Link-SPB system in the hostilities. For these purposes, at the beginning of the war, equipment was restored on six TB-ZRN 18-th transport detachment and 12 I-16 32-IAP. They were used for purposes that were difficult to hit in other ways because of their remoteness or saturation with air defense systems. The first was the raid on Constanta on 1 on August 1941 of the year. Two TB-3 approximately 40 km from the target were dropped by an I-16 pair. Fighters set fire to the oil storage and landed safely at an intermediate airfield near Odessa. During the second raid on Constanta, several vessels in the port were damaged, but only two of the six fighters returned. The most famous was the operation against the well-defended Chernovodsk bridge over the Danube. He was bombed twice - 11 and 13 of August. For the first time, it was possible to damage the central span and interrupt the oil pipeline that went through the bridge. In the second case, the bombs damaged the bridge supports. On 18 of September, one “Link” made two sorties against the pontoon bridge across the Dnieper near Kakhovka, as a result of which two FAB-250 got into the crossing.
                1. Karlsonn
                  Karlsonn 28 September 2013 12: 30 New
                  +4
                  Later, strikes were carried out at the Ploiesti refinery and the floating dock in Constanta. When the Germans approached Perekop, the "Links" attracted to the attacks and immediate targets, in particular, mechanized columns. Operations continued until the fall of 1942, when, due to the great vulnerability of carriers, the use of SPB was stopped.
                  But back to the first months of the war. TB-3 also played a large role as transport aircraft. At night, reconnaissance and sabotage groups were thrown from them behind enemy lines. In August 1941, only the 1 thbap delivered a paratrooper beyond the front line of the 164. This type of aircraft was involved in supplying the surrounded units, and sometimes it was necessary to fly during the day and without cover. So, in July of 1941, ten TB-3 dropped ammunition in the Gomel region. They were attacked by German fighters. Bombers lined up in a defensive circle, dropping almost to the ground. The terrain was open, and the pilots managed to stay at an altitude of the order of 50 m. In that battle, the arrows completely spent their ammunition, but almost all the attacks were repelled - the Germans shot down only one plane, the rest returned safely to the base.
                  In the first five months of 1941, heavy bombers transported 2791 cargo and 2300 people to the Western Front. During the battles near Oryol, planes from Yaroslavl transferred parts of the 5 Airborne Corps. Together with the military TB-3, their civil "brothers" G-2 took part in this event (the same TB-3, only disarmed). When Soviet troops fell into the "cauldron" near Vyazma, the aircraft supplied them with ammunition, food and fuel.
                  The TB-3 of the 7 TBB, 39 TBB and the transport fleet of the Baltic Fleet made a great contribution to the organization of the “air bridge” to Leningrad. To increase the payload, bomb racks, stepladders, and some equipment were removed from the bombers. However, external bomb racks came in handy - tank engines were carried on them. TB-3 took four engines weighing 650 kg each. Return flights delivered from Leningrad evacuated.
                  In November 1941, the plane of Senior Lieutenant A.I. Sudakov brought 20 women and children from Leningrad. Over Ladoga, a plane flying without cover was attacked by a couple of Messerschmitts. A fire broke out in the right plane, radio operator gunner Dadykin was killed, and the second pilot Petrov was seriously injured. The damaged bomber hardly sat on the ice near the "road of life".
                  1. Karlsonn
                    Karlsonn 28 September 2013 12: 32 New
                    +5
                    Four-engine "old men" took part in the battle of Moscow. In the Western Front Air Force, on 25 of September 1941 of the year there were 25 TB-3 - about 40% of all the bombers there. In general, since September, the number of aircraft of this type at the front began to fall - large losses affected. On October 22, 92 TB-3 remained in the ranks of long-range aviation. But the relative losses of TB-3 were less than that of DB-3, and by the end of November they amounted to even a third of its fleet.
                    Bombers worked exclusively at night. So, on the night of October 9 on October 10, the planes of the 1 and 3 thbb bombed a cluster of German mechanized troops at Ugryumovo station (south of Yukhnov), the next night - southeast of Vyazma. Then the goals were the familiar airfields in Borovsky, Shatalov, Orsha. They flew “on a short shoulder”, were based close to the front line and constantly retreated. The Germans got the sites one after another, sometimes together with planes that did not have time to fly away.
                    On October 7, a curious incident occurred. The reconnaissance and sabotage battalion briefly recaptured Maltsevo airfield from German motorcyclists and found there three TB-3 abandoned by 1 mbap. The question arose of what to do with them, because motorcyclists were only the vanguard, and the battalion could not resist the main forces of the enemy for a long time. Two planes were burned, and on the third the senior lieutenant P. Balashov, an instructor of the parachute assault service, took off to fly. He studied at the flying club and once piloted a light aircraft. Together with the scouts, the bomber technician Kravtsov returned to the airfield. Together they lifted the TB-3 into the air and safely brought it to Tushino. Balashov sat on the fifth run, but he had never before taken the helm of such a whopper!
                    To compensate for the losses, already pretty battered bombers (usually with M-17B or M-17F engines) from various aviation schools were sent to the army. So, in October 1941, a separate squadron of TB-3 was formed at the Chelyabinsk school of shooter-bombers, commanded by captain V.N. Zaitsev. In November, she was sent to the Western Front.


                    On photo:

                    The pilot of the Soviet bomber TB-3 senior sergeant Vladimir Dmitrievich Serdyukov. 861 Bomber Aviation Regiment, 244 Bomber Aviation Division.
                    1. Karlsonn
                      Karlsonn 28 September 2013 12: 35 New
                      +4
                      At the beginning of the 1942 year, there was a single case of combat use of the radio-controlled TB-3. In December of the previous year, there were two “torpedoes” and two control aircraft. One set of TB-3 and command DB-ZF was in Ivanovo, completely ready for use. The second, where the SB acted as a control aircraft, was brought up on the basis of the 81 air division in Kazan. In January 1942, a “torpedo” attempted to destroy the railway junction in Vyazma. However, the target could not be hit. According to one version, the TB-3 receiving antenna was interrupted by a fragment of an anti-aircraft projectile; according to another, it was broken due to icing. The plane went into the deep rear of the enemy and crashed after running out of fuel. The second torpedo burned out later in Kazan at the airport - another plane crashed into it.
                      In 1942, TB-3 served in the offensive. In January, they were used for landing operations south of Vyazma (two battalions and one regiment), and then near Yukhnov. To do this, concentrated 40 PS-84 and 22 TB-3. It took them four days to transfer all the allocated forces with two or three sorties a day.
                      In the same month, Major Polikarpov, a special purpose transport group, was formed in Krasnodar. The basis of it was the 250-th Tbap machines, which were transferred from Transbaikalia. They were replenished with airplanes arriving from different places, even from Mongolia. Just scored 28 TB-3 of various modifications. On the night of February 25, airplanes first dropped cargo on partisans of the Crimea. On the ground, more than a hundred parachute bags with ammunition and medicines thrown from three TB-3 were picked up. Then, for two months, Polikarpov’s planes flew behind enemy lines.
                      1. Karlsonn
                        Karlsonn 28 September 2013 12: 37 New
                        +4
                        Since May 1942, the baton of the supply of partisans took the 325-th Tbap. Major Zhmurov even tried to sit in his huge car on a small platform in the mountains. The plane managed to land, but did not take off. TB-3, which had already taken off the ground, clung to a hill, fell over on a wing and collapsed into a ravine. But both the crew and passengers - wounded soldiers, remained alive. Flights to the Crimean partisans continued until the end of August, after which all combat-ready TB-3 of the 325-th squadron were thrown against the German troops that reached the passes of the Caucasian ridge.
                        Work for them was on other fronts. After the creation of Long-Range Aviation (ADD), most of the heavy bombers became part of it. In May, the 1942 of the TB-3 53-th ADD division dumped the goods encircled by the Demian forces and delivered 4 tons of ammunition, 1,8 tons of products and 6,7 tons of fuel in just one night on May 1. Slow giants were unique in their capabilities in delivering bulky equipment. If the PS-84 could take on board a field or anti-tank gun, then the TB-3 on the external sling could take away various wheeled or tracked vehicles up to light tanks. Between the chassis racks in assembled form could fit both a truck and an anti-aircraft gun. Such flights were made even behind enemy lines, for example, in the summer of 1942 near Vyazma to the cavalry of General Belov.
                        From the middle of 1942, both the night bombers and military transport aircraft TB-3 began to be replaced by more modern PS-84 (Li-2). Later, even more advanced American C-47 appeared in transport regiments and divisions. But the archaic-looking four-engine Tupolevs lingered for a long time in the Soviet Air Force. In July, these vehicles participated in raids on a railway junction in Bryansk. At the same time, they dropped one FAB-2000, which caused great damage.
                        At times, TB-3 demonstrated miracles of combat survivability. So, the plane of captain Ya.I. Plyashechnik was attacked in the Luga region by two Me-110 fighters. A burning bomber on three engines went into a given area and dropped paratroopers, after which the pilots managed to land on their territory. In July 1942, on the damaged TB-3, the crew of senior lieutenant I.F. Matveev successfully bombed in the Voronezh region and, putting out the fire, returned to his airfield. Matveev 18 August awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
                      2. Karlsonn
                        Karlsonn 28 September 2013 12: 40 New
                        +4
                        At the front, they tried as much as possible to improve the TB-3, primarily its equipment and weapons. The bombers equipped with additional machine guns on the sides, instead of open Tur-5 open machines, they installed modern shielded MV-3 under the ShKAS machine gun (sometimes one, sometimes two, instead of each Tour-5). There were also aircraft with the UTK-1 top mount under the UBT heavy machine gun. Changed the radio equipment, sights, set the RPK-2B and RPK-10 radio ammunition.
                        The planes of the 53 and 62 th ADD divisions participated in the defensive battle near Stalingrad. There they began with the bombing of crossings over the Don. A year later, the TB-3 bombs contributed to the victory near Kursk, where the crew of Lieutenant V. Bezbokov from the 7 Guards made an amazing feat. a shelf. In his heavy car, he sat down at night with his headlights on a cornfield in the rear of the enemy to pick up pilots of another plane, landing with parachutes. At the end of September 1943, TB-3 participated in the parachute landing at the Bukrinsky bridgehead near Kiev.


                        On photo:

                        Soviet heavy bomber TB-3РН of the 52-th Guards Air Regiment. This is one of the last TB-3 workers - the aircraft was outdated even before the war, was officially withdrawn from service in the 1939 year, but was used before the 1945 year.

                        TB-3RN is a high-altitude modification of the TB-3 bomber. On this modification AM-34РН engines, four-blade propellers, one two-meter main chassis and ShKAS machine guns in turrets were installed. The practical ceiling of such an aircraft was increased to 7740 m.
                      3. Karlsonn
                        Karlsonn 28 September 2013 12: 46 New
                        +5
                        From the beginning of 1943, obsolete bombers began to be returned from the front to flight schools. So, in August 1-th Guards. ADD regiment transferred 12 the oldest and worn-out cars to Chelyabinsk. There they were used to teach bombing and aerial shooting until the very end of the war. From the beginning of the 1944, the TB-3 finally switched to the role of military transport and training vehicles, and they were mainly used in the rear. This is indirectly evidenced by the statistics of losses. During the 1944 year, the Air Force wrote off 15 TB-3 with M-17 engines, one with M-34 and three with M-34RN, but only because of accidents and wear.
                        Behind the rear, part of the old-fashioned giants survived the collapse of the “Third Reich” In any case, as part of the 52 Guards. the regiment of the 18 Air Army (into which ADD was converted) on 1 and July 1945 there were still 20 such aircraft. August 18 1945 TB-3 took place at the last in its "life" air parade. Three cars appeared in the episode "Old and New" - behind them flew three Pe-8.
                        During the post-war reduction of the armed forces, all remaining TB-3 were soon decommissioned.


                      4. Bosk
                        Bosk 28 September 2013 14: 25 New
                        0
                        Since 1943, practically did not participate in hostilities. They spent the rest of their flight service on the far northern and taiga outskirts of the Soviet Union, and when they got into an accident it never occurred to anyone to repair them.
                      5. Karlsonn
                        Karlsonn 28 September 2013 14: 55 New
                        +5
                        Quote: Bosk
                        Since 1943 years, almost did not participate in hostilities.


                        Learning to read carefully

                        Quote: Karlsonn
                        At the end of September 1943, TB-3 participated in the parachute landing at the Bukrinsky bridgehead near Kiev.


                        Well, and more:
                        Among the regiments that maintained the Tupolev planes in the ranks was the 5th operating in Karelia. October 10 1943 TB-ZRN captain Sobchik knocked out when the landing. The plane did not reach the airfield, landing on the forest. The crew escaped. During 1 943, the number of corrugated giants was slowly decreasing, reaching the beginning of the 44 to 24 machines. But individual cars remained at the front until the victory over Germany. hi
          2. 0255
            0255 28 September 2013 12: 45 New
            +7
            such a story of TB-3 should not be written in the comments, but as an article!
            1. The comment was deleted.
              1. Karlsonn
                Karlsonn 28 September 2013 15: 27 New
                +4
                Quote: Karlsonn
                crying huddled in a corner


                What is the minus?
                1. Ruslan67
                  Ruslan67 28 September 2013 15: 31 New
                  +3
                  Quote: Karlsonn
                  What is the minus?

                  Then we'll figure it out bully Keep me plus fellow And revenge will be scary !? belay wassat
                2. Karlsonn
                  Karlsonn 28 September 2013 15: 56 New
                  +2
                  Quote: Ruslan67
                  Keep me plus


                  repeat drinks

                  Quote: Ruslan67
                  And revenge will be scary !?


                  Very scary! am

      2. avt
        avt 28 September 2013 12: 49 New
        +2
        Quote: Karlsonn
        The arrows of the Soviet bomber TB-3 with Tur-6 turrets for the 7,62-mm twin aircraft machine gun DA-2 (Degtyarev aviation).

        And there is also a photo from 12,7 in glazed installations in their place.
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 28 September 2013 13: 24 New
          +2
          Quote: avt
          And there is also a photo from 12,7 in glazed installations in their place.


          I don’t have any in the piggy banks crying such a photograph.
          1. avt
            avt 28 September 2013 14: 26 New
            +3
            Quote: Karlsonn
            I don’t have such a photo in my piggy bank.

            They look strong, at the top, in my UBT, but I don’t remember what is in the text under the picture. It seems in the monograph of the magazine "Aviation and Time was". Or "World of Aviation", but rather old issues.
            1. Karlsonn
              Karlsonn 28 September 2013 15: 00 New
              +9
              avt

              Kamrad FOUND !!! She lay behind the closet. repeat

              drinks
  • avt
    avt 28 September 2013 12: 19 New
    0
    Quote: Karlsonn
    With all due respect to the author - Kutsay article.

    hi Well, at least this is based on the "format", but of course you can talk a lot about the car! So maybe someone wants to know more about the advantages, as well as the disadvantages and difficulties in manufacturing.
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 28 September 2013 13: 43 New
      +2
      Quote: avt
      Well, maybe someone wants to learn more about the advantages, as well as about the shortcomings and difficulties in manufacturing.


      Let's hope. drinks
      1. avt
        avt 28 September 2013 14: 32 New
        +3
        Quote: Karlsonn
        Let's hope

        I am unexpectedly in the memoirs of Kondratyev - a pilot, diplomat and intelligence officer, he was engaged in military acceptance of these handsome men, and then he commanded a brigade in the Caucasus before switching to "diplomatic work" after graduating from the Zhukovsky Academy, read how he received cars from the factory and Ordzhonikidze climbed He looked at the defects in almost every car and sent them for correction. And the flying aircraft carrier that I-16 brought to Constanta? And the installation of three 76 mm regiments in the wings and fuselage? No, the car was completely squeezed out in service.
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 28 September 2013 15: 08 New
          +2
          Quote: avt
          No, the car in the service squeezed completely.


          I agree. drinks

          Quote: avt
          And the flying aircraft carrier that I-16 brought to Constanta?


          I am at Dorokhov A.P. read about it.

          ... Fighters of the 32 regiment not only fought in the sky of Sevastopol, but also bombed enemy military-industrial facilities located in the rear. For aircraft with a limited range, this was no easy task. This experience is undoubtedly interesting for its unusualness.
          Long before the war, the team of aircraft designers under the leadership of Andrei Nikolaevich Tupolev created a four-engine heavy bomber - TB-3. It was an all-metal monoplane, with speeds up to 140 kilometers per hour. Its wingspan exceeded forty meters, and the flight weight reached almost nineteen tons. At one time, he was considered the best aircraft of this class, even abroad.
          By the end of the thirties, TB-3 was outdated. This clumsy, huge slow-moving did not pose a serious danger even to a seedy fighter. And the anti-aircraft gunners did not need a lot of art to hit such a target.
          Then the idea arose to use the TB-3 as an aircraft carrier. The idea of ​​hanging bombing was born. Theoretically, it was substantiated and developed by the outstanding designer Vladimir Sergeyevich Vakhmistrov. The essence of the method of hanging bombing to a certain extent resembled a number from the circus program. Instead of bombs, under the TB-3 plane, two I-16 fighters with bomb load were suspended. Each of them took two 250-pound jigs.
          The TB-3 crew delivered fighters as close as possible to the target. There they uncoupled, bombed, and returned independently.
          Soon after the outbreak of war, Black Sea aviation received additional TB-3 aircraft. Of them, the 18-th separate transport air squad was formed. An unusual task was assigned to this part. One TB-3 and two fighters made up the link.
          The most striking event in the history of the use of the suspension was a strike on the Black Sea railway bridge over the Danube, which is of strategic importance. The bridge is located on the Bucharest-Constanta highway and is one of the largest in the world. The length of its surface part [13] is 750 meters. And supports on 35 meters rise above water level.
          All military goods sent by the Nazis to Constanta followed through this bridge. An oil pipeline ran under his floor, through which fuel from Ploiesti entered Constanta.
          1. Karlsonn
            Karlsonn 28 September 2013 15: 13 New
            +1
            The Soviet command understood the importance of the bridge for the enemy and decided to disable it. The fulfillment of this crucial task was assigned to the air forces of the Black Sea Fleet. The commander, Major General Aviation Vasily Andreevich Rusakov, ordered the attack on the bridge by eleven bombers and two links of suspensions.
            The bridge was heavily guarded by anti-aircraft artillery. The airspace above it was declared a no-fly zone. Anti-aircraft gunners had a strict order to open fire on any aircraft that ended up here. The suddenness of the raid was ruled out.
            Painstaking preparations began. Crew members studied the upcoming route, got acquainted with the data characterizing the bridge, with the firing positions of anti-aircraft batteries, clarified issues of interaction.
            Fighters faced another, no less serious obstacle. The bridge is located 60 kilometers west of Constanta. I-16 does not have enough gasoline reserves to return to its territory. But we also overcame this barrier. The technical staff, led by Pavel Telepnev, an 3 military engineer, installed an additional 95 liter tank under the fuselage of the fighter. This increased the flight time by half an hour.
            On the night of August 10, bombers left the Crimean airfields and, when dawn began to squeamish, reached the Romanian shores. Between Constance and Sulina, the Black Sea crossed the coastline and went to the bridge.
            As expected, the enemy bristled with anti-aircraft fire. And yet the Black Sea people broke through to the bridge. The bombers were the first to hit the target, dropping large-caliber mines. Unfortunately, not one of them entered the bridge.
            It was the turn to operate the I-16 aircraft. They were piloted by Arseny Shubikov, Boris Filimonov, Boris Litvinchuk and Isaac Kasparov. From a height of 1700 meters, the fighters went on a steep dive. The bombs were dropped when 300 meters remained to the water. Then, in the fuselage of almost every aircraft, fragments of their own bombs were discovered.
            The bulk of the central span collapsed into the water, everything burned around, even the water - flaming oil spilled on it.
            This success was reported by the Soviet Information Bureau: "... Soviet pilots destroyed ... the railway bridge over the Danube ... The operation ... was led twice by the order bearer Comrade Shubikov" ...
  • vladsolo56
    vladsolo56 28 September 2013 10: 30 New
    +7
    I think that with the armament, machine-gun which was on TB, the losses from the fighters were simply because the gunners were unprepared. If the shooters had the practice of air battles with fighters, it would be very difficult to shoot him down. Especially when the aircraft went in formation in several pieces. Imagine the density of fire squadron.
    1. StolzSS
      StolzSS 28 September 2013 15: 17 New
      0
      The actions of the formation of the bombers to repel the attacks of the fighters were one of the weaknesses in our aviation of that period of the war; these are more reports on the Finnish campaign ...
      1. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 28 September 2013 15: 34 New
        0
        Quote: StolzSS
        The actions of the formation of the bombers to repel the attacks of the fighters were one of the weaknesses in our aviation of that period of the war; these are more reports on the Finnish campaign ...


  • wown
    wown 28 September 2013 10: 37 New
    +4
    I agree with you! it all depends on the command. I would like the author to describe the combat use of both SB and DB.
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 28 September 2013 13: 46 New
      +1
      Quote: wown
      I would like the author to describe the combat use of both SB and DB.


      Kamrad look here --- http://www.airpages.ru/ru/sb2bp.shtml
  • omsbon
    omsbon 28 September 2013 10: 48 New
    +8
    Admiration causes the courage of the pilots! Glory to them forever and ever!
  • 0255
    0255 28 September 2013 12: 52 New
    +1
    Interestingly, for a machine made explicitly on the basis of TB-3, shown in this video. Where was she photographed? How miraculously has she survived to this day? Or is it painted on TB-3 in Photoshop?

    I am glad that the result of the combat use of TB-3 was not as deplorable as they tell us.
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 28 September 2013 13: 31 New
      +2
      Quote: 0255
      Interestingly, for a machine made explicitly on the basis of TB-3, shown in this video.


      laughing

      Quote: 0255
      Where was she photographed


      I made a movie, here
    2. avt
      avt 28 September 2013 16: 58 New
      +3
      Quote: 0255
      Or is it painted on TB-3 in Photoshop?

      Photoshop, based on the Kalinin K-7 six-engine bomber, there, it seems, at the end, a real photo slipped. The machine crashed during the tests.
      1. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 28 September 2013 17: 30 New
        +4
        Quote: avt
        there, it seems, at the end, the real photo slipped. The machine crashed during the tests.


        Aha wink .

        Quote: avt
        Photoshop


        No, not Photoshop. No. , I personally saw in Red Mordor. fellow
    3. The comment was deleted.
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Moore
    Moore 28 September 2013 13: 18 New
    +3
    We sculpted photoshop from this one: ANT-20 "Maxim Gorky"
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 28 September 2013 13: 35 New
      +1
      Quote: Moore
      We sculpted photoshop from this one: ANT-20 "Maxim Gorky"


      good

      In development of the topic:

      1. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 28 September 2013 13: 41 New
        +2
        A song about the grandchildren of TB-3 --- Tu-95 and their difficult service. hi

        1. Argon
          Argon 28 September 2013 15: 43 New
          +2
          As I understand it, Karlsona RIPPED, really, work on the article, contact the admins, they will help, but just do not score the field of reviews not on the topic. Brevity is not my strong point, I admit, but you are kind of overdone. To comment 0255: your caricature is "shocked" the K-7 aircraft of the designer K.A. Kalinin, has nothing to do with the TB-3, not with the ANT-20, well, except that it was a direct competitor of the latter. Two samples were built (only one flew), the second was not brought to flight state-dismantled, after the catastrophe of the first. Crashed during testing, has not survived to this day. It was distinguished by the original control system when the movement of the control surfaces (did not have their own drives) was made by deflecting the trim tabs moved only by the efforts of the pilot. The designer was repressed and died in prison.
          1. Karlsonn
            Karlsonn 28 September 2013 16: 29 New
            +4
            Quote: Argon
            As I understand it Karlsona BROKEN, really, work on the article, contact the admins they will help


            Advice, dear, give your dad, if you have one.

            Quote: Argon
            but just don’t score the off-topic feedback field.


            An excursion into the combat use of the TB-3 aircraft in the comments to the article "TB-3 - heavenly slug" off topic? belay

            Feedback field? what Where is this?
          2. Alex 241
            Alex 241 28 September 2013 17: 53 New
            +3
            Quote: Argon
            Crashed during testing, it has not survived to this day. It was distinguished by the original control system when the movement of control surfaces (did not have their own drives) was carried out by deflecting trimmers moved only by the pilot's efforts. The designer was repressed, died in custody.

            To reduce the load in the aircraft control system, K. A. Kalinin proposed a very promising solution, which then found the widest application in aviation - to install electric amplifiers (boosters) on the aircraft. However, one of the Moscow Electrotechnical Institutes, which undertook to manufacture a new system, could not cope with the task, the K-7 rudders and ailerons were equipped with servo motors. The theoretical problems of controlling a heavy aircraft using servo wheels were solved by a group of aerodynamics led by N.F. Freiman, more than 300 purges were made in the TsAGI wind tunnel, and in 1932 servo wheels were tested in the air on a K-5 aircraft converted to a flying laboratory. For the first time, chromomolybdenum pipes were used for the frame
            1. Karlsonn
              Karlsonn 28 September 2013 19: 48 New
              +3
              Alex 241 drinks

              For a long time comrade did not meet! hi

              Quote: Alex 241
              To reduce the load in the aircraft control system, K. A. Kalinin proposed


              Man, don’t tear people up, especially those who haven’t heard of the Bernoulli equation. wink
              1. Alex 241
                Alex 241 28 September 2013 19: 49 New
                +1
                Greetings buddy drinks
                1. Karlsonn
                  Karlsonn 28 September 2013 20: 23 New
                  +1
                  Quote: Alex 241
                  Greetings buddy


                  It’s very nice to meet a like-minded person, though I myself haven’t gone beyond the simulators crying , launched the engines - I almost managed it recourse , I think that I can raise a number of sides (at gunpoint)

                  1. Alex 241
                    Alex 241 28 September 2013 20: 31 New
                    0
                    Well then, here's a tutorial for you.http: //www.tosnoaero.ru/library/manual/Yak-52.pdf RLE Yak-52.
                    1. Karlsonn
                      Karlsonn 29 September 2013 00: 11 New
                      0
                      Quote: Alex 241
                      Well then, here's a tutorial for you.h


                      repeat TU, IL, Boeing I raise and land yes
    2. avt
      avt 28 September 2013 17: 38 New
      +2
      Quote: Moore
      ANT-20 "Maxim Gorky"

      But what’s interesting, off-topic, the proletarian writer Alexei Peshkov NEVER signed up as Maxim Gorky. This son was called Maxim, and he signed M. Gorky, and here is how he answered in a letter to some pioneer - Methuselah or Mordecai, guess for yourself.
  • marder4
    marder4 28 September 2013 14: 00 New
    +4
    yeah old man deserves respect
  • Bosk
    Bosk 28 September 2013 14: 15 New
    +2
    TB-3 "flying battery".
    In 1934, P.I. Grokhovsky, unique work was carried out to study the possibility of firing from an aircraft from a land weapon. The TB-3 was equipped with a 76-mm regimental cannon of the 1927 model removed from the standard wheeled carriage. After a successful experiment, Grokhovsky proposed to arm the bomber with three cannons. In the cut-off nose of the TB-3 4M-17F, a 76-mm anti-aircraft gun of the 1931 model was installed, two regimental guns were placed in the wing consoles, behind the extreme motors, outside the propeller disk. All the guns were loaded manually, the command to fire was triggered by a light signal. The "flying battery" was intended to destroy bombers traveling in dense battle formations. To increase the likelihood of damage, a special powerful shrapnel shell was developed. In 1935, tests were carried out. Work on the aircraft was discontinued as rapid-fire aircraft cannons and rockets appeared.
  • Bosk
    Bosk 28 September 2013 14: 16 New
    +1
    TB-3 LL ("flying laboratory").
    In 1936, to test chemical weapons systems, they converted one serial aircraft with M-34RN engines. He could deliver 4 tons of mustard gas at a distance of 600-800 km.
  • Bosk
    Bosk 28 September 2013 14: 17 New
    +5
    And of course the flying "Link". At the beginning of August 1941, the link of the SPB (composite dive bomber) destroyed the Chernovodsky bridge at the mouth of the Danube.
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 28 September 2013 15: 22 New
      +3
      Quote: Bosk
      Well, of course


      TB-3 also participated in this:

      Despite the official date of birth of the Airborne Forces on 2 on August 1930, for the first time, airborne assault forces were used in the 1929 year for performing combat missions.
      Landing (landing method) was carried out in Tajikistan, on the 13 of April of the 1929 of the year, the Fuzaili gang raided the territory of Tajikistan and moved to the city of Garm, trying to capture the Garm Uyezd and ensure the subsequent invasion of the Basmachi gangs in the Alai and Ferghana valleys.
      In this critical situation, Commander SAVO Dybenko makes a bold decision to deploy airborne assault forces and defeat the enemy on the outskirts of the city with a sudden blow, all 45 paratroopers armed with rifles and 4 machine guns were included in the landing squad.
      The plane with the airborne commanders Shapkin and Fedin and machine guns took off early in the morning of April 23 from Dushanbe, and the main landing forces in Termez an hour and a half later.
      The suddenness and the fact that the Basmachi did not expect to meet serious resistance with machine guns was crucial, the bandits decided that the Red Army division had broken into the city, the Basmachi could not withstand the onslaught and left the city having lost more than 80 people killed !!!
      1. Kolovrat77
        Kolovrat77 29 September 2013 01: 29 New
        +1
        Dear Alexei, the birthday of the Airborne Forces is celebrated correctly. Think about why.
        RAP
        DA
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 29 September 2013 04: 33 New
          0
          Quote: Kolovrat77
          Dear Alexei, the birthday of the Airborne Forces is celebrated correctly.


          I’m reading green caps, as it were, the Airborne Forces are not about me, I am throwing airborne assaults on asphalt; green caps rule. angry
          Border guards keep a paw. drinks soldier hi
          1. Kolovrat77
            Kolovrat77 29 September 2013 04: 45 New
            +2
            You, along the way, sit thump, have a good time.
            In Russia, from the first day in school, from the first, we have been taught that border guards and moreman are our first friends and bros. Buck on the scraper.
            1. Karlsonn
              Karlsonn 29 September 2013 05: 57 New
              -1
              Quote: Kolovrat77
              You, along the way, sit thump, have a good time.


              You do not know the history of your homeland along the way.

              Quote: Kolovrat77
              from the first day in school, from the first, they teach us in Russia that the frontiers and moreman are our first friends and brothers. Buck on the scraper.


              I took exercise machines on the first day. Be ashamed of the White Feather.
            2. Karlsonn
              Karlsonn 29 September 2013 06: 09 New
              -1
              In Russia, from the first day in school, from the first one, we have been taught that border guards and moreman are our first friends and bros

              . Buck on the scraper.

              Hear the moroman - haven’t you been in the face for a long time?
              Like a seabass - booty in shells. My son doesn’t matter how old you are, I’ll unscrew my head once and go away.
              You will meet with me for a fuck. Are you betting?
              You are a coward and will meet with me for a fuck.
              Do you know why? Because I’m in the Olympic reserve of Ukraine, I gave podzhopniki the Ukrainian national team in taybox.
              But to you --- I don’t piss off.
              1. Kolovrat77
                Kolovrat77 29 September 2013 15: 10 New
                +1
                Then they deleted my koment. So there it was written that you are an ignoramus and a bull. I am ready to see you when I take my daughter to the Kherson region. I really want to see what kind of a hero appeared there on the Holy Kiev land. But only you and I will not fight, if you really are a Warrior, you will apologize, and if you are a local goby, then you will go bent over. In general, my advice is, how can you oversleep re-read what you wrote at night, add the obscene, offensive language that you deleted and apologize. A person can make mistakes, but only a MAN can recognize and correct them. Be healthy.
            3. The comment was deleted.
              1. The comment was deleted.
        2. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 29 September 2013 05: 52 New
          0
          Quote: Kolovrat77
          important Alexei birthday of the Airborne Forces is celebrated correctly


          Tell me about VLV in 1929. what and I will tell you about the borders on the CER, in 1929 year.
          I bet you wash yourself.

          Your birthday wipes on stripes. bully
          1. Kolovrat77
            Kolovrat77 29 September 2013 06: 46 New
            +4
            I was not in 1929, and I didn’t ask anyone, but from books I myself know better than me about the Chinese and the Basmachi. Tell you how the border guards helped the landing (and not only) in the mountains of the Caucasus. Yes, you do not need it, the history of another country. it’s like for me a war between Ethiopia and Eretria, not sympathy for not understanding.

            Quote: Karlsonn
            I bet you wash yourself.

            I’m washed, of course, I’m washed. But Russians, having never been washed. (we are all taught now and the new Europe too)


            Quote: Karlsonn
            Your birthday wipes out about stripes

            My for God’s sake, O great wiper, hater, knife-master, wrestler, champion and pilot, And also the guard of the invincible borders of the independent and independent power of Ukraine (God grant her prosperity and a lot of bread). August 21 is my birthday.
    2. Alex 241
      Alex 241 28 September 2013 18: 16 New
      +2
      TB-3 Vakhmistrov Circus
    3. svp67
      svp67 28 September 2013 21: 58 New
      +5
      Only now, in the war, a less "charged" version distinguished itself, consisting of a TB3 - a carrier and two I-16s, in the role of an SPB (high-speed dive bombers)

  • mithridate
    mithridate 28 September 2013 15: 56 New
    +4
    tremendous potential hard worker
  • opl34
    opl34 28 September 2013 16: 00 New
    +5
    epic devices.
    Comments are better than article
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 28 September 2013 16: 35 New
      +4
      Quote: opl34
      epic devices.


      To fans of the sky and aviation hi

      1. Ramadan
        Ramadan 29 September 2013 10: 48 New
        0
        Great song, thanks! ;)
  • Snoop
    Snoop 28 September 2013 16: 47 New
    +2
    What Simonov described in his book "The Living and the Dead" was in fact. One of the pilots even wrote him a letter after watching the film "The Living and the Dead", as he recognized himself in the cinema :)
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 28 September 2013 17: 31 New
      0
      Quote: Snoop
      What Simonov described in his book "The Living and the Dead" was in fact.


      Kamrad, what are you talking about? I read the book, remind what it is about.
      1. I am
        I am 28 September 2013 21: 38 New
        +2
        The scene under the city of Mogilev is described. As the six see from the ground, it seems TB-3, flying to bomb the bridge (or crossing), and as ONE two German fighters knock them all down, and our arrows from TB-3 shoot down only one messer. Pilots jump out of our last airplane by parachute. And when the retreating infantrymen find them, one of them, the crew commander and squadron commander, the general and a veteran of Spain shoots. At the same time, the direct commander, the commander of the aviation of this front, hearing on the radio the talks of the downed crews, firing while standing at the observation tower of the airfield. There is no book at hand, I wrote from memory, if I forgot it, sorry)))))))))
        1. Alex 241
          Alex 241 28 September 2013 21: 52 New
          +3
          Sintsov raised his head. Directly above the road, at a relatively low altitude, three TB-3s went back. Perhaps the bombing that Sintsov heard was the result of their work. Now they were safely returning, slowly gaining the ceiling, but the sharp foreboding of misfortune that gripped Sintsov as the planes went in that direction did not leave him now.
          And in fact, from somewhere above, from behind rare clouds, a small, fast, like a wasp, "Messerschmitt" jumped out and began to overtake the bombers with frightening speed.
          All riding in a lorry, silently clutching the sides, forgetting about themselves and their own fear that had just possessed them, forgetting about everything in the world, looked at the sky with terrible expectation. "Messerschmitt" obliquely passed under the tail of the rear, lagging behind the other two bomber, and the bomber began to smoke as instantly as if they brought a match to the paper lying in the stove. He continued to walk, descending and smoking more and more, then hung in place and, tracing the air with a black line of smoke, fell on the forest.
          The Messerschmitt flashed like a thin steel strip in the sun, went up, turned around and, screeching, went into the tail of the next bomber. There was a short rattle of machine guns. "Messerschmitt" soared again, and the second bomber pulled over the forest for half a minute, heeling more and more on one wing, and, turning over, crashed heavily onto the forest after the first.
          "Messerschmitt" screeched a loop and along an oblique line, from top to bottom, rushed to the tail of the third and last bomber that had gone ahead. And the same thing happened again. Barely audible from afar the crack of machine guns, the thin squeal of a Messerschmitt coming out of its pike, a long black stripe silently spreading over the forest, and the distant roar of an explosion.
          1. Karlsonn
            Karlsonn 29 September 2013 00: 12 New
            -1
            Quote: Alex 241
            Sintsov raised his head.


            Thanks --- remembered.
            1. Karlsonn
              Karlsonn 29 September 2013 04: 41 New
              0
              Alex 241

              comrade catch --- besides the sky, I love the sea ---

              1. Karlsonn
                Karlsonn 29 September 2013 06: 28 New
                -1


                Does anyone want something? I will paint the skull - at a time.
  • Landwarrior
    Landwarrior 29 September 2013 13: 08 New
    +1
    If I don’t confuse it, it was TB-3 (more precisely, their “civilian” version of the G-1) that the Chelyuskinites were removed from the ice floes. If wrong, correct hi
    1. Serg 122
      Serg 122 29 September 2013 19: 15 New
      +1
      G-1 is a civilian version of TB-1 - a twin-engine predecessor of TB-3.
      The first TB-1 entered civil aviation in 1933. This machine was handed over to the Research Institute of Civil Air Fleet to study the possibility of its use for the transport of passengers and goods.

      A year later, in February 1934, civilian pilots took the helm of bombers in an emergency. For the operation to rescue people who landed on the ice after the sinking of the steamship Chelyuskin, about two dozen different aircraft were assembled. From the Air Force, the MSDV allocated two TB-1 without weapons. But the crews for them were taken from the Civil Air Fleet, with experience in flying in the north. The first to reach the Chelyuskin camp on March 5 made his way to TB-1 A.V. Lyapidevsky. He brought fresh meat, tools and batteries for the radio station, and on the return flight took all the women and children to Uelen - 12 people. But then there was a streak of bad luck: bad weather, breakdowns interfered, and it all ended in a forced landing with a failed engine. Nevertheless, Lyapidevsky became the first Hero of the Soviet Union.
      Since 1935, obsolete bombers under the G-1 brand began to transfer aviation to the GUSMP, and then to the GVF. All weapons were removed, turret openings were usually sewn up with a sheet. Often eliminated all the glazing of the navigator’s cabin. A roof was mounted over the pilots' places and side windows were made. The alteration was carried out by the plant, 89, and later by the plant named after Pobezhimova in Krasnoyarsk.
      Such aircraft were usually used as cargo, but sometimes passengers were also transported on them. Most of them were operated on the outskirts of the country: in Siberia, the Far East and the Far North. For example, they served the Irkutsk-Chita highway, flying along the Yenisei and Lena. The metal glider showed excellent survivability in conditions of hangarless storage in rain and snow. They flew on wheels, skis and floats. The float version was called the G-1A.
      Widespread G-1, however, did not receive. Their number was measured in dozens. GUSMP in July 1938 had 12 such machines, the fleet of the Civil Air Fleet reached March 1 by March 1940, 15. Single aircraft went to other departments. Losses from accidents and wear and tear were compensated by the transfer of equipment from the Air Force. So, in October 1940, the Defense Committee ordered another 14 TB-1s to be allocated to civilian pilots.
      Despite their small numbers, these durable and reliable aircraft played a significant role in the development of sparsely populated areas.
      1. Landwarrior
        Landwarrior 30 September 2013 01: 07 New
        +1
        Serg 122, thank.
  • Brave
    Brave 29 September 2013 15: 10 New
    +1
    Quote: Karlsonn
    Well, maybe someone wants to learn more about the advantages, as well as about the shortcomings and difficulties in manufacturing.

    Let's hope.

    the first time I read about this plane in such detail, thanks to the author and savvy commentators hi
  • Simon
    Simon 29 September 2013 17: 14 New
    +1
    Yes, the correct and competent use of celestial slow-moving reveals the dignity of these aircraft. good
  • Serg 122
    Serg 122 29 September 2013 19: 32 New
    +1
    And here you have one more handsome:
    Further development of the idea of ​​supergiants was the ANT-26 (TB-6) bomber and the ANT-28 passenger. They were preceded by the design of the four-engine ANT-24 with M-44 engines with a capacity of 2000 hp.
  • DuraLexSedLex.
    DuraLexSedLex. 30 September 2013 11: 08 New
    +2
    This is Russian ingenuity "In addition, to deceive enemy anti-aircraft gunners and fighters, the pilots fired Holt landing missiles suspended under their wings. The bright flame of the missiles created the illusion that the plane was on fire and the anti-aircraft gunners were ceasing fire."
    In truth, while the Russian soldier has matches, bullets, moonshine ...
  • Dry66
    Dry66 30 September 2013 12: 56 New
    +1
    Karlsonn, write the address I’ll come, especially from Siberia, I will teach you how to talk with people.
  • samoletil18
    samoletil18 14 October 2013 14: 09 New
    0
    Great article. It is necessary to write articles on the history of the Weapon of Victory in this way. When I first looked at it as a child, and then read "The Living and the Dead", I began to look into the reading room more often - I was hooked. It was TB-3 that hooked. And the mention of the MiG, I-16, and the losses in those days. And now I'm interested - go online: websites, books, magazines, films. You look, real patriots in the next generations will grow up and cleanse the Motherland of filth.
  • Mushroom
    Mushroom 30 December 2013 17: 28 New
    0
    Vodopyanov was in the unit in combat reserve with his faithful TB-3, but he was not allowed smile
  • Mushroom
    Mushroom 30 December 2013 17: 33 New
    0
    Quote: Landwarrior
    If I don’t confuse it, it was TB-3 (more precisely, their “civilian” version of the G-1) that the Chelyuskinites were removed from the ice floes. If wrong, correct hi


    I will correct it. The main pilot of the Arctic was the great plane R-5, he also shot the Chelyuskinites
  • Mushroom
    Mushroom 30 December 2013 17: 52 New
    0
    About TB-3 - read "300 unknowns" by the famous test pilot Stefanovsky (he, like Vodopyanov, like other famous hero-pilots of the USSR, flew at the head of the Pe-8 crews in 41 to bomb Berlin, and you can write about half of the crews). Chkalov worked with him for a short time when testing TB-3. And he began to throw the TB-3 like an aircraft of a completely different level - diving, steep turns, overloads, it seems, were supposed to destroy the structure. Stefanovsky was amazed that the TB-3 had such strength that seemed excessive ...
  • Mushroom
    Mushroom 30 December 2013 17: 59 New
    0
    As for Sintsov in The Living and the Dead, how many memoirs describe this in the summer of 41 through the eyes of eyewitnesses from the ground. Like completely unprotected crowds of SB and TB-3 flew in front of their eyes to make some attempts ... and did not even reach the point of dropping bombs on the enemy, burning in hundreds.
    SB and TB-3 at the beginning of the 41st were hopelessly outdated aircraft that could be used only under the condition of complete domination of Soviet aviation in the air (and in 41 it was the other way around), either as aircraft for parachute units, or as VTA. But for the latter, including the "partisan" supply aircraft, it turned out to be better at that time DC-3Lee-xnumx
  • Bogomol
    Bogomol 21 February 2017 11: 49 New
    0
    Many of us are familiar with Konstantin Simonov’s famous novel, The Living and the Dead, and we remember the episode with the destruction of the TB-3 group by a German fighter. Described in the novel in detail repeats the incident that occurred on July 10, 1941 near Zhytomyr. On that day, 12 TB-3s from the 14th TBAP were forced to fly for bombing without covering fighters and were attacked by a pair of Messershmites Bf 109 in the target area. One of them managed to shoot down bombers with fire, but the second fighter continued to attack and destroyed 7 bombers, whose crews escaped by parachute.

    Tell me, where exactly was this incident described with 12 BT-3 bombers?