Today is the Day of the Navy of Russia

The Day of the Navy is celebrated on the last Sunday of July on the basis of the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of October 1 1980 of the Year “On Festive and Memorable Days”. This is one of the most beloved holidays in the USSR, and then Russia, which has the unofficial name of Neptune Day.

The creation of a regular military fleet in Russia was due to the country's urgent need to overcome the territorial, political and cultural isolation, which at the turn of the XVII-XVIII centuries was the main obstacle to the economic and social development of the Russian state.

Of stories fleet

The creation of a regular military fleet in Russia was due to the country's urgent need to overcome the territorial, political and cultural isolation, which at the turn of the XVII-XVIII centuries was the main obstacle to the economic and social development of the Russian state.

The first Russian warship was created under Alexei Mikhailovich. It was built by the project of the Dutch shipbuilder Colonel Cornelius Vanbukoven. "Eagle" was a perfect at the time the ship. Its length was 24,5 m, width - 6,5 m, and draft - 1,5 m. The ship was armed with 22 guns. The crew consisted of 22 sailor and 35 archers. The warship received its name in honor of the state emblem.

The son of Alexei Mikhailovich Peter I was well aware that the successful solution of the paramount and historically important task - access to the Baltic and Black Seas - depends only on well-organized joint actions of the army and navy. As a result, for an unprecedentedly short time (from November 1695 to May 1696), 36 gun ships Apostol Peter and Apostol Pavel, 4 Brander, were built in cities located along the banks of rivers flowing into the Sea of ​​Azov 23 galleys, 1 300 sea boats, rafts and planes.

Thus, the Azov fleet was formed. 19 July 1696, the Russian army, with the support of warships, took the Turkish fortress Azak (Azov). The first major victory in the war for access to the sea was won.

In October 1696, the decision of the Boyar Duma legislatively determined the creation of the Russian fleet and marked the beginning of its construction. "The ships of the sea to be ..." - such was the will of not only the young Russian Tsar Peter I, but also of his companions, who understood well that without the fleet the state could not make a new step in its development.

In numerous shipyards scattered throughout Russia, ships of the Russian fleet of various classes were built. By the spring of 1700, the 40 sailing and 113 rowing ships were launched. Azov fleet is constantly replenished. Having successfully solved the southern problem, Peter I set himself the task to achieve access to the Baltic Sea coast at any cost. A long Northern War began with the Swedes (1700-1721).

Today is the Day of the Navy of Russia

The enemy, knowing full well that it would be able to undermine the power of the Russian army, decided to deliver his decisive blow to Arkhangelsk, the city where the shipyards were located, on which military ships were built. But the enemy’s plan was well known to Peter I. He ordered the installation of batteries along the coastline, build fortifications, strengthen the garrison and control foreign ships plying in the White Sea.

At the mouth of the Northern Dvina built Novodvinsk fortress. 24 June 1701. A Swedish squadron of seven ships commanded by Vice Admiral Sheblad, not knowing about the newly built Russian fortification, approached the mouth of the Northern Dvina. The battle lasted 13 hours. The surviving Swedes struggled to get into the sea on one galliot. The next big victory of the young Russian fleet was triumphant.

It was then that the well-known Peter's commandments were born: “They do not consider enemies - they are beaten”, “They do not let the flag down before the enemy”, “Fight to the last, and destroy the ship at the last moment”, etc. They formed the basis of the legendary military traditions Russian fleet.

The naval battle that took place on July 26-27 on 1714 near the Gangugu peninsula (now Hanko) occupies a special place among the sea battles of Peter the Great. During the battle, the Russian soldiers managed to capture the 6 galleys and the 3 scherbot of the enemy. In May, 1719 near the island of Ezel, Peter I's squadron, aboard the Swedish ship 3. The emperor himself called the Ezelian victory "the good initiative of the Russian fleet."

In 1720 near Grengam Island, a detachment of the Russian rowing fleet commanded by General MM Golitsyn defeated a Swedish squadron consisting of a battleship, 4 frigates, 3 galleys and 6 small ships. As a result, our fleet entrenched in the area of ​​the Aland archipelago and later successfully conducted military operations against the enemy from here.

The Swedes, having suffered heavy losses in the war, were not even able to protect their own territories from the Russian troops. In 1721, they signed the Nishtadt Peace Treaty with Russia. The Northern War is over. As a result, the Russian state became a great maritime state.

During the period of his reign, Peter managed to do a lot for the Russian state, but in the list of his services to the Fatherland there is a title that he himself would appreciate most of all - “the father of the Russian fleet”.

Thanks to Peter the Great, Russia was among the strongest sea powers. It was the “father of the Russian fleet” and the idea to hold festive military parades. It is believed that the first such parade took place in the 1699 year before the Kerch campaign of ships from Taganrog.

This holiday has a great history: 290 years - in August 1714, the Russian fleet under the command of Peter I won his first victory. Then the tradition was born on the occasion of victories at sea to build ships and fire from all guns. In the Soviet Union, the Week of the Red Fleet was held from 1923. On these days, crowded meetings and meetings, labor work days, fundraising for the needs of the fleet were held. During the Soviet era, the birthday of the navy of Russia was called differently - the Birthday of the Soviet Navy. It should be noted that this holiday began to be celebrated from 1939 on the initiative of the outstanding Soviet naval commander, Hero of the Soviet Union, admiral of the fleet of the Soviet Union Nikolai Gerasimovich Kuznetsov. 30 July 2006, it is celebrated in 67-th time.

Sailors in the Soviet Union enjoyed special honor and respect. And they themselves enthusiastically celebrated their professional holiday - the Day of the Navy. Submariners, marines and other warriors, whose battlefield is the sea, will confirm that their work requires special preparation, a special state of mind, a special vocation. It is not by chance that for many decades the urgent service in the navy took three whole years, while in other branches of the troops it was shorter by a whole year. The significance of the Navy in our days has not only not been lost, but has further increased.

Before World War I, the main tasks were solved by surface ships, and they were the main arms of the fleet. In the period of the Second World War, this role for some time passed to naval aviation, and in the post-war period with the advent of nuclear missile weapons and ships with nuclear power plants as the main kind of forces established submarines. Finally, the Navy as a diverse strategic alliance was formed by the middle of the 1930-s, when naval aviation, coastal defense and air defense units entered the Navy.

The modern system of command and control of the Navy finally took shape on the eve of World War II. 15 January 1938 was established by the Decree of the CEC and the Council of People's Commissars of the People’s Commissariat of the Navy, which formed the Main Naval Staff. During the Great Patriotic War, the Navy reliably covered the strategic flanks of the Soviet-German front, attacked enemy ships and ships, and defended Russian naval communications.

In the postwar years, the Russian Navy went to the ocean, became atomic, rocket-carrying, highly mobile, capable of solving any tasks of protecting the Russian state.

The greatest combat potential of the Navy was in the middle of the 1980-s. After the collapse of the USSR, the Russian Navy faced a number of problems: the most important elements of the fleet basing on the Black, Baltic and Caspian seas were lost. Outside Russia remained the largest shipbuilding enterprises. Significantly reduced ship composition, as well as the pace of construction of warships.

At the present stage, one of the main tasks of the state is to maintain the technical readiness of the existing fleet, to build new ships, since Russia's well-equipped modern navy is one of the most important tools for ensuring Russia's national interests in the oceans.

The Navy has a truly heroic biography, glorious maritime and military traditions. He is rightly the subject of pride and love of the citizens of Russia. His story is hard work of war, great discoveries and achievements, feats accomplished for the glory of the Fatherland. With the active participation of many generations of sailors in the harsh years of testing, our country upheld its right to independence, sovereignty and prosperity.

Russia is a great maritime power. The right to be considered as it was won by generations of our compatriots, whose courage and dedication, brilliant victories in naval battles gained unfading glory to the country and its Navy.

And today, in the new difficult political and economic conditions, the Russian naval seamen are keeping a watch on the protection of the sea borders of the Motherland and, as before, are ready for any storm warnings.

Today the Navy successfully accomplishes tasks in the interests of ensuring the security and defense capability of the state. As before, the courage and dedication of the sailors help them overcome difficulties and honor their military duty with honor. A graphic confirmation of this is the high proficiency of the personnel, the competent use of the combat capabilities of modern armament complexes, the vigilant performance of combat service and combat duty, loyalty to the St. Andrew’s flag and military oath.

After all, the most modern equipment will remain only a piece of metal without people capable of exploiting it - competent, trained, disciplined and dedicated people - officers, midshipmen, sailors, civilian specialists.
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