Military Review

Intercontinental Batons

... Here and North Korea threatens the world with a “nuclear baton” ... The variety of ground-based ballistic missiles is so great that we will tell here only about intercontinental (ICBM) having a range of more than 5 500 kilometers - and only China has such , Russia and the United States. (Great Britain and France refused ground-based ICBMs, placing them only on submarines). But the two main former opponents of the “cold war” lacked “ballistics” the last half century.

Ballistic missiles did not appear from scratch - they quickly grew out of the trophy "legacy". The first of the allies launches trophy "V-2" held the British in Cuxhaven by German personnel in the autumn of 1945. But it was only a demonstration start. Then one trophy rocket was put on display in Trafalgar Square in London.

And in the same year, the Arms Administration of the US Department of the Army was tasked to conduct detailed experiments with captured V-2. The Americans, the first to enter Nordhausen, took out more 100 ready-made missiles, parts kits, equipment. The first launch was carried out at the White Sands (New Mexico) 16 site on April 1946, the last, 69, on October 19 and 1951. But tons of technical documentation and over 490 of German specialists led by von Braun and Dornberger became much more valuable “trophy” for Americans. The latter did everything to get to the Americans, and they were extremely needed. The “cold war” began, the USA, already having a nuclear weaponThey were in a hurry to get a rocket, and their specialists did not make much progress in this matter. In any case, the projects of large rockets MX-770 and MX-774 ended in nothing.

Р-7-the first Soviet ICBM

MBR P-7 / P-7A (SS-6 Sapwood). THE USSR. It was in service in 1961 — 1968 years.

1. Head part

2. Instrument bay

3. Oxidizer tanks

4. Oxidizer Pipe Tunnel Pipe

5. Main Engine Marching Engine

6. Aerodynamic steering

7. Side Block Marching Engine

8. Central unit

9. Side block

What is particularly interesting is that the first GALCIT employee Qian Xuesen was the first of the American rocket engineers to communicate with von Braun. Later he will move to China, become the founder of the Chinese rocket and space industry, and will begin ... with copying of the Soviet P-2 and P-5.

Von Braun, who already showed himself to be an excellent engineer and organizer, became the technical director of the design bureau at the Redstone arsenal in Huntsville. The backbone of the bureau was its former Peenemünde employees and other specialists. Previously, they were selected by the "reliability" of the Gestapo, now the Americans - by the same criteria.

In 1956, the SSM-A-14 “Redstone” ballistic missile created under the leadership of von Braun, in which a number of constructive solutions A-4 was guessed, and a year later - SM-78 “Jupiter” with a flight range already up to 2 780 kilometers.

We started work on the first "real" ICBMs and overseas almost simultaneously. 20 May 1954 was issued by the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR on the creation of an intercontinental BR (the work was entrusted to the “royal” OKB-1), and in the US the first contract on Atlas ICBM was issued to General Dynamics Inc. in January 1955 of the year. The status of the highest priority program was assigned to Washington a year earlier.

The G7 (KB Korolev) went 21 August 1957 of the year into the sky, yet becoming the first ICBM in the world, and it put the world's first satellite into the near-earth orbit on October 4. However, as a combat missile system, the P-7 turned out to be too bulky, vulnerable, expensive and difficult to operate. The preparation time for the launch was about 2 hours, and in order to replenish the supply of oxygen to the ICBMs on duty, the whole plant was needed nearby (which made it impossible to use it as a retaliatory weapon).

MBR RS-20A (SS-18 Satan). USSR. Armed with 1975

The American Atlas ICBM successfully flew only in November of the 1958 of the year, but its starting weight was only 120 tons, while the P-7 had 283 tons. This rocket prepared for launch for about 15 minutes (and it did not need liquid oxygen for refueling).

But gradually the USSR began to close the gap with the Americans. In April, on the basis of the design department of the Southern Machine-Building Plant, an independent Special Design Bureau No. 1954 (OKB-586) was formed, headed by M.K. Yangel Soon, under his leadership, medium-range ballistic missiles (MRSD) P-586 and P-12 were created - the culprits of the Caribbean crisis, and then the first Soviet ICBM on high-boiling fuel components P-14. The decision to create it was taken on 16 on May 13 of the year and initially provided for the production of ground-based launchers only. However, later, the P-1959 went through a revision of the design and control system (CS) and became the first Soviet ICBM, the launch of which was carried out from the mine PU (SPU). And the silo of this rocket (rare case) provided the rocket movement along guides - on the body of the BR there were made platforms for installation of yokes fixing its position in the guides.

ICBM P-16 / P-16U (SS-7 Saddler). THE USSR. It was in service in 1963 — 1979 years.

By the way, if the range of the P-7 did not exceed 8 000 kilometers, then the “Yangelevskaya” P-16 could “fly” already on 13 000 kilometers. At the same time, its starting weight was less by 130 tons.

True, the “flight” career of the Р-16 began from the tragedy: October 24 1960 at Baikonur in preparation for the first launch of the rocket, an explosion occurred. As a result, a large number of people at the starting position, headed by the Chairman of the State Commission, Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Missile Forces, Chief Marshal of Artillery M.I. Nedelin.

Nuclear "titans" and the Soviet giant

In 1955, the United States Air Force approved a technical assignment for a heavy liquid ICBM with a thermonuclear warhead with a capacity of more than 3 megatons; it was designed to defeat the major administrative and industrial centers of the USSR. However, the company "Martin-Marietta" was able to issue an experimental series of HGM-25A "Titan-1" missiles for flight tests only in the summer of 1959. The rocket was born "in agony", and most of the first launches were unsuccessful.

MBR P-36 (Scarp SS-9). THE USSR. Out of service

29 September 1960 launched a new ICBM at maximum range with the equivalent of a kilogram 550 warhead. From Cape Canaveral to an area in 1 600 kilometers southeast of the island of Madagascar, the rocket traveled 16 000 kilometers. It was a long-awaited success. Originally it was supposed to deploy 108 ICBM "Titan-1", but due to the huge cost of living and a number of shortcomings limited to half. They served from the beginning of 1960 of the year to April of 1965, and they were replaced (before 1987 of the year) by the more modern heavy two-stage ICBMs LGM-25C “Titan-2” with increased accuracy of impact (until the appearance of the P-36 heavy ICBM in the USSR The most powerful ICBM in the world was precisely the Titan-2 ICBM).

Moscow’s response to the American Titan was a new heavy-duty P-36 liquid rocket, which could “throw” more than 5 tons of nuclear “surprise” to the enemy. By a decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers on 12 in May 1962, a rocket capable of delivering a thermonuclear charge of unprecedented power to an intercontinental range was instructed to create a team of the Yugevo Yuglevo design bureau. This rocket was initially created for the mine-based version - they refused to start the ground-type launching table immediately and completely.

Silo MBR UR-100

Mine launcher "OS" intercontinental ballistic missile UR-100

1. Entrance to the silo

2. Tambour

3. Safety device

4. ShPU cap

5. Barrel silo

6. Missile UR-100

7. Transport and launch container

The preparation and conduct of the P-36 remote start was about 5 minutes. Moreover, the rocket could already be in the filled state for a long time using special compensation devices. The P-36 possessed unique combat capabilities and significantly surpassed the American Titan-2 - primarily in terms of the power of a thermonuclear charge, firing accuracy and security. We finally "almost" caught up with America.

In 1966, at Baikonur, a special operation was carried out, which was codenamed “Palma-2”: the leaders of sixteen friendly countries were shown in action by three samples of Soviet “retaliation weapons”: Temp-S BRSM missile systems (Chief Designer A.D. Nadiradze), as well as with ICBM P-36 (MK Yangel) and UR-100 (VN Chelomey). The allies were amazed at what they saw and decided to “be friends” with us further, realizing that this “nuclear umbrella” was also opened above them.

Try and find

With the increased accuracy of nuclear missiles and, most importantly, of reconnaissance and surveillance assets, it became clear that any stationary launchers can be relatively quickly detected and destroyed (damaged) during the first nuclear strike. And although there were submarines in the presence of the USSR and the USA, the Soviet Union “uselessly” lost vast expanses of territory. So the idea literally floated in the air and in the end was framed into a proposal - to create mobile missile systems that, having lost themselves in the vast expanses of the homeland, survive the first strike of the enemy and strike back.

The work on the first mobile ground-based missile complex (PGRK) with Temp-2С ICBMs began with us "semi-underground": the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering (former SRI-1) headed by A.D. By that time, Nadiradze had been subordinated to the Ministry of Defense Industry, “working” for the Ground Forces, and the topic of strategic missiles for the Strategic Missile Forces had been given to organizations of the Ministry of General Engineering. But Minister of Defense Industry Zverev did not want to part with a “large” strategic theme and 15 on April 1965 ordered his subordinates to start developing a mobile complex with an ICBM, “disguising” it to create a “sophisticated complex with a medium-range rocket Temp-S. Later, the cipher was changed to Temp-2C, and in March 6, 1966 began to work openly, since the corresponding Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR “legalized” the work on the topic.

Academician Pilyugin said in one of the conversations: “Chelomey with Yangel argue over whose rocket is better. And Nadiradze and I are not making a rocket, but a new weapon system. There were earlier proposals for mobile missiles, but it’s interesting to work with Nadiradze because he has an integrated approach, which many of our military lack. ” And this was the real truth - they created a new “subspecies” of nuclear missiles.

The basis of the complex "Temp-2C" is a three-stage solid-fuel rocket with a single-block warhead with a nuclear charge and a firing range of about 9 000 kilometers. The launch of the rocket could be carried out with the minimum possible duration of the pre-launch preparation - from any point of the patrol route, so to speak, “on the move”.

Considering that the accuracy of the missile’s firing was (depending on the range) from 450 to 1 640 meters, this complex was a serious “claim of success” in the war and would, if adopted by the Soviet Strategic Missile Forces, be a serious threat to NATO, to counter which the West could not do anything.

However, an unpredictable lady called “politician” intervened in the matter - in the form of the SALT-2 Agreement, according to the provisions of which the production and deployment of Temp-2С were prohibited. Therefore, Topol (PC-12М / РТ-2ПМ) became the world's first serial PGRK (mobile soil rocket complex) with an ICBM, according to the western classification - SS-25 Sickle, created again by MIT.

In February, the 1993 of the year began an active phase of work on the modernization program to the Topol-M variant, which in the mine and mobile home base will become the basis of the grouping of the Russian strategic missile forces in the first quarter of the 21st century. Compared to its predecessor, the new RK has more opportunities to overcome the systems of existing and prospective missile defense systems, is more effective when used for planned and unplanned purposes. A new rocket after a small additional equipment is placed in the mine-launchers released from the RS-18 and RS-20 missiles. At the same time, material-intensive and expensive protective devices, roofs, equipment compartments, and a number of supporting systems remain.

"Militia" and "dwarfs"

Perhaps the brightest mark in the world rocket stories left the family of American ICBMs "Minuteman" ("Minuteman" - as the soldiers of the people's militia, or militia, at one time) was called. They became the first solid-fuel ICBMs in the USA, the first in the world with separable individual-directed warheads and the first with a fully autonomous inertial control system. Their further development stopped only after the onset of detente, the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the USSR.

It is curious that at the initial stage it was planned to place part of the ICBMs (from 50 to 150 missiles) on mobile railway platforms. From 20 June 1960, a specially converted experimental train, located on the Hill Utah UHB, began to ply the western and central United States. From his last trip, he returned 27 August 1960 of the year, and the United States Air Force announced the “successful completion of the Minuteman mobile missile concept testing program. Thus, the idea of ​​using the railroad for basing ICBMs was first born in the USA, but was practically implemented only in the USSR. But the mobile “Minuteman” was unlucky, the Air Force chose to focus all its efforts on mine modification, and Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara closed the work on the mobile “Minuteman” on December 7 1961.

A continuation of the “popular” family was the Minuteman IIIG (LGM-30G). 26 January 1975 was a Boeing Aerospace company that put the last detachment of these ICBMs on WWB Warren in Wyoming on combat duty. The most important advantage of this ICBM was the presence of a split head. From 31 March 2006, the head units of the MX missiles were placed on pieces of the Minuteman-IIIG ICBM remaining on duty. Moreover, in 2004, the Americans, frightened by the threat of international terrorism, began to study the issue of placing the head unit in the Minuteman in conventional, non-nuclear, equipment.

In the middle of 80-s of the last century, the US Air Force, which was not given rest by the Soviet PGRK, declared their desire to have at their disposal the same complexes with light ICBMs that could move at a sufficiently high speed along the highway and dirt roads.

According to the Americans, in the event of an aggravation of the situation and the threat of a US nuclear attack, the Midgetman PGRK (Midgetman, “dwarf”) with a small-sized and light ICBM had to leave their bases and go to motorways and country roads, “spreading” like centipedes, throughout the country. After receiving the command, the car stopped, unloaded the trailer from the PU to the ground, then the tractor pulled it forward, and thanks to the presence of a special plow-like device, it self-dug up, providing additional protection against the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion. Mobile PU could “get lost” in the 10 area, thousands of km200, within the entire 2 minutes, and then deliver a nuclear nuclear attack with the surviving silo-launched ICBMs and strategic submarine missile carriers.

At the end of 1986, the Martin-Marietta company received a contract for the design work of the MGM-134A Midzmen mobile RK and the assembly of the first prototype.

Structurally, the MGM-134A MBR "Midzhetmen" - a three-stage solid-fuel rocket. The “cold” type of launch: under strong pressure, gases were thrown out of the TPC missile, and the own ICBM engine was switched on only when it finally left the “container”.

Despite its “dwarf” name, the new ICBM had a completely “non-child” launch range - about 11 thousands of kilometers - and carried a thermonuclear warhead with a capacity of 475 kilotons. Unlike the Soviet Temp-2C and Topol complexes, the American PU had a trailer type chassis: a four-axle vehicle-tractor drove a container with a single ICBM on a three-axle trailer. On tests, the mobile PU showed 48 km / h speed on rough terrain and 97 km / h on the highway.

However, in 1991, President George W. Bush (the elder) announced the cessation of work on a mobile PU - they continued to create only a “mine” version. The initial operational readiness of “Midgetman” was to be achieved in the 1997 year (initially - 1992 year), but in January the 1992 of the program “Midgetman” was finally closed. The only PU PGRK "Midzhetmen" transferred to the WB "Wright-Patterson" - for the museum located there, where it is now.

In the Soviet Union, they also created their own “dwarf” - 21 on June 1983 was issued by a Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers, which was instructed by MITU to create the Kuryer PGRK with a small-scale ICBM. The initiative to develop it belonged to the Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Missile Forces V.F. Tolubko.

The “Courier” ICBM, by its mass-dimensional characteristics, was approximately the same as the American Midgetman rocket and was several times lighter than any of the previous types of Soviet ICBMs.

A.A. Ryazhskikh later recalled: “We have a job, as always, went after them. The development of this original complex was not very smooth. There were many opponents, including in the leadership of the Strategic Missile Forces and, in my opinion, among the leadership of the Ministry of Defense. Some of them were skeptical of him - as exotic. ”

Courier (RSS-40 / SS-X-26) is the first and only domestic small-sized solid-fuel ICBM of a mobile soil complex on a wheel track. It has also become the most “miniature” ICBM in the world.

The complex was unique. He easily fit in the back of a Sovavtotrans-type automobile trailer, could be transported on barges in any railway carriages, and even entered the aircraft. Of course, he would not have given a clear increase in efficiency, but he could have taken part in a retaliatory strike, since it was almost impossible to detect it.

The sketch project was completed in 1984 year, and flight tests of a full-scale sample were to begin in 1992 year. But they did not take place due to political reasons - within the framework of the START-1 Treaty: further work on the “Courier” and on the “Midgetman” were discontinued.

"Satan" against the "guardian of the world"

The period of the second half of the 70-s of the last century was a special drama in the history of the development of ground-based ICBMs. It was then that the evolution of these missiles reached its climax. As a result, the two superpowers created real “planet shooters”, capable in the case of a volley to wipe out not only cities, but also entire countries. And only thanks to the efforts of the leadership of the United States and the USSR, the powerful roar of the “nuclear monsters” did not announce the coming of the “Doomsday of mankind”.

The discussion here will be about heavy ICBMs with a split head with individual-directed warheads. The first ICBMs of this class were created by the Americans again. The reason for their development was the rapid growth of the “quality” and accuracy of the Soviet ICBMs. At the same time, there was a heated debate in Washington about the future of a mine-based DBK in general — many generals expressed concern about their vulnerability to new Soviet ICBMs.

As a result, they began a program to develop a promising rocket - “rocket X”. The original “Missile-X” was then transformed into “M-X”, and we already know this rocket as “MX”. Although its official designation is LGM-118A "Peacekeeper" (Peacekeeper, translated from English - "Peace Keeper"). The basic requirements for the new ICBM were as follows: increased range, high accuracy, the presence of multiple-unit rocket with the ability to change its capacity, as well as the presence of a mine with a higher degree of protection. However, Ronald Reagan, who replaced Carter in the presidency, wanting to speed up the deployment of the ICBM MX, October 2, 1981, canceled the development of "supercoats" and decided to place the missiles in the mines from "Minuteman" or "Titan"
A) LGM-118A “Peacekeeper” (MX). USA. In service from 1986 to 2005, the cost of one ICBM is 70 million dollars. B) MDMB MGM-134A “Midgetman”. USA B) LGM-30G Minibar IIIG. USA. It is in service. Production completed in December 1978 d. Heavy LGM-25C "Titan-2" ICBM. USA. It was in service in 1963 — 1987 years.

17 June 1983 of the Year “The Keeper of the World” first soared into the heavenly heights from the WWB “Vandenberg”. Having crossed the 6 704 kilometer, the rocket “scattered” six unfused warheads on targets within the Kwajalein test site.

For the first time, the Americans succeeded in implementing the “mortar launch” method in a heavy MBR: a rocket was placed in a TPC installed in a mine, and a solid propellant gas generator (located at the bottom of the TLC) threw a rocket at a height of 30 meters from the level of the silo protective device, and only then turned on first stage propulsion engine. In addition to the mine variant, it was planned to also place 50 MX rail-based 25 “rocket trains” with two ICBMs on each; even in the START-1 Treaty, the MX missile was already spelled out as a “mobile home”.

However, then the “detente” came and the program “covered up” - in September 1991, President George W. Bush announced the cessation of work on the railroad MX (later the deployment of the mine-based MX was stopped). Americans chose to “forget” about their “rocket train”, on which they have already spent about 400 million dollars, in exchange for Moscow’s promise to reduce the number of its “miracle weapon”, heavy ICBMs, among which the most famous was RS-20, nicknamed in the West for its power "Satan."

Despite the shortcomings and high cost of construction, mines still remained the dominant type of base for ICBMs in the world. In the 1970-ies, the third generation of the third-generation PC-16 (SS-17 Spanker), PC-18 (SS-19 Stiletto) and PC-20 (SS-18 Satan) appeared one after another. The PC-16 and PC-20 missiles and complexes based on them were developed, as it is now fashionable to say, by a “consortium” headed by Yuzhnoye Design Bureau (MK Yangel was replaced by VF Utkin), and PC-18 created a bureau V.N. Chelomey. All of them were two-stage liquid BR with a sequential arrangement of steps and for the first time in domestic practice they were equipped with a divided head part.

Complexes with these missiles were adopted in the USSR during the period of 1975 — 1981, but then they were modernized. And thanks to these "monsters" the USSR managed to achieve reliable parity with the US in the number of warheads on combat duty: by 1991, the Strategic Missile Forces had 47 MBR type PC-16А / B, 300 - type PC-18А / B and 308 - like PC -20А / Б / В, the number of warheads ready for action, which exceeded 5 000.

When, in preparation for the signing of the START-2 Treaty, we presented data on the total missile mass of these missiles to the Americans, they simply fell into a stupor. She made 4135,25 tons! For comparison, the entire ground-based grouping of ICBMs among Americans was only 1132,5 tons. Even if Russia had simply undermined them over the North Pole, mankind would have shuddered at the nuclear apocalypse.

Especially the Yankees were frightened by our “Satan”, which had an RCMH with 10 warheads and an 7,2 (PC-20А) or 8,8 (PC-20Б / В) throw-in tonnes.

PC-20А was developed on the basis of the “Yngelevskaya” P-36 solutions, but was significantly modified. The most perfect was the modification of the RS-20В, the high combat effectiveness of which is ensured by the increased resistance of the missile in flight to the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion and the accuracy of the hit. The missile also received more advanced means of overcoming missile defense.

Nuclear "Well done"

Combat railway missile system with RS-22 / РТ-23UTTH “Well done” (SS-24 Scalpel), USSR

Information about the creation by Americans of ICBMs of the new generation of the MX was so agitated by the Soviet leadership that it initiated the development of several new ICBMs and accelerated work on a number of projects already underway. Thus, Yuzhnoye Design Bureau was supposed to create a powerful ICBM, while at the same time not going beyond the limits of the signed contracts.

After a preliminary assessment, it was decided to create a solid-fuel rocket. It was prescribed to create three options: railway, mobile ground "Celina-2" (almost immediately canceled) and mine. The flight design tests of the RS-22B (RT-23UTTH) ICBM for the combat railway missile complex (BZHRK) began at the Plesetsk 27 test site in February 1985 of the year and ended on December 22 in 1987.

The flight tests of the missile for silos began on July 31, 1986, and successfully ended on September 23, 1987. We have called the rocket "Well done", and in the West it was given the designation SS-24 Scalpel ("Scalpel").

The first train for trial operation was delivered in Kostroma, and later another three dozen ICBMs of this type were launched. “On vacation” the trains were located in stationary structures at a distance of about 4 kilometers from each other. As for the mine rockets, from August 19 of the year 1988 the first missile regiment took up combat duty, and the entire Strategic Missile Forces received 1991 mines with ICBMs until July 56. And of these, only 10 were located on the territory of the RSFSR, and after the collapse of the USSR, only they remained with Russia. The remaining 46 were on the territory of Ukraine and were eliminated due to the announcement of the last of its nuclear-free status.

This rocket also starts in the "mortar" way, it leans in the air using a powder charge, and only then the cruise engine is launched. Shooting could be performed from any point of the patrol route, including from electrified railways. In the latter case, special devices for shorting and tapping the contact network were involved.

“Well done” was equipped with 10 500 (550) kiloton warheads. Step breeding was performed according to the standard scheme, and the head of the fairing was covered with a variable geometry fairing.

Each “special train” was equal to a missile regiment and included in its composition three NXXX diesel locomotives, three seemingly conventional railroad refrigerator cars (a distinctive feature — eight wheeled pairs), a command car, cars with autonomous power supply and life support systems and for accommodating personnel on duty shifts. Total - 62 wagons. Each of the “refrigerators” could carry out the launch of the rocket both as part of the train and in the autonomous mode. Today, one such car can be seen in the Museum of the Ministry of Railways in St. Petersburg.

Those who served in such "armored trains" recall that often the train with the inscription on the cars "For the transport of light goods" after passing so spoiled the way that then it had to be thoroughly repaired. I wonder if the railroad workers guessed what kind of “monster” was driving around at night here?

Perhaps, they guessed, but they kept mum. But the fact that it was thanks to these special trains that the Ministry of Railways was forced to reconstruct many thousands of kilometers of railways across the country in a fairly short period of time is true. So, “Good for you” on wheels not only increased the country's defense capability, but also provided assistance in the development of the national economy, increasing the reliability and service life of a part of the railways.

Flight Scheme PC-22

Orbital Warheads

After 4 of October 1957 of the year, the first artificial satellite in the world was launched by a Soviet carrier rocket (and in fact the P-7 combat missile), the leading American media erupted in a whole wave of publications that were very fantastic at that time. Soon in the near-earth orbits of a huge swarm of Soviet "orbital warheads". To combat them, the United States even began to create a multi-shielded anti-missile and anti-satellite defense system consisting of interceptor missiles, anti-satellite missiles, orbital inspectors and combat satellites, the so-called "space fighters". And already in 1959, the Americans made at least two attempts to bring down satellites in near-earth orbit.

Fear, as they say, has big eyes. But who would have thought then that fantasy in the near future, by the efforts of Soviet designers, would become true and the very “deadly threat” to the United States and NATO.

In the middle of the 60 of the last century in the USSR, the idea of ​​creating some kind of "global rocket" and "orbital warhead" began to be worked out. The latter envisaged a partial orbital bombardment of objects in the enemy’s territory: a nuclear warhead on a launch vehicle (ICBM) is being put into space, into near-earth orbit, and there it turns into a kind of artificial mini-satellite that is awaiting a command to attack. Having received such, the "orbital warhead" turned on the engine and descended from orbit, starting a dive at the target assigned to it.

It was almost impossible to intercept such a “cunning” warhead.

The peak of its program to create an “orbital warhead” reached 19 on November 1968, when the P-36orb ICBM entered into service with the Soviet Strategic Missile Forces. Her test was successful and "on the full program" was performed on 16 on December 1965 of the year, the rocket launched from Baikonur and did everything that was necessary. Well, except that the warheads on the territory of the United States did not fall. The program to create the Global Rocket (GR-1) was closed for technical reasons, as was the P-46 rocket project.

P-36orb ensured the launching of the head part into the orbit of an artificial Earth satellite orbital head part (OGC) and its descent from orbit to a target that is outside the range of the ICBM or from the directions not protected by the enemy's anti-missile defense system.

In the USA, the Russian OGCH received the designation FOBS - Fractional Orbit Bombardment System (the system of partial orbital bombardment).

Stopped Soviet engineers only signed in 1968 year, with the approval of the United Nations known space treaty. According to it, the USSR and the USA pledged not to place weapons of mass destruction in outer space. And the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (SALT-2) has already “black and white” prohibited the presence or development of such complexes. By 1984, the P-36orb were finally removed from the mines.

Well, what could have happened in reality, do not sign the two superpowers a treaty on a peaceful space, anyone can see by watching the American adventure film “Space Cowboys” with Clint Eastwood in one of the main roles. There, of course, is shown a combat satellite-missile carrier, and not "orbital warheads." But still…

Miracle weapon

Having closed the topic of "orbital warheads", the Soviet military switched to conventional warheads - ideas arose on how to make them more accurate and less vulnerable to US missile defense systems.

For a long time these works were covered with darkness of mystery and conjectures. Therefore, the statement made by Russian President Vladimir Putin 18 February 2004 of the year at the press conference in Plesetsk on the occasion of the completion of the large-scale exercise Security 2004 sounded like a bolt from the blue and plunged our Western "partners" into the state described in medicine as shock.

The fact is that Putin uttered an unexpected phrase: they say, over time, the Russian Armed Forces will receive "the latest technical complexes that are able to hit targets at intercontinental depth with hypersonic speed, high accuracy and the possibility of deep maneuver in height and course." And then he added, as if he had made a “control shot to the head”: in his message there are no random words, each of them matters!

Only later, the first deputy chief of the General Staff, Colonel-General Yuri Baluyevsky, said that during the exercise, two ICBMs were launched - Topol-M and PC-18. It was here that the “experimental apparatus” stood, which “can bypass regional missile defense systems, bypass certain means that can control it, and, by and large, the apparatus can solve the tasks of overcoming missile defense systems, including promising ones” .

It turns out that instead of the typical head part, which flies along an unchangeable ballistic trajectory, we create a certain device capable of changing both the direction and the altitude of the flight. According to our military leaders, such a system will be put into service before the 2010 year.

Most likely, such a device is supplied with direct-flow air-jet engines of special design, which allow the head part to maneuver in the atmosphere at hypersonic speeds. In the words of the head of our state, these are very “serious complexes that are not the answer to the missile defense system, but for which there is a missile defense system, that there is no missile defense system - it doesn’t matter”.

So ICBMs do not just go to the reserve or retirement, but, on the contrary, continue to improve, gain “the second youth”.

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site:

Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Dragon-y
    Dragon-y 19 September 2014 09: 24
    "... It turns out that instead of a typical warhead that flies along a constant ballistic trajectory, we are creating a device capable of changing both direction and altitude. According to our military leaders, such a system will be put into service until 2010 .. .. "
    Now, like 2014, is it still (or already? ..)
    Well?.. :)
    1. Rurikovich
      Rurikovich 19 September 2014 09: 47
      Why shout about it around every corner ??? Quietly accepted into service and are waiting "in the wings." And then let the adversaries think what we have and what we don't smile
      1. Tanarri
        Tanarri 19 September 2014 15: 38
        Because people with a working brain use nuclear weapons as a deterrent, and not to gouge the floor of the planet.
      2. Kostyar
        Kostyar 19 September 2014 23: 27
        Quote: Rurikovich
        Why shout about it around every corner ??? Quietly accepted into service and are waiting "in the wings." And then let the adversaries think what we have and what we don't smile

        And adversaries, thanks to scum like Serdyukov, and so everyone knows ...
    2. Tyumen
      Tyumen 19 September 2014 10: 32
      Have you read the article to the end? She is 2009.
    3. zulusuluz
      zulusuluz 20 September 2014 10: 40
      So somewhere in the 11th, imperceptibly so, against the background of the "twin towers" and sounded in the news that the launch of this warhead was successful. And there was even an interview with some American military man connected with missile defense, where he regretfully confirmed that their missile defense system is not capable of intercepting such a maneuvering target.
  2. bmv04636
    bmv04636 19 September 2014 09: 42
    Well, as I understand it, from the ICBM RS-26 Frontier can be made and BRZHK.
    1. rubin6286
      rubin6286 19 September 2014 10: 23
      a BRZhK needs a certain structure. This is no ordinary passenger train that runs from station to station. he cannot "drive" all the time. as well as the duty combat shift of the launch located in it. How to equip the parking space of this BZHDK and where, I suggest you come up with your own. maybe then you will understand many other aspects of this topic (maintenance, disguise, etc., etc.). BZHDK is a very troublesome business, however, like PGRK.
      1. bmv04636
        bmv04636 19 September 2014 10: 43
        The new RS-26 Rubezh missile was originally developed as a mobile one, it is lighter than Yars and Topol and is more suitable for BZHRK. And we limited ourselves to the parking and deployment of the BZHRK to please the "light elves" BZHRK bases may be scattered on the territory of the country, and BZHRK can go on alert as nuclear submarines leave, which hinders them.
        1. rubin6286
          rubin6286 20 September 2014 20: 26
          It is not so easy to scatter the country where the BZHDK is based, and PGRK too. You just can’t imagine what it is. As for the nuclear submarines, I’ll enlighten you: launching missiles from it on enemy territory is not possible from anywhere in the World Ocean. Why, I suggest you study it yourself. The boat launches from a specific place called the position area. These positional areas are being established and in peacetime the adjacent side is doing everything possible to detect the boat and to sink it with the beginning of the database. Today, every trip to the SSBN is a cat and mouse game, like that. PGRK - the machine is quite heavy and cannot travel everywhere, because In our country, not all bridges can withstand it. If the place of its permanent deployment has been established, then experts from space intelligence data can determine the estimated routes of the PU’s movement, launch sites and calculate the coordinates for striking.
      2. Daniel
        Daniel 19 September 2014 22: 28
        Quote: rubin6286
        BZHDK is a very troublesome business, however, like PGRK

        And yet
        Russia is developing a military railway missile system

        In terms of its effectiveness, it can be equated with a division of strategic missile forces

        “The power of this military railway missile complex (BZHRK), taking into account the divided warhead, can be equated to a division with stationary mine complexes. Preliminarily calculating the effectiveness of this development, we say that in a counter-strike, and especially in a possible retaliatory strike, the effectiveness and capabilities of strategic nuclear forces increase, ”said Colonel-General Sergei Karakaev, commander of the Strategic Missile Forces.

        While the final decision to complete the development of the BZHRK has not been made, preliminary design is underway, ITAR-TASS reports.

        “Of course, many generations of rocket launchers regret that today there is no such complex. The Supreme Commander asked me about this, I reported to him that I was for the BZHRK, ”the general added.

        The Soviet BZHRK (12 units with 36 missiles) was withdrawn from service in 2005 in connection with the provisions of the Strategic Offensive Arms Reduction Treaty (START), signed in January 1993 by the presidents of Russia and the United States Boris Yeltsin and George W. Bush. The new START-3 treaty does not prohibit the creation of the BZHRK.

        Also, the RS-26 intercontinental ballistic missile, a solid-propellant missile with advanced combat equipment and a multiple warhead, is currently being developed. According to Karakaev, the new rocket will be lighter than the Yars.

        “If we are talking about the mobile soil Yars, then today our launcher weighs more than 120 tons. On the new advanced rocket we will achieve weight characteristics up to 80 tons,” the commander emphasized.
        1. rubin6286
          rubin6286 20 September 2014 20: 37
          This Chief, in fact, says the same thing that I said in my previous comment. Want to have a powerful one. but relatively light PGRK. Then the "geography" of movement expands and the search for such launchers becomes more difficult. I have already said many times that there are no ideal designs and no one has canceled the "golden rule of mechanics". Remember him and you, it will add understanding of the problem. "Yars" is needed to replace missiles with liquid-propellant rocket engines on duty, the service life of which is steadily decreasing. The design of "YARS" provides for installation in existing mines with minimal or no reconstruction at all.
  3. Siberia 9444
    Siberia 9444 19 September 2014 10: 10
    Nobody destroyed my personal opinion "scalpel"! He worked in the Railway Department as a locomotive dispatcher in each U.Zh.D. there is a military department and they brought the package to the head of the locomotive economy service (secret), but the dispatcher received it (signed as expected) and handed it over when the chief arrived. In the package, the military "asked" for the allocation of locomotives (diesel locomotives) for letter trains (the train goes by order), it is allowed everywhere, even passenger trains are staked. And then they brought this package to my shift and then, as luck would have it, they began to go out there and then and the locomotives (to break the schedule) the package, I threw this light hand movement on the next table where all the telegrams lay and the package rolled across the table and fell to the floor (this I did not notice). After a while the deputy comes running. chief (all disheveled) and asks for a package for nuclear trains, I jokingly cut the last train to him the other day (I don't remember which year) And then the mats flew, they all climbed around the package but then found it. As a result, the train went as it should be, and what kind of train went where with what went no one knows. I only know the military, but this is not a simple echelon with equipment, that's for sure. And the train was from .............. hi
    1. 75 hammer
      75 hammer 19 September 2014 12: 20
      They do not go anymore !!! That's for sure!!!
      1. Siberia 9444
        Siberia 9444 19 September 2014 12: 34
        They don’t drive for sure, but they may be in specialized depots in the Siberian taiga. Between Omsk and Novosibirsk there is a Kozhurla station where there is a sedimentation tank. Electric trains are electric locomotives of a diesel locomotive and there must have been steam locomotives used to be called Stock of MPS. And how many such military sedimentation tanks no one knows (except for the military).
      2. The comment was deleted.
    2. 75 hammer
      75 hammer 19 September 2014 12: 20
      They do not go anymore !!! That's for sure!!!
      1. bmv04636
        bmv04636 19 September 2014 12: 32
        stand on the siding and wait for their time. The rocket is almost ready. I have a lot of interesting ideas. There is an idea of ​​bottom-based ICBMs draft designs are Skif
        1. old
          old 19 September 2014 23: 18
          "we are peaceful people, but our armored train is on a side track! ..." - as the saying goes, "you can't throw words out of a song" !!!!! - :)) ........ to me as a veteran - a communications engineer who worked for a long time on the construction of bridges, roads and infrastructure facilities of Gazprom in the Far North, incl. The Arctic region had to participate in the huge construction project "New railway track station Obskaya - Bovanenkovo ​​- st, Karskaya", this single-track through the entire huge Yamal peninsula to the oil and gas field Bovanenkovskoye ", in my deep conviction, was built not only to transport goods for Gazprom, but strategic for military purposes - it can be used to transfer both military equipment and personnel to the Kara Sea and ... to ensure the cruise of the BZHDK, from the northern point of Yamal the scalpel ICBM will fly much closer to Canada and the United States through the North Pole ..... of course I understand that they have powerful missile defense systems "overseas" deployed and from submarines of the "Borey" class you can bludgeon them from under the ice with our "Bulava" from a closer distance, but ... "that's why the pike is in the lake so that the crucian dozing ", you have to nightmare in all ways - :)))
    3. Moore
      Moore 19 September 2014 16: 07
      Do not confuse long with warm.
      1. Under the BZHRK, the military never "asked" for locomotives for one reason - they had their own staff - three for each train.
      2. "Your" train was carrying either "special items", or simply "products" in transport position. They are also literal, to what degree - you have to ask the commendation.
      1. Siberia 9444
        Siberia 9444 20 September 2014 10: 19
        I want to disagree with you, the military had their own diesel locomotives, but they worked only in those parts where the railway infrastructure was developed. There, the railroad workers carried their nose on common highways, only diesel locomotives of the Ministry of Railways operate and when letter trains follow the driver's cab together. the brigade sat down "chekists". The locomotive of the Ministry of Railways brought the train to the desired station and there they took their own. About the cars, these cars were repaired as usual, they were driven into the depot (without nuclear weapons), the undercarriage, braking equipment and auto coupling, were remitted, but they were not allowed inside !!
      2. Siberia 9444
        Siberia 9444 20 September 2014 10: 19
        I want to disagree with you, the military had their own diesel locomotives, but they worked only in those parts where the railway infrastructure was developed. There, the railroad workers carried their nose on common highways, only diesel locomotives of the Ministry of Railways operate and when letter trains follow the driver's cab together. the brigade sat down "chekists". The locomotive of the Ministry of Railways brought the train to the desired station and there they took their own. About the cars, these cars were repaired as usual, they were driven into the depot (without nuclear weapons), the undercarriage, braking equipment and auto coupling, were remitted, but they were not allowed inside !!
        1. rubin6286
          rubin6286 20 September 2014 20: 52
          The troops had everything that was supposed to be for storage, saving and operation of the BZHDK. As for the rolling stock, in the case of its average or overhaul, the composition is sent to the manufacturer in the manner prescribed by order of the Ministry of Defense. As for conventional military cargoes for various purposes, their transportation is carried out by the Ministry of Railways to a specific station, and then. to the final point of unloading, by locomotive brigades troops.
    4. alleksSalut4507
      alleksSalut4507 19 September 2014 17: 07
      It seems that you are now noticed. Have you helped yourself?
    5. Shihamovich
      Shihamovich 13 October 2014 21: 20
      Yes, they just drove nuclear charges to a factory in Snezhinsk or where else! No need to fantasize - the scalpel was cut, there are no more scalpels.
  4. 19 September 2014 12: 33
    Quote: Siberia 9444
    Nobody destroyed my personal opinion "scalpel"! He worked in the Railway Department as a locomotive dispatcher in each U.Zh.D. there is a military department and they brought the package to the head of the locomotive economy service (secret), but the dispatcher received it (signed as expected) and handed it over when the chief arrived. In the package, the military "asked" for the allocation of locomotives (diesel locomotives) for letter trains (the train goes by order), it is allowed everywhere, even passenger trains are staked. And then they brought this package to my shift and then, as luck would have it, they began to go out there and then and the locomotives (to break the schedule) the package, I threw this light hand movement on the next table where all the telegrams lay and the package rolled across the table and fell to the floor (this I did not notice). After a while the deputy comes running. chief (all disheveled) and asks for a package for nuclear trains, I jokingly cut the last train to him the other day (I don't remember which year) And then the mats flew, they all climbed around the package but then found it. As a result, the train went as it should be, and what kind of train went where with what went no one knows. I only know the military, but this is not a simple echelon with equipment, that's for sure. And the train was from .............. hi

    Nuclear waste or <products>, but the BZHRK is long gone, if only, perhaps, they will revive! The missiles for the BZHRK were produced in Ukraine soldier , the agreement, even under the EBN, was signed, but the GDP was forced to comply with it; it was not so firmly entrenched then in power hi ! But if I am mistaken, then God forbid that our developed analogue of a scalpel and bzhrk good , and this weapon is already traveling through the vast expanses of our Motherland-RUSSIA! drinks
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Siberia 9444
      Siberia 9444 19 September 2014 12: 40
      Perhaps in another version it’s not a refrigerator, but 40 foot containers like a club who knows. request
  5. klaus16
    klaus16 19 September 2014 12: 35
    And you can make it even more mobile. How many "trucks" do we have in the country? So let such tilt "scows" with shaitan rockets chase among them. Let them be disposable, shot and forgot, completely forgot. There is such a "wagon" among others near the cafe on the highway, suddenly - the grunt of the tent breaks, and from there there is such a "finger of God", and no one is within a radius of 50 m. This is RATSUKHA!
    1. Leeder
      Leeder 19 September 2014 17: 46
      And imagine this situation - this car got into an accident. Would you like to be nearby?
      1. bmv04636
        bmv04636 19 September 2014 21: 46
        well, what do you imagine two planes collided in the sky, one with a vigorous bomb and not why Spain lives "light elves" will not let them lie, they are masters of losing their vigorous poop
  6. Sergey-8848
    Sergey-8848 19 September 2014 13: 27
    Published article - 5 years. During this time, the vigorous train has already moved far. And not only the train. ICBMs with RGCh IN remain our power (the other two components add confidence that the adversaries even get on the boat ...).
    ISKANDER25 19 September 2014 14: 36
    Thank you! Very informative!
  8. dchegrinec
    dchegrinec 19 September 2014 17: 43
    The next generation rocket, which will be designed for the next three decades, should be called "Kuzkina Mother"!
  9. duchy
    duchy 19 September 2014 19: 28
    Rather, "Kuzkina PRO Granny" or "Granddaughter". laughing
  10. xomaNN
    xomaNN 20 September 2014 15: 29
    Good system article. Despite the five years ago.
    In St. Petersburg in the railway d. museum on b. Varshavsky railway station this year he himself saw the BZHRK "Molodets" Handsome!
  11. I think so
    I think so 21 September 2014 21: 33
    All mobile missile systems are VERY VULNERABLE and do not pose a particular threat. Their actual location is EASY determined by both space and ground-based reconnaissance equipment. And low security allows them to be GUARANTEED to destroy even not very accurate warheads. Moreover, they are even subject to easy destruction by sabotage groups equipped with primitive sniper rifles ... much further to talk about reliability and retaliatory strike if STRATEGIC weapons can be destroyed from a gun ...
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 23 September 2014 16: 08
      I think so too. Such an atomic train always has
      distinctive features that are detected. For bribing or
      drunk - the railroad will tell. And the train route is easy
      calculate. To arrange a diversion. The worst thing is that such a diversion can
      to make such violent terrorists or separatists.
      Launch mines guarded by reliable troops.
      There the scenario of such an attack is unlikely.
    2. Dry_T-50
      24 September 2014 22: 43
      I agree +
      For a retaliatory strike, it is better to make Atomic submarines and super-reinforced mines.
      SSBN-kda is a more secretive platform than PGRK or BZHRK, it carries much more missiles and warheads, and it is better to allow a strike on a "small" nuclear submarine than on its own land.
      ShPU-should distract the enemy’s strategic nuclear forces on themselves, in this case, reducing the number of warheads designed to strike at cities.
  12. tovarisch
    tovarisch 22 September 2014 11: 31
    I liked the article. Thanks to the author!
  13. Prager
    Prager 31 October 2014 18: 38
    Thanks to the author for an interesting informative article. I enjoyed it with pleasure.