A German soldier from the Operational Training and Communication Team OMLT (Operational Mentoring and Liaison-Team) and soldiers of the Afghan National Army (ANA) during a joint patrol in Mazar-i-Sharif
The Principles of Defense Policy, the Bundeswehr Concept and the German Federal Government’s annual White Books on National Security and Defense Policy draw attention to global security challenges in the 21 century: destabilization of entire regions, international terrorism, religiously motivated extremism and fanaticism, and privatization of power , Spread weapons mass destruction along with secret nuclear weapons and the “information war” as a new direction.
For the Bundeswehr with its operations, which are part of the network security policy, these challenges help, together with the lessons learned from modern operations, to outline the goals of ongoing development through transformation in the form of a constant transition process to forces optimized for combat missions. Although classic national and alliance-oriented defense will remain a constant component of the combat missions of the ground forces, operations in the framework of preventing international conflicts and managing the crisis, including the “war on terrorism”, will most likely be conducted in the foreseeable future. Afghanistan and the Balkans serve as an example and show what this means: you need to start with peace enforcement, a usually short and intensive process, then a long process of stabilization, including opposition to asymmetrically acting opponents, and then recovery assistance.
The ground forces are making an indispensable contribution to the safe space, acting as part of a security strategy integrated into a single network. Only in a safe space can sustainable interdepartmental measures aimed at restoration be applied. Safety, security and restoration are independent of each other. Speaking in simple terms, recovery is impossible without security, and stable security is impossible without tangible evidence of improved social and economic conditions for the population.
Consequently, the “ground” part of operations is important, including areas where the population lives, sources of important resources, an economic zone, location of state, social and cultural institutions and, finally, native land for the people. Conflicts, wherever and no matter how they begin, will eventually reach a point where it becomes necessary to seize, retain, or at least control territory. Here, the armed forces with the army as their key component acquire particular operational significance. The key responsibility for land and low-altitude air operations lies with the German army. Only the army, in conjunction with the United Security Service (JSS) and the Joint Medical Center of the Bundeswehr, can provide the necessary "stability" that will dominate the surrounding space of vague borders between combatants and non-involved persons. Almost half of the personnel of the Bundeswehr involved in operations around the world, are representatives of the army. Therefore, the Chief of General Staff clearly formulated his vision of the commander and, thus, determined the scale of planning military equipment for the army: the direction of the mission is the policy and guide to any action.
In the short term, Afghanistan remains the focus of such planning. But in the medium and long term, the army must develop and transform through each category of its capabilities. Considering that the army is capable of conducting joint and joint military operations at any time in the whole range of combat missions and its intensity, ranging from high-intensity combat actions to humanitarian aid, this will also help protect Germany in the future and preserve its political freedom.
An integrated approach of the army to its defense
Success in operations is based not only on well-qualified and motivated personnel, realistic and vocational training and visionary concepts and structures, but also on modern equipment that is suitable for achieving the goal.
The protection of troops in the theater is extremely important when planning the material resources of the German army. The army conducts an integrated approach aimed at more than just the purchase of "armored steel". Protection should be interpreted rather as a complex system of active and reactive components, consisting of the materiel, training and operational doctrine and methods. Modern intelligence tools offer the possibility of creating a clear operational picture regarding allied, as well as unknown, possibly unfriendly forces. Advanced means of information transmission contribute to the superiority of command and control, so that when conducting operations, the analyzed information becomes more accessible much faster. If necessary, targets are destroyed by means of high-precision remote weapons. This integrated intelligence, command and control and impact system, complemented by combat sustainability, helps provide protection for military personnel involved in the operation and the civilian population.
An operations-oriented analysis of materiel planning for the German army provides what is promptly needed. Consequently, current and future weapons projects should help increase operational capabilities. This increased capability will have an impact on all categories of capabilities, including command and control, intelligence gathering, effective destruction, support, combat stability and mobility, and survivability and protection. Operations for the German army already begin with pre-dislocation training in Germany. Therefore, it is important to have the material part in the quantity necessary for such training. This is based on the planned weapons projects of the German army. The selection of such projects, organized according to the categories of capabilities of the armed forces, is presented in the following sections.
Command and control capabilities
The main prerequisites for the capabilities of network operations are created, firstly, in the form of an information system for command and control of the German army (C2I) (FulnfoSysH) and a special command and control system for each type of army (artillery information system (ADLER); an integrated system C2I (operational Management and Information Acquisition System) (IFIS); CCI Operational Management and Information Acquisition System and Arms Control System for Ground Operations (Fu (W) ES LBO); Army aviation battle management systems and information systems (HERGIS); and the medical management, control and communications system (SAFES)); and, secondly, due to effective means of communication (radio relay systems, deployable / mobile (local) networks and joint network radio stations). In the future, only such systems will allow faster access in joint and combined operations to elements of tactical fire, when they need, for example, in general, to provide access to a uniform overall operational picture through all levels of command for the purpose of prompt decision-making.
The modernization of the ADLER system is a key project that upgrades the CCI operational control and information collection system and field artillery weapons control system for current and future operations and creates an information network related to the German army operational control and information collection system. The integrated network is of paramount importance due to the fact that artillery is an important carrier of reconnaissance assets and a vital delivery platform in the integrated fire support system. The development of the modernization of the product ADLER is on schedule. The introduction of adapted hardware and software was completed in 2013 year.
IFIS is an integrated operational control and information collection system CCI and a promising weapon control system for combat units. It is used at the battalion / task force level and below. It complements the functions of the German Army’s C2I system with elements specific to the armed forces and also covers the detachment vehicles and combat groups. IFIS integrates sensors and weapons systems, dismounted and motorized infantry forces into the German Army C2I operational information collection system, thereby making a significant contribution to the capabilities of network-centric operations. It is also important in the development and procurement of IFIS to guarantee the synchronous introduction of new vehicles entering service (the German-Dutch wheeled universal armored vehicle BOXER and the tracked infantry fighting vehicles PUMA, as well as the upgraded tank LEOPARD 2).
The CCI and weapons control system for ground operations are intended for the battalion level and below, specifically for army intelligence, surveillance, information gathering, engineering forces, chemical defense, army communications, supply and JSS (Joint Support Service) units. They provide their necessary functions, thus complementing the core of the German Army’s C2I system software in selected areas. In the theater of operations, the weapons control system and CCI for ground operations integrates newly deployable armored command and combat vehicles and protected transport vehicles into a single information network.
The joint equipment of network radio stations (SVFuA) is a prerequisite for the creation of radio networks and thus a condition for conducting mobile tactical network operations. The rule is: there are no network operations without network!
The development of joint network radio stations based on the technology of programmable radio stations is technically challenging and, therefore, costly. It began in the 2009 year and its prospects are promising. The purchase of the first batch of joint network radio equipment was carried out in 2013 year.
CAMCOPTER S-100 is designed to provide intelligence data through the interface of the German army's C2I system.
Mounted on the DINGO 2, a ground surveillance radar (BUR) combines modern radar and operational control technology with a high level of protection.
Information gathering and intelligence
The ability of the Armed Forces to gather information and conduct reconnaissance as part of an integrated intelligence, command and control and influence system becomes vital because the troops need a quantitative and qualitative increase in information on the theater of operations. This information serves to provide situational awareness in real time, facilitates the analysis of targets and their impact on them, and includes monitoring of limited areas.
The TVD Species Intelligence System (SAATEG) will increase the amount of data for other intelligence assets as part of network operations. There are plans for SAATEG to have two additional systems: MALE UAV (Medium Altitude Long Endurance - medium long flight) used by the German Air Force for surveillance and situational reconnaissance, and VTOL (Vertical Take Off and Landing) UAV for reconnaissance targets and post-combat intelligence, including target identification. The latter component will be used in the theater of operations by the combat commander to meet his, as a rule, time-critical information needs.
The German Army and Navy must adopt the CAMCOPTER S-100 system as the initial means for the VTOL component. Depending on the task, the system was designed to take on board various sensors operating in different ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Flight operations of the CAMCOPTER S-100 are largely autonomous and include automatic take-off and landing. The data from the sensors are transmitted in real time to the ground control station, where the initial image analysis and the transmission of reconnaissance data takes place through the interface of the command and control information system. If necessary, a ground control station is able to act as an intermediary in order to match the flight route with situational needs, for example. The active development of a commercially available air vehicle was carried out in the 2010 – 2012 years. Then the German army and navy began purchasing the CAMCOPTER S-100.
The new ground observation radar (BUR), developed as a “one-car solution”, will have an advanced radar system on a telescopic mast. He is able to detect targets moving on the ground and at low altitude. The built-in hybrid navigation unit allows autonomous navigation to be more or less global. The BUR radar will be installed on a DINGO 2 protected car, therefore the radar will have ballistic, anti-mine and DMP protection. Intelligence data can be calculated and transmitted without any interface to the integrated information command system. The data is entered into an integrated target intelligence / control / hitting system in a time close to real and with a high-quality image of the target.
Adapted to the requirements of modern combat missions with operational control and protection technology, this ground-based surveillance radar was developed as a replacement for existing, difficult-to-operate radars. The qualifying prototype was delivered to the Bundeswehr, after which its serial production began in 2012.
PUMA BMPs are the future armored base in stabilization operations.
Effective defeat opportunities
Efficiency targets for the German army will be improved in the future by adapting the LEOPARD 2 MBT to operations across the full range of combat missions and by developing and purchasing precision weapons outside the affected area, such as an impact system for remote destruction of single and point targets (WABEP).
LEOPARD 2's pilot work on adapting to operations across the full range of combat missions is intended to eliminate the inequality of the capabilities defined in evaluating the experience gained by the allies in Iraq and Afghanistan and other scenarios of possible threats. LEOPARD 2 will receive a new ammunition to enhance its ability to destroy, as well as a new sensor detection system and enhanced protection. The installation of air conditioning systems and improved energy supply will increase the survivability of the crew, even under extreme weather conditions. Optimization of command and control capabilities and integration into network operations should be achieved by installing an integrated CCI system (IFIS) in the OBT. The LEOPARD 2 retrofit program also allows German manufacturers to retain all their necessary know-how. At the first stage, the goal is to equip the equivalent of a company with modernized LEOPARD 2, essentially capable of participating in combat operations, for example in Afghanistan. In the second stage, the LEOPARD 2 MBT should be further optimized for urban operations.
The possibility of destroying a potential enemy faster, more precisely, with greater distance and greater efficiency is given by the example of the new PUMA infantry fighting vehicle. Created to be an armored core in stabilization operations, the PUMA BMP is an example of a high priority given to protection, and embodies the possibility for proportional expansion in response to the increasing threat, as well as the possibility of strengthening enforcement. Its air transport capability as a promising strategic transport aircraft A400M makes PUMA a key element of reactive and strong troops. This will allow the Bundeswehr to quickly deploy troops in the future in the entire range of combat operations of the response and stabilization forces.
FENNEK JFST is part of the future JFS (Joint Fire Support) joint fire support system
The lightweight armored mortar system (120-mm mortar on the WIESEL chassis) has a short response time due to its excellent SLA and high mobility
Operational evaluation tests of serial machines, as part of a comprehensive and coordinated demonstration of this technically sophisticated weapon system, were completed at the end of 2012. Then, in 2013, the first deliveries began, with the goal that the size component of the company would gradually become fully operational.
In order to minimize their own risk, the ability to destroy targets at the greatest possible distance must be achieved. For this, the armed forces need accurate and remote capabilities. If possible, one-on-one contacts should be excluded. Particularly important components of firing indirect aiming that can hit targets at long distances. The principle of the use of proportional means implies the need to reduce to a large extent unforeseen indirect losses. Consequently, the ability to conduct accurate attacks immediately after a target is captured, as well as the ability to distinguish between different targets and stop the delivery of weapons in order to avoid unintended effects.
The main means of providing indirect fire, except for the PzH 2000 155-mm / 52 self-propelled howitzer in service, is the MLRS MARS (Medium-range Artillery Rocket System). Various modifications are planned for both weapon systems, and they will be implemented in the coming years. In addition to purely technical upgrades, they adapt to the conditions of the likely operational scenarios. As a result, the Bundeswehr at one time decided to dramatically increase the number of self-propelled howitzers PzH 2000 in Afghanistan.
The modernization of the MARS weapons system will significantly increase the capabilities of ground forces for the rapid and accurate remote destruction of stationary and moving targets, also in built-up areas, as well as in close combat in any weather and visibility conditions and the threat location at ranges up to 80 km. Currently, the purchase of unitary guided missiles for the MLRS.
The WABEP system allows the German army to detect and destroy stationary and moving high-priority targets with high accuracy at ranges over 100 km. Due to its high accuracy, WABEP can unfold in melee situations when allied forces or innocent bystanders can be hurt. The operator has the ability to cancel tasks. The already available capabilities provided by the reconnaissance UAV KZO from Rheinmetall, supplemented by UAVs with the possibility of loitering. This weapon system can patrol up to a 9 watch over a possible target area and thus does not use apparent escalation of domination.
Another means of accurate fire indirect targeting is a combat mortar system (MrsKpfSys). For the first time, such a system provides infantry units with an independent system network and will perform its tasks thanks to its excellent SLA, the use of a new generation of mortar ammunition, guaranteed combat stability through protection and mobility, and the use of joint fire support JFS. The 120-mm lightweight self-propelled mortar mounted on the WIESEL 2 armored vehicle is an impact vehicle used in a combat mortar system. Initially, eight mortar transporters will be procured, as well as the corresponding MSA and control system, ammunition loading machines and the first batch of high-explosive, lighting and smoke ammunition. There is an intention to purchase more mortar transporters together with additional ammunition and to develop and purchase high-precision laser-guided projectiles. When deploying these components of the system into place, the combat mortar system will be able to show all its combat effectiveness.
The direct cover system MANTIS will significantly increase the level of protection of its forces.
Indirect fire systems and sensor systems for collecting information about targets are important components that the German army provides with integrated fire support system (JFS). JFS is designed to provide immediate fire support at tactical levels. The goal is to be able to deploy, in a coordinated and quick manner, the best-fit and available in the theater of operations weapons for the impact that combat forces need. It is irrelevant who provides fire support with weapons and systems, whether it be an airplane, helicopter gunships, artillery or naval guns. It is important that the appropriate firepower is delivered to the target at the right time.
To accomplish this, JFS includes machines, communications, command and control (including software), and support weapons to coordinate JFS elements. Mutual fire support can thus be provided at the tactical level by land, sea and air systems. This means no less than its own military intelligence system, command and control, the impact associated through the network with the standard systems and allied air and sea platforms. Initially, at the end of 2011, twenty FENNEK reconnaissance vehicles were installed for the 10 Joint Fire Support Teams JFST. The first groups are already ready for operations in Afghanistan.
A prerequisite for JFS is participation or integration into standardized NATO or multinational LINK networks, such as LINK 16 or 22. The interface group for tactical channels of encrypted data should provide the necessary multi-channel capability for this. This group is a key component of the Joint Fire Support (JFS) system. The first group based on the machine DINGO 2 was created in 2011 year.
The TIGER multipurpose support helicopter, due to its combat, defense and fire support functions, serves as a special illustration of the fact that in the German army there is a means of remotely precise armament at low altitudes. With guided and unguided rockets, 12,7-mm heavy machine gun and precise sensors, TIGER is able to destroy targets based on the situation. At the same time, it guarantees the minimum risk of destruction of its weapons systems and crew during the performance of a combat mission.