Military Review

Chernomorsky Admiral Vladimir Alekseevich Kornilov

7
Vladimir Kornilov was born 1 February 1806 of the year. The father of the future naval commander, Alexei Mikhailovich Kornilov, was the governor of Irkutsk and Tobolsk. A naval officer in the past, a participant in the war with the Swedes, who distinguished himself in the first Battle of Rochensalm, Alexei Mikhailovich was a brilliant connoisseur of naval affairs. Shortly after the birth of his second son Vladimir, he and his children and wife, Alexandra Efremovna Fan-der Fleet, moved to the family estate located in the village of Ivanovo in the Tver province. In this place, in the immediate vicinity of the village and nature, the first fourteen years of the life of Vladimir Kornilov passed.

Chernomorsky Admiral Vladimir Alekseevich Kornilov


The boy grew impressionable and capable. He worked under the guidance of invited teachers: Alexey Mikhailovich was convinced that home education much better than school education could provide the initial knowledge and moral stability of his sons. And in 1821, Vladimir was assigned to the Naval Cadet Corps. The first year of study in the corps, with its harsh routines, military discipline and sometimes rude comradely manners, seemed very difficult for a boy who was used to being content. However, he survived, three years later, seventeen-year-old Kornilov was fired as a midshipman. Almost at the same time, his father received the position of senator. Having engaged his connections, Aleksei Mikhailovich procured his son an appointment on the sloop "Mirny", sailing to the Pacific Ocean. For a young sailor, such a trip would be an exciting and excellent school, but it turned out differently - in the North Sea the sloop got into a severe storm, received serious damage and after wintering in Norwegian Arendal was forced to return to Kronstadt.

In 1825, Vladimir Alekseevich was transferred to the Guards naval crew. At that time, inspired by German models, they strenuously implanted frontal bearing and steps, and the sailors earnestly practiced. This service did not please Vladimir, which did not go unnoticed by the leadership - in his personal file it was written: "The vigor necessary for the front is missing." In 1827, Alexey Mikhailovich, through Admiral Senyavin, arranged for his son to be transferred to the ship Azov, under the command of the eminent Russian navigator, captain of the first rank Mikhail Lazarev. Together with the rest of the crew members, Kornilov traveled to the Mediterranean Sea to resist Turkey, which refused to comply with the demands of the Russian Empire for the granting of autonomy to Greece.

Mikhail Petrovich met the midshipman friendly. Immediately having seen his remarkable intellect, nobility of character and rare abilities, blurred, however, by secular interests, he began to closely observe Vladimir. The young officer, on the other hand, boarded the Azov with an ardent “skeptic” - he wanted to fight the Turks, but the daily service strap seemed to him senseless. In terms of interests and education, he was much higher than most of his colleagues, and the secular manners learned in St. Petersburg strongly distinguished him from the rest, hindering convergence with officers.

Soon Kornilov realized that the Lazarev service was not at all like the one he knew in the Northern capital. Mikhail Petrovich demanded reasonable service, directly related to combat training, with the life of the ship and his crew, and demanded that the officers give themselves completely and completely to this business. To plunge completely into the everyday service, only to live with it, seemed to Vladimir Alekseevich impossible. And the captain of "Azov" every day became more and more demanding of him, finding fault with trifles. Relations between them became strained, and one day Mikhail Petrovich called Kornilov to himself for a heart-to-heart talk. He told the young officer that you can’t deal with a business that you don’t like or don’t believe in, and suggested that Vladimir Alekseevich decide whether he wants to stay on navy. Kornilov answered in the affirmative, to which Lazarev said: “In this case, you need to reconsider your views, create new habits, drop everything that separates fellow officers from society, and make friends with the sailors. And you need to learn and learn. From books and from everyday experience. Do you consider yourself educated? As an officer you are ignorant. ”

According to the diaries of Vladimir Alekseevich himself, this episode became a turning point in his life. Brought up from childhood views on the service of an officer, as a military duty to the Fatherland, were resurrected in him with a new force. The fact that until recently it seemed painful official trifles, made sense. The young sailor began to vigorously engage in self-education. Lazarev always remained restrained in communicating with him, but Kornilov constantly felt his attention and support.

Meanwhile, Azov, having rounded the northwestern shores of Europe, found itself in the azure waters of the Mediterranean Sea. A meeting took place first with the Russian ships, and then with the Allied squadrons. The combined fleet approached the Greek shores, and everyone on the ship was expecting a collision with the enemy. The battle with the Turkish fleet occurred on October 8 1827 under Navarin. The Russian squadron consisting of four frigates and four battleships acted with special skill and courage, and Lazarev’s ship was the most distinguished. "Azov" masterly maneuvered, rushed to the ships of the enemy, crushed them with accurate artillery fire. So the baptism of Vladimir Kornilov took place. During the battle, people on the ship acted as parts of a single mechanism, executing each captain's design perfectly. The battle ended with the complete defeat of the Turkish fleet, and on March 23 the 1828 “Azov” ship was the first in stories Russian fleet - was awarded the aft St. George flag.


Ship "Azov" in the picture of Aivazovsky "The Battle of Navarino" (fragment, 1848)


After the war ended in 1829, Vladimir Alekseevich returned to Kronstadt. Soon he was promoted to lieutenant and appointed to command the Swan tender, in which he sailed from 1829 to 1832. He served in the Baltic Fleet diligently, but dreamed of returning Mikhail Petrovich under the command. Lazarev, who was promoted to rear admirals and put in charge of the entire Black Sea fleet, also did not forget his pupil. Under his order, in January 1833 Kornilov was transferred to Nikolaev and appointed an officer for special assignments under the rear admiral. In February of the same year, Mikhail Petrovich headed the squadron went to the Bosphorus in order to help the Turkish sultan against the rebellious Egyptian pasha. Vladimir Alekseevich, on the other hand, was entrusted with the most thorough study of the Dardanel fortifications. Kornilov got down to business together with Lieutenant Evfimy Putyatin, and for excellently drawn up maps of the fortifications of the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles Strait was later ordered by Emperor Nicholas I to be awarded the Order of St. Vladimir.

In February, 1834, Vladimir Alekseevich was approved by the commander of the Themistokl brig. On this ship he sailed by Piraeus and Constantinople, tirelessly doing both his own self-education and the training of his subordinates. Very soon his brig began to be considered one of the best ships of the Black Sea Fleet. The same thing happened on the Orest Corvette, which he was appointed to command in the 1836 year after production to the rank of lieutenant commander. Launched just a week before his arrival, the corvette was equipped, equipped, armed and sent to sea in one winter. And since January 1838 Kornilov, produced in the captains of the second rank, received the frigate Flora standing still on the stocks.
In the winter of 1837, Vladimir Alekseevich became engaged to Elizaveta Vasilievna Novosiltseva. Subsequently, they had three sons and five daughters, but three of the children died at an early age. The admiral's family was very friendly, Vladimir Alekseevich himself loved his children ardently and cared about their upbringing. In his testament, written by 7 in September of 1854, he said: “I will testify to the boys, choosing not to change the service once, and, having made every effort, make it useful to society. Daughters - all follow the mother ... ".

In the same year 1837 in Russia, the book of English captain Glascock “Guide for naval officers of every rank” was published, translated by Kornilov into Russian. Thanks to his brilliant knowledge of foreign languages, Vladimir Alekseevich carefully studied and translated special foreign literature, which could be useful for Russian sailors. So, on the basis of English and French sources, he compiled manuals for lieutenants, watch officers and subaltern officers, as well as instructions for artillery exercises. It is necessary to note the work of Kornilov on the compilation of the new states of supply and armament of the ships of the Black Sea Fleet, which he carried out during the period from 1837 to 1843. This highly complex work played an important role in streamlining the service on domestic courts. And Kornilov was the organizer of work on the creation of a first-class library for naval officers in Sevastopol.



The military service of Vladimir Alekseevich continued as well - during the operations of the navy in support of ground forces operating in the Caucasus, Kornilov was responsible for the preparation and landing of landings on the coast. Russian General Nikolai Rajewski wrote about the landing at the mouth of the Tuapse River: “Lieutenant Commander Kornilov had a great influence on the success of the operation. ... With speed, he moved all the rowing ships, keeping perfect order between them. With the soldiers of the Tenginsky regiment and the sailors, he first jumped ashore to occupy an important point for covering the arriving troops ... ", and a little later about landing troops at the mouth of the Shahe River:" ... Kornilov was among the first to jump ashore, and along with the vanguard rushed for repelled the attack of the enemy, which greatly contributed to the first decisive success. With the landing of the second voyage, the captain, making up a consolidated team of rowers, with exemplary determination led them to the attack ... ”

By 1840, Vladimir Alekseevich already had wide fame in the navy as an excellent commander and one of the best students of Admiral Lazarev. Mikhail Petrovich, in turn, continued to educate a worthy successor in Kornilov. During the summer voyages, he placed him as chief of his headquarters, gave various responsible assignments, and at 1840, after Vladimir Alekseevich’s production as a captain of the first rank, he appointed the 120-gun ship of the Twelve Apostles under construction at the Nikolaev shipyard.


IK Aivazovsky "Ship" Twelve Apostles "


The new appointment turned out to be due to the need to observe and control the construction of this unique vessel, which, in turn, required Kornilov to expand information in the field of shipbuilding. He preferred to personally delve into all the details of the supply and armament of the ship, trying not to lose sight of any details. At the initiative of Vladimir Alekseevich, for the first time in the domestic navy, the “Twelve Apostles” installed bombing artillery, which fully justified itself already at the first practical shooting. 15 June The 1841 ship was launched, and the commander assumed responsibility for "the integrity of him and everything on him." It took about another year to complete all the work - to arm the ship with artillery, put up a spar and rigging, paint the ship, make the interior trim. Only in May, 1842 "Twelve Apostles", for the first time raising a pennant and a flag, entered the Nikolaev raid.

The command of Vladimir Alekseevich by the ship “Twelve Apostles” constituted a whole epoch in the life of the Black Sea Fleet. Not to mention that it was the best ship on the Black Sea for technical qualities, the order of service developed and implemented by Kornilov was excellent - Admiral Lazarev himself approved it as a model for the rest of the ships. The military administrative qualities of Vladimir Alekseevich appeared at that time with all the brightness. He knew each of his subordinates well; discipline on the ship was built on conscious loyalty and love for the cause of sailors and officers. Being a man of tremendous tact, polite and restrained, Kornilov never climbed into the orders and orders of his commanders, but none of their mistakes escaped his attention and was dismantled in the captain's cabin in the evening.

In 1846, he transferred command of the ship to Lieutenant Commander Yergomyshev, while he himself went to England to control the construction of the Vladimir Steamer and the three Elborus, Sulin and Taman steam ships, and also to study the production of naval affairs, organization and general condition of the British naval forces. The longer Vladimir Alekseevich’s business trip lasted, the more new instructions he received from Lazarev, who asked him to start building port ships and barges, an excavator with a separate towing ship, ordering lightning rods, tools, maps, drawings, books, collecting information about floating beacons. A long stay in a foreign land Kornilov, he wrote in his diary: "The capital of capitals (London) is more than tired of me - oppressed."

Kornilov returned to Russia in October, 1848, and soon, in connection with Lazarev's petition, he was promoted to rear admirals. In the winter of 1848-1849, in the responsible naval posts in Sevastopol and Nikolaev, unforeseen changes occurred, and Mikhail Petrovich was faced with the question of the appointment of a new head of the Black Sea Fleet. Lazarev wrote: “We have a lot of counter-admirals, but is it easy to choose one who, without fear in critical circumstances, could be entrusted with the honor of the nation and the honor of the flag?” In April, 1849, Vladimir Kornilov was appointed acting head of the fleet headquarters, but only a year and a half later, in July, 1850 was appointed to this position.

Over several years of his tenure as chief of staff, Vladimir Alekseevich, through regular inspections and inspections, visited a total of over fifty ships, that is, the entire combat fleet core. Inspections and sailing on ships allowed him to identify the most important shortcomings in the organization of training of seafarers. Thanks to his perseverance, a special school for junkers was established, Kornilov sailed every year along with midshipmen, participated in examination boards, and contributed to the introduction of the most reasonable pedagogical techniques. Hydrography has become another important area of ​​seafarer's headquarters activities. Subordinate to the hydrographic department of the headquarters with the observatory, printing house, depot maps and library, as well as the management of the Azov and Black Sea lighthouses, Kornilov skillfully supervised the research of the Black Sea and navigation support for navigation of ships.

In April, 1851 died Admiral Lazarev. In St. Petersburg, it was considered inconvenient to officially hand over the command of the Black Sea Fleet to the still rather “young” Kornilov, and therefore the command was assigned to the “half-dead” 75-year-old Vice Admiral Moritz Berh. In fact, all the affairs of fleet management were in the hands of Vladimir Alekseevich. Every year, under his leadership, programs were designed for sailing ships of the Black Sea Fleet, and the deployment of formations and units was developed. The headquarters also was in charge of the state and number weapons, hospitals, the development of call signs, the appointment of officers, sentries. Reports from commanders of ships about the results of voyages, shooting, exercises, reports about incomplete crews, about cruising off the Caucasian coast, about transport flights, reports about innovations flowed here. However, the sphere of activity of Vladimir Alekseevich went beyond the framework of the headquarters - he was forced to deal with issues under the jurisdiction of intendance and construction department, to work on the draft of the new Maritime Charter, and regularly to report on the needs of the Black Sea Fleet make trips to St. Petersburg. Managing the Black Sea Fleet, Vladimir Alekseevich did not miss the care of the personnel, strictly collecting those commanders who were not interested in meeting the needs of their subordinates and were not an example for them in their activities. He said: “Carelessness or indiscriminate regarding the preservation of the health of the team can not be anything apologetic.” Contemporaries were struck by the performance of Kornilov, his energy seemed inexhaustible. He himself said in one of the letters: "It is now two o'clock in the morning, and on his feet at six it is honor every day." His flag officer wrote: “He filled up the work of those close to him, even his adjutant, hardworking, like a bee, used to say that he sometimes gets out of his way, but cannot complain, since Vladimir Alekseevich works more than he does.”

In the 1853 year, relations between Turkey and Russia became strained again. The inevitability of such a clash Vladimir Alekseevich has long foreseen Soon after Lazarev's death, he sent Nikolay I a note containing proposals for strengthening the Black Sea Fleet, increasing the rank of ships to the rank of the largest ships of the English fleet, and introducing screw ships. The project, by the way, was adopted, but in an extremely curtailed form. Kornilov was given permission to lay a screw ship in Nikolaev, and two more to pass on a row. In addition, the naval commander managed to knock out funds for the completion of the Sevastopol docks, which had been laid down under Lazarev, and the expansion of the Admiralty. Developing the plans left by Mikhail Petrovich, Kornilov worked out a project of transportation across the Black Sea in the event of war, which was later partially implemented, as well as projects to strengthen the fleet armament and active operations on the Bosphorus.

In February, 1853 of the year, on the steamer Thunderbearer, Prince Menshikov left for negotiations with the Turkish Sultan as an extraordinary Russian ambassador. Kornilov was also among those accompanying him. Well remembering the city from its previous stay in 1833, the admiral carefully studied the changes that took place in it, familiarized himself with the vessels standing in the raid, and made a trip to Piraeus and the Sea of ​​Marmara, during which he noted changes in the fortifications of the Bosporus and Dardanelles. Then, without waiting for the end of the protracted negotiations, Kornilov returned to Sevastopol. What he saw allowed Vladimir Alekseevich to adjust the strategic plan of the assault on the Bosporus, which had been prepared in advance. According to the plan sent by Admiral 19 in March (the day after his arrival from Constantinople), Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich was asked to start spreading rumors about preparing attacks on Burgas or Varna, and in fact to attack the fleet and the troops of Buyukdere - the summer residence of the Sultan on the Bosphorus. At the same time, Prince Menshikov returned from Constantinople with the news of the rupture of all diplomatic relations. Without hesitation, Kornilov put the Black Sea fleet ports and all ships on alert, and also began cruising between the Bosphorus and Sevastopol. The transportation of troops to the Caucasus began quickly and clearly in order to keep the region in the event that the Turks intend to support the terrible movement of Shamil.

The attack on the Bosphorus proposed by Vladimir Alekseevich was rejected in St. Petersburg. In this regard, the admiral has developed a new action plan - the immediate seizure of Sizopol and Sinop, the best Turkish ports on the Rumelian and Anatolian shores. The defense of these places could be successfully carried out even by small forces and created a protective triangle with a peak in Sevastopol, capable of providing Russians with both freedom of action on the Black Sea and the possibility of a future blockade of the straits. Despite the fact that the initial requirements for the implementation of this plan were feasible, he was rejected by the commander-in-chief, Prince Menshikov.

In November 1853, Kornilov, at the head of his squadron, went to sea with the aim of conducting a reconnaissance of the Gulf of Burgas and Varna. During this voyage, he captured the 10-gun Turkish steamer Pervaz-Bahri. By the way, the battle between the 10-cannon steam-frigate "Vladimir", carrying the flag of the Black Sea Fleet Chief of Staff, and the Turkish vessel was the first battle of steam ships in history. After him, Kornilov wrote: "Now I have an idea about the battle of ships between themselves and about the special tactics that they must abide by." In the future, the tactics of the new steam fleet were continuously improved and developed. After taking Pervaz-Bakhri to Sevastopol, Kornilov went to join the squadron of Pavel Nakhimov, who, in turn, having learned about the appearance of the fleet of the Turks from Sinop, rushed there in full steam. Vladimir Alekseevich approached Sinop when the famous battle was over. In the joy with which he congratulated his old friend, there was not even a shadow of envy. Kornilov wrote to his wife: “Glorious battle, higher than Navarin and Chesma ... Bravo Nakhimov! Mikhail Petrovich is happy for the student. ” After this glorious victory, it was easy to capture Sinop and realize the first part of the Kornilov plan. However, the admiral had to abandon this and submit to orders that did not open any prospects for the navy.

During the winter period of 1853-1854, Vladimir Alekseevich was engaged in restoring the combat capability of ships after intensive voyages and enhancing the protection of the key base of the navy from the sea. On the initiative of Kornilov, three coastal batteries were built in the depths of the Sevastopol raid (Paris, Twelve Apostles, and Svyatoslavskaya), and in March, construction began on two more intended to fire near the approaches to the raid entrance. In Europe, meanwhile, was restless, the Battle of Sinop received a loud response, the English cabinet under the leadership of Lord Eberdin, firmly intent on not engaging with Russia in the war, was disbanded, and the new Palmerston, with the support of France in the person of Napoleon III, actively advocated military action . In the press of both countries, it was repeated in different ways: "It is time to sweep the Russian flag away from the sea. ... For Europe, innocuous Turkey is preferable than a despotic and all-powerful Russia." Finally, March 28 1854, France, and behind her, and England declared war on the Russian Empire. Soon their combined fleet entered the Black Sea, preparing to transport troops to the Crimea. Despite the superiority of forces, Vladimir Alekseevich continued to insist on active operations at sea, but cautious Menshikov imposed a ban on all major operations. One of the most remarkable moments in the history of the emerging steam fleet was the raiding of Russian steamboats on the enemy’s long-distance communications under conditions of his domination of the sea in the summer of 1834. In exceptionally difficult conditions, Kornilov organized the first in the world actions of steam raiders - the steam-frigates “Elborus”, “Vladimir” and “Taman” boldly left Sevastopol, reached Varna, Sinop, the Bosporus, made reconnaissance of the enemy forces of the enemy, destroyed its transport vessels, disrupted transport on the most important communications and instilled fear.

1 September 1854 of the year in view of Sevastopol appeared united enemy fleet. Kornilov together with Nakhimov watched his movement from the tower of the Maritime Library. There was no way to calculate the number of ships, as it turned out later, the enemy fleet numbered over 360 pennants. The ships passed to Evpatoria, where the landing began. Following this, the 8 of September was the battle of the Alma River, which ended as a result of the mistakes of the Russian command by the retreat of our army to Sevastopol. However, since the appearance of the enemy off the coast of the Crimea, Vladimir Alekseevich took measures to counter it. 2 September he established the fleet disposition, gave orders about the readiness of ships, threw the first battalions, assembled from the sailors, to the shore, stopped all port works, switching the craftsmen to the defensive line. By the way, Sevastopol from the sea was a formidable fortress - in addition to the ship’s artillery, the city was protected by thirteen batteries of 611 guns. However, from land, in particular from the North, where Allied troops landed, the city was extremely weakly protected. It was located only near 200 small-caliber guns, and the surrounding hills were not used at all in the defense system and gave the enemy who occupied them the opportunity to gain dominance over the fortifications and quickly suppress them.

September 9 held a military council, which was attended by the commanders of all ships. The question of the future use of the fleet. Vladimir Alekseevich stood for his release into the sea with the aim of giving the decisive battle to the enemy. The balance of forces in the autumn of 1854 eliminated any possibility of victory for the Russians, and Kornilov understood this perfectly well, relying only on the suddenness of the attack, imposing a boarding battle and undermining his own and enemy ships with inflicting such losses on the enemy fleet that would disrupt all his further operations. Such a proposal also expressed his readiness for a heroic death in order to preserve the honor of the flag. However, the loss of the fleet jeopardized the defense of Sevastopol - the main base, which is the key to the Black Sea. In this regard, most of the commanders who were present at the council spoke out against the Kornilov plan, deciding to sink several old ships at the entrance to the bay in order to prevent enemy squadrons from breaking through into the port. On the night of September with 10 on 11, seven ships were cut through the bottoms, and they slowly went under water. Flooding with pain was perceived by all the Black Sea sailors, Kornilov wrote: “It's sad to destroy your work! We have spent a lot of efforts to keep the ships doomed to the victim in an enviable order. But you need to submit - Moscow was burning, and Russia became stronger. ... We are needed for the defense of the city, where our houses and families are. ”

Vladimir Alekseevich turned all his forces on strengthening the defense of Sevastopol from land. The admiral formed four airborne and two reserve battalions, personally inspected all the fortifications, but he soon fell another grief. Menshikov, having withdrawn all land forces from the city, entrusted the defense of the city to the sailors removed from the ships and the small garrison, while he himself with the whole army retreated to Belbek. Leaving the city, the prince did not give any orders about defense, and the command of the garrison at this difficult time passed to the elderly and inactive Lieutenant General Moller. Nakhimov was appointed head of defense of the South side of Sevastopol, and Kornilov was appointed head of the North. Thus, the command of the two city parties was not united, which could have the most disastrous consequences. Fortunately, Kornilov and Nakhimov knew each other very well and had the same views on the tasks of the defense of the city.

The burden of responsibility for Vladimir Alekseevich was aggravated by the fact that he spent his whole life at sea and many of the problems of land defense organization were not known to him. He devoted free moments of rest, reading the corresponding books in Russian and foreign languages. Also, he was rescued by the ability to instantly navigate the environment, lead people, inspire them. The appeals of Kornilov, imbued with a deep patriotic feeling, ease of treatment of subordinates, concern for the supply, nutrition, clothing of soldiers, gained him enormous prestige among ordinary warriors. At every meeting and parting with him, the soldiers among themselves said: “This is how General is the father, not General ...”.

With the inherent ability to pick up assistants for himself, the admiral put in charge of the engineering service Edward Totleben, who wrote: “The disposition of the troops and the outline of the fortification are entrusted to me by the adjutant general Kornilov. Admiral Nakhimov also helps us and everything is progressing well ... ” However, to create a reliable defense system of the Northern side of the city for the short time available to Kornilov and his assistants was impossible even with superhuman efforts. Despite all the work done, the defense of the North side in the event of an assault was hopeless, Vladimir Alekseevich himself said on this subject: “The retreat is impossible, all those who have come here will lie down forever. Death does not frighten me, but to be taken prisoner is terrible ... ” However, neither he nor Nakhimov was discouraged and supported among the defenders of the city a resolute and cheerful mood. In one of the orders, Kornilov wrote: “We will fight to the last. Nowhere to retreat - behind us is the sea. I prohibit all heads to beat the line, drummers must forget this shameful signal. ”

The enemy did not hurry with the attack. Having made a gross mistake, the Allied command found it more advantageous to storm Sevastopol from the south. Without weakening the pace of work on the construction of fortifications on the North side, Kornilov and his battalions hurried to the aid of Nakhimov, at the request of the latter, taking overall command of the defense of the city. Meanwhile, the enemy deployed large-scale trench work, giving Sevastopol time to intensify. Not only a few garrison soldiers and sailors, but also civilians worked on the construction of new fortifications. However, the time for a decisive battle was near. Vladimir Alekseevich spoke about this in his brief and expressive instructions. In the last of them, released on October 3, the admiral reminded the defenders of the principle on which the special strength of the Russian army was always based: "Everyone remember that to succeed you need to think not of yourself, but of a comrade." It was the same truth that Suvorov expressed with the words: “Perish yourself, but help a comrade out!”



In the morning of 5, the Allies opened a cruel cannonade around the city. The flag officer Kornilov wrote: “... On the fifth bastion, Kornilov and Nakhimov, going up to the banquet at the outgoing corner, talked for a long time and followed the damage done by our artillery. The nuclei whistled around us, dousing the blood of the dead and the ground, bombs burst around, hitting the cannon servant ... ”. Leaving Pavel Stepanovich, Kornilov continued to detour fortifications. The appearance of the beloved commander everywhere lifted the spirit of the defenders. Upon learning that the enemy’s fire inflicted heavy damage on the defenders of the third bastion, the admiral immediately went there. He was persuaded not to take risks, but he replied that he could not fail to see "all his heroes on the field of their differences" and that, along with them, he would do his duty. From the third bastion, Vladimir Alekseevich went to Malakhov Kurgan, where there was also a violent exchange of fire with the enemy. At twelve o'clock in the afternoon, the fragments of an exploded nucleus crushed the left leg of Kornilov, who was walking towards his horse.
In an unconscious state, the mortally wounded admiral was taken to hospital. There he regained consciousness, managed to say goodbye to Istomin, listened to the joyful news of success in the fight against the batteries of the enemy, and died. One of his last words was: “When the conscience is calm, it is pleasant to die. God bless Russia! ” The command passed to Nakhimov, who until his death, no less valiant than the death of a previously fallen friend, along with Totleben, Istomin, generals Khrulev, Khrushchev, Vasilchikov bravely and resolutely continued the defense of his native city. October 6 1854, the body of Vladimir Alekseevich was buried near the grave of Lazarev in the crypt of the Vladimir Cathedral.

According to the materials of books N.M. Korobkova "Vice-Admiral Kornilov" and S. B. Kuzmina "Admiral Kornilov"
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 19 September 2014 10: 04
    +2
    Russia is proud of their names!
    1. Sergei1982
      Sergei1982 19 September 2014 15: 10
      +1
      We should be proud of such people, Kornilov, Nakhimov, Istomin, Lazarev are the founders of the Black Sea Fleet.
      1. Walking
        Walking 19 September 2014 17: 21
        0
        These were warriors, heroes!
  2. aszzz888
    aszzz888 19 September 2014 13: 05
    0
    Great people, great feats!
  3. sso-xnumx
    sso-xnumx 19 September 2014 13: 47
    +1
    True Sailor and Warrior !!
    1. Gomunkul
      Gomunkul 19 September 2014 15: 46
      0
      True Sailor and Warrior !!
      and a statesman!
    2. The comment was deleted.
  4. Roman 11
    Roman 11 19 September 2014 18: 28
    0
    Kornilov is generally a good surname) In PMV there was his own Kornilov and also a heroic legend.
  5. Cristall
    Cristall 19 September 2014 19: 18
    0
    Kornilov is a worthy student of Lazarev. Like Nakhimov.
    It was he who saved Sevastopol (along with Nakhimov) It was he who fell for him (along with the same Istomin)
    At the parachute frigate he rushed to Taif .. being in the worst position (fewer guns and less speed)
    A favorite of women but a good family man.
    Honor and glory to the hero of that era and war
  6. rakiuzo
    rakiuzo 20 September 2014 12: 20
    +1
    Audiatur et altera pars!

    I just want to translate part of one article from Turkish sources. This article is very long, but interesting. There are drawn the positions and course of action of the ships during the battle on Navarino. I hope you will be interested to know how that war is described in Turkish sources. Once again, I want to note that I did not translate the article completely, since the material was very large.

    Ottoman Imperial Fleet (OIF) - 106 ships - large and small ships - no firewalls included (Firemen - during the battles they were burned and sent to the side of the enemy to burn their ship). The chief commander of the UIF is Ibrahim Pasha, the son of the Egyptian Governor of the Ottoman Empire. He was not in the battlefield throughout the battle! The commander of the Turkish part of the fleet is Tahir Pasha; the commander of the Egyptian part of the fleet - Muharrem Bay. The United Fleet (PF) on October 19 approached the Bay of Navarina. The position of the UIF is the two-horned moon. The UIF commanders agreed to take the OFA to the Gulf for negotiations.
  7. rakiuzo
    rakiuzo 20 September 2014 12: 21
    +1
    14:10 - Frigate Darthmouth (English) anchored between the Egyptian frigate and one firewall.
    In addition, the English relatively small brig Rose (carrying 18 cannons) was located near Dartmouth; Brisk (carried 10 pushi) remained at the entrance to the bay); Musquito (English, carrying 10 guns) and Philomelus (carrying 18 guns) went to the right phalanx with the huge galleon Albion (carried 74 guns); The French Daphne (carrying 6 guns) and the English Hind (carrying 10 guns) anchored there on the right phalanx.

    14:15 - The English admiral galleon Asia (carried 84 guns) anchored on the right side against Ihsaniye - the Egyptian admiral ship (carried 64 guns), but did not stop and swam to the gallean Kukhurevan - Turkish Admiral Galleon (carried 84 guns).

    In addition, the English galleon of Genoa (carried 74 guns) was located against the Turkish galleon Burjuzafer (carried 70 guns). Galleon Albia advanced with the French Galleon Breslav (carried 84 guns) and anchored against the Turkish Galleon Fatihibahri (carried 84 guns). At the second stage of the war (after the outbreak of war), the Russian galleon Azov rushed here (carried 74 guns).

    14:20 - Dartmouth, for some reason, he lowered 2 boats into the sea and sent them in the direction of an Egyptian firewall; and they answered with warning shots from a rifle, some sailors were injured in boats; Darthmouth opened fire to protect his boats. After the war, a report was sent by Ibrahim Pasha to Istanbul about how the war began. Ibrahim Pasha writes that the commanders did not understand why Dartmouth launched two boats in which there were 80 sailors and they moved towards the firewall, apparently wanted that firewall to change its position. But even this was initially unacceptable, but it seemed enough for Egypt to open warning fire, if they opened fire on defeat, the course of the war could have been different.

    French historians say - (Admiral Jorien Gravier in his work) - Admiral Coringtin, after this unexpected event, sent one pilot to Ihsaniye galleon so that that side would preserve its neutrality (Admiral Muharrem Bey was there), but in the galleon that pilot was lost by one simple sailor, when the sailor found out that the pilot was one of the local Greeks. Ibrahim Pasha writes in his report (No. 56) that, as Muharrem Bey gave the order, in no case do not open fire first. And then the French decided to open fire and the battle took over.
  8. rakiuzo
    rakiuzo 20 September 2014 12: 21
    +1
    The First Stage of the War

    Skirmishes between Darthmouth and the firewall continued until 14:55. And then the Turks burned the firewall and sent it to the side of Dartmouth. But the fire only burned the sails of the enemy and drowned, after which Dartmouth opened fire on the Elmirach firage.

    The Turks burned the second firebrand and sent it to the side of the Sirene (French Firagette, carrying 50 guns), but boats came down from Darthmouth and Rosa and threw ropes onto the firewall. They dragged a firebrand into the open sea. Brander burned on without damaging anything. Musquito (English, carrying 10 guns) was shot by Turkish fragments shots, they were helped by the Ottoman artillery, which was located on the island of Sfaktel.

    Philomel (carrying 10 guns, English) went on a duel with another Turkish firebrand, but received a serious wound and left the battle. Brisk (carrying 10 guns, English) attacked the same firewall, but they would also not have been able to if the Russian fleet had not entered the bay in time.

    The French schooner Alzion (carrying 10 guns) lost his position from the center after firing Turkish fragments, she lost the steering wheel of the ship and fell into the galleon of Breslau (French, carrying 84 guns).

    Galleon Kyuhurevan (Tour, Admiral, 84 guns) and Galleon Asia (English, 84 guns, Admiral) took a duel. Both were seriously injured.

    Fragett Ihsaniye (Egyptian, Admiral, 64 cannons) and Skipyon galleon (Fr., 64 cannons) took up a duel, one Turkish fireman went there, he burned himself at the head of Skipion, some guns and ammunition exploded, the Skipion commander thought of opening a grand which had not yet burned out, and he thus managed to leave the battle. And Meseborda, while Skipyon managed to leave the battle, opened fire and finished off the dying firewall.

    Elmina and Sirene began a duel.

    Burjuzafer and Genoa duel. Genoa commander died after the battle, seriously injured; on the galleon of Genoa, 20 sailors were killed, 37 were injured.

    Fatihibahri took on a duel against Albion and Breslav.

    Around 15:00, Admiral Codringtin miraculously survived, a splinter hit him in the hours when he commanded on a paluyut, the clock fell to the sea.

    Fragety Armide (FR, 44 guns), Talbot (Ang, 48 guns), Glaskov (Ang, 50 guns) and Kambriyan (Ang, 48 guns) were in a difficult situation in the battles against the Turkish fragments, until the Russian fleet went into the bay.

    Turkish sources write that the Russian fleet entered the bay at 15:00.
  9. rakiuzo
    rakiuzo 20 September 2014 12: 21
    +1
    The First Stage of the War

    Skirmishes between Darthmouth and the firewall continued until 14:55. And then the Turks burned the firewall and sent it to the side of Dartmouth. But the fire only burned the sails of the enemy and drowned, after which Dartmouth opened fire on the Elmirach firage.

    The Turks burned the second firebrand and sent it to the side of the Sirene (French Firagette, carrying 50 guns), but boats came down from Darthmouth and Rosa and threw ropes onto the firewall. They dragged a firebrand into the open sea. Brander burned on without damaging anything. Musquito (English, carrying 10 guns) was shot by Turkish fragments shots, they were helped by the Ottoman artillery, which was located on the island of Sfaktel.

    Philomel (carrying 10 guns, English) went on a duel with another Turkish firebrand, but received a serious wound and left the battle. Brisk (carrying 10 guns, English) attacked the same firewall, but they would also not have been able to if the Russian fleet had not entered the bay in time.

    The French schooner Alzion (carrying 10 guns) lost his position from the center after firing Turkish fragments, she lost the steering wheel of the ship and fell into the galleon of Breslau (French, carrying 84 guns).

    Galleon Kyuhurevan (Tour, Admiral, 84 guns) and Galleon Asia (English, 84 guns, Admiral) took a duel. Both were seriously injured.

    Fragett Ihsaniye (Egyptian, Admiral, 64 cannons) and Skipyon galleon (Fr., 64 cannons) took up a duel, one Turkish fireman went there, he burned himself at the head of Skipion, some guns and ammunition exploded, the Skipion commander thought of opening a grand which had not yet burned out, and he thus managed to leave the battle. And Meseborda, while Skipyon managed to leave the battle, opened fire and finished off the dying firewall.

    Elmina and Sirene began a duel.

    Burjuzafer and Genoa duel. Genoa commander died after the battle, seriously injured; on the galleon of Genoa, 20 sailors were killed, 37 were injured.

    Fatihibahri took on a duel against Albion and Breslav.

    Around 15:00, Admiral Codringtin miraculously survived, a splinter hit him in the hours when he commanded on a paluyut, the clock fell to the sea.

    Fragety Armide (FR, 44 guns), Talbot (Ang, 48 guns), Glaskov (Ang, 50 guns) and Kambriyan (Ang, 48 guns) were in a difficult situation in the battles against the Turkish fragments, until the Russian fleet went into the bay.

    Turkish sources write that the Russian fleet entered the bay at 15:00.

    SECOND STAGE OF WAR

    Elmirach (Tour), after heavy shots by Darthmouth and Sirene, was to leave the battle at 15:10. On Siren, 3 officers and 21 sailors were killed during the war, and 66 sailors were injured.

    There was a fire in the galleon of Asia, which stood on against the galleon of Kukhurevan. They put out the fire with the help of the crew of the Hind galleon. Opponents managed to cut the ropes of Kukhurevan, and the galleon moved away from the battle for 10 minutes; and in these 10 minutes, Asia fired powerful shots at the Ihsaniye fragment. Theirs was seriously wounded. Kukhurevan returned to battle and fought until 16:00; half of the 800 sailors died; all his boats were burned; but other boats from corvettes pulled him beyond the battlefield. Later, Asia reported on her losses - 19 dead, 57 wounded.

    After leaving the battle Kukhurevan, Asia opened fire again on Ihsaniye, 16:30 - Ihsaniye burns!

    Murshijihad (Egyptian frigate, 64 guns) - drowned at 17:00 after an explosion of ammunition.

    Galleon Fatihibahri (Tour); It began to burn after the shots of Breslav, Albion and Azov at 17:30.

    Burjuzafer lost a duel against the galleon of Genoa (Eng), and this did not leave a single galleon on the battlefield. The British and French opened fire on the Turkish corvettes and the death toll increased greatly.

    Frigate Fevuznusrat (Tour) drowned after an explosion of ammunition.

    17:22 - The bay remained under the fog after fires / explosions and the sun began to set; the battle calmed down.
  10. rakiuzo
    rakiuzo 20 September 2014 12: 22
    +1
    After the war, the Ottomans of 106 ships left 1 frigate, 7 corvettes, 8 brigs, 22 small transporters. The exact number of deaths is unknown. The French admiral writes that the death toll of the Ottomans is 6000.
    The loss of the English Navy - 75 dead, 197 wounded.
    The loss of the French Navy - 43 dead, 144 wounded.
    The loss of the Russian Navy - 59 dead, 139 wounded.