The NATO summit in Wales turned out to be the most hostile towards Russia over the past two decades. The central theme was the creation of the so-called rapid reaction force. The new group will be aimed at deploying along the border with Russia. They spoke at the summit and on strengthening the Baltic air patrol missions (in fact, a sharp strengthening of the NATO Air Force grouping on the north-western borders of Russia). Meanwhile, after 1991, the capital of our Motherland has become almost a border town. A modern strike aircraft overcomes the distance from the Russian border to Moscow in 15 – 20 minutes. How is the situation with the main object air defense?
Among the various ways of weakening the defense power of our Motherland with intent (and without it, from an excess of our own foolishness) the most widely used recently are the following - endless organizational and staff activities (to form, disband, transfer to other states, redeploy, reassign). Using such methods, even the most combat-ready compounds and parts can be brought to the stage of decomposition in just a few years. And as the operational cover of this leapfrog, as a rule, the most good goals are used, in particular the increase in combat and mobilization readiness. In fact, such actions are just a terrible disease, which has long and firmly seized certain representatives of the military department.
And now, in the plans of lovers of organizational-regular insanity, further improvement of the military administration bodies and the next (already difficult to say what in a row) attempt to create a more or less coherent aerospace defense system of our country are planned.
What is supposed to be done. Given the formation of the Northern Strategic Command fleet (this is what modern military thought has already reached) from the 1st Air Force and Air Defense Command, subordinate the North Sea Air Defense Command to the Northern Fleet Command, and transfer the Rzhev Air Defense Command from the Air Defense Command of the Air Defense Command of the Air Defense Forces to the 1st Air Force and Air Defense Command (by and large in order to preserve the latter).
The upcoming transformations in the system of air defense and missile defense in the part relating to the Central region of the country seem not fully thought out and reasoned. To correctly understand and understand this far from new issue, it is necessary to undertake a small militaryhistorical excursion (as they organized the air defense of the capital in previous years).
20 August 2014 turned 60 to the Moscow District of the Air Defense, the successor and heir to the combat glory of which is the Air Defense and Missile Defense Command of the East Kazakhstani Army. The district (and subsequently the Command) was preceded by many associations, their main task was the air defense of Moscow and the Central Industrial District.
From 1918 to 1938, the air defense forces and means of the capital were sequentially reorganized from the 1st separate territorial-position anti-aircraft artillery battalion to the 1st air defense corps. In August 1940, the 57th Iad was formed on the basis of the 10th Iabr (formerly the 24th Iabr). On June 19, 1941, on the basis of the 24th Iad, the 6th fighteraviation building (IAK). On the eve of World War II, all air defense systems were combined into the Moscow air defense zone. It already included parts of the 1st Air Defense Corps and the 6th IAK (MBO), as well as the Gorky, Yaroslavl, Kalinin and Tula Brigade Air Defense Regions.
Moscow’s air defense system was based on the principle of a circular, equal-strength, echelon defense with the strengthening of the western and southern directions. An interesting fact is that the offices of the Moscow Air Defense Zone, the 1 Corps of the Air Defense Corps and the 6 IAC in June 1941 of the year were located in the same building (this is about interaction), which was just built at Kirov Street (now Myasnitskaya), house xnumx.
It should be noted that throughout the entire war, the structure and composition of the air defense forces of the capital and center of the country changed based on the capabilities of the enemy aviation (composition and main areas of concentration of efforts), the spatial scope of the operational construction of air defense forces, their tasks and, most importantly, the need for a single leadership of these groups.
In order to create a unified grouping of air defense forces and assets on the European territory of the country united into air defense regions, in accordance with the Decision of the State Defense Committee of November 9 1941, the 1 air defense corps was reorganized into the Moscow air defense corps. Given the strengthening of the German Air Force grouping west of Moscow for a decisive attack on it, from 5 on April 1942, the Moscow Air Defense Corps was reorganized into the Moscow Air Defense Front. In the interests of further improving the organizational structure of the troops and improving the leadership of the units in accordance with the Decision of the State Defense Committee of 29 June 1943, the Moscow Air Defense Front was reorganized into a Special Moscow Air Defense Army.
However, few people know what was the real reason for this transformation. By the middle of 1943, it became obvious that the German Air Force could not overcome the opposition of the intensified anti-aircraft defense of the USSR as a whole, did not suppress its economy and did not undermine the military power by destroying the defense industry source in the rear. The enemy began to switch his air forces to actions primarily on communications, the objects of concentration of military resources in the front-line regions and the troops that were rapidly advancing on all fronts to the Soviet border. The German Air Force during June 1943 of the year, which became the “black month of the Air Defense Forces”, inflicted a series of unexpected massive raids to the rear of the USSR in the form of 18 night attacks on Gorky (7 raids), Saratov (9 raids) and Yaroslavl (2 raids). It was a powerful, well-conceived, planned and organized strategic air offensive operation with very serious consequences for us. In particular, one of the blows to Gorky was carried out at the time of the shift change at the automobile plant. Many skilled workers died. GAZ at the height of the summer offensive campaign for a long time was disabled.
One of the main reasons for the success of the operation of the German Air Force was the weak level of operational thinking of the Air Defense Command of the country's territory and the inappropriateness of this structure for operational (operational-strategic) command of the troops. The lack of timely generalized information about the air situation over the country’s territory did not allow him not only to organize the fight against these raids by the joint efforts of the Moscow Air Defense Front and the Gorky Air Defense Corps, coordinating their forces and coordinating actions, but even clearly notifying the Gorky Air Defense District about the degree the severity of the approaching dangers.
The reaction of the Supreme Commander was immediate and constructive. Having figured out what happened, the State Defense Committee of the USSR, by a Decree of 29 June 1943, transformed the Moscow Air Defense Front into a Special Moscow Air Defense Army, and its entire air defense fighter aviation united into the 1 Fighter Air Defense Army. Instead of the disbanded Command of the Air Defense Forces, two fronts were formed - Western and Eastern, with headquarters in Moscow and Kuibyshev. There was a missing operational link management. Special Moscow Air Defense Army organizationally entered the Western Air Defense Front. Geographically, the Western Air Defense Front stretches from Sochi to Murmansk. In the future, this decision increasingly justified itself and remained in force until the end of the war.
In response to changes in the overall situation, the GKO of the USSR reorganized the air defense fronts by its Decree of 29 in March of 1944. Three air defense fronts were created: the Northern (headquarters in Moscow), the Southern (headquarters in Kharkov) and the Transcaucasian (headquarters in Tbilisi). The special Moscow Air Defense Army became part of the formed Northern Air Defense Front. And again, the unions and formations that covered the north-west of the country were part of the Northern Front.
In connection with the liberation of the territory of the USSR and in order to improve the coordination of military actions in accordance with the Decision of the State Defense Committee of 24 in December 1944, the management of the Special Moscow Air Defense Army was reorganized into the management of the Central Air Defense Front. The Central Front air defense along with units and formations of the Special Moscow Air Defense Army entered the Leningrad Air Defense Army with 2-m Leningrad Guards IAK and Vyborg Brigadier area air defense, 1 and 3-Corps, 78, 80, 82-I Division and 16-I separate air defense brigade.
At the end of the war, the transition of the USSR Armed Forces to peacetime states began. In accordance with the Directive of the General Staff of October 25 1945, the Central Air Defense Front was reorganized into the Central Air Defense District. Subsequent structural changes were based on the experience of the final stage of the war. In accordance with the Directive of the General Staff of 23 in May of 1946, the management of the Central Air Defense District was reorganized into the management of the North-Western Air Defense District.
In 1948, the Air Defense Forces of the country were removed from the subordination of the commander of artillery and transformed into an independent form of the USSR Armed Forces, whose leadership was entrusted to the Commander of the Air Defense Forces of the country. Appropriate transformations followed. In accordance with the Directive of the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces 14 August 1948, the management of the Northwestern Air Defense District was reorganized into the office of the Commander of the Air Defense Forces of the Moscow District.
1954 is the year that determined the development of the capital’s air defense for decades to come. First, in accordance with the Order of the USSR Ministry of Defense 14 on June 1954, the command of the air defense command of the Moscow region was reorganized into the Central Air Defense Directorate, and then, in accordance with the Order of the USSR MoD from 20 August 1954, the Moscow Air Defense Directorate was established based on the management of the Central Air Defense District. This event became the foundation for building a future air defense system in the central part of the country and the capital.
Providing a circular air defense of the Moscow region and industrial-economic objects within the borders of the air defense district, the main efforts of the troops were concentrated on the north-west, west, south-west and middle eastern aerial strategic directions (VSN), as well as on the north and north-east VSN in the interests of defense most important industrial and economic facilities of the city of Gorky and Gorky industrial region.
The composition of the district troops (beginning in November 1941 of the year), combining active assets (IA and ZA, and subsequently ZRV), as well as the boundaries of his responsibility, consisted of three main factors:
- firstly, the possibility of a massive, complex and permanent impact on the air enemy in the area of responsibility from any direction in order to achieve maximum efficiency of military operations;
- secondly, in a large depth of the air defense system, which would ensure the possibility of defeating an air enemy even on the approaches to the main object;
- thirdly, the optimal solution of the most complex issue of organization and conduct of hostilities - exceptions at the operational (operational-tactical, tactical) level of unnecessary links to the organization of interaction between the AI and FOR (ZRV) when they act in the same zone.
In 1960, there were significant changes in the Moscow Air Defense District. Management 52 th VIA defense was disbanded. On the basis of the IAK's controls, the controls of the air defense hull - 3 (Yaroslavl), 7 (Bryansk), 2 (Rzhev) are formed; on the basis of the control of the 78 zadad and 142 of the iad (Bitter), the control of 18 is formed Air Defense Division, based on the management of the 328-iad (Elets) formed the management of the 15-th Air Defense Division. Thus, the 1-I army of air defense (HE) consisting of four air defense corps (OH), 2, 3, 7 th air defense corps, 15 and 18 air defense divisions were included in the combat structure of the district. In the 1965 year, the 15 Division of the Air Defense Division was removed from the district, the 18 Division of the Air Defense Division was reorganized into the 16 Corps of the Air Defense Force.
The composition of the district did not change until 1988. The structure and operational structure of the district troops fully met the tasks set. With the adoption of new designs, the capabilities of the district increased.
A special place in the history of the district is occupied by the creation of the world's first missile defense system. Given the significant breakthrough of Western countries (primarily the United States) in the development of missile technology capable of delivering nuclear strikes at considerable distances, the USSR government considered the creation of missile defense systems. On 4 on March 1961, the experimental “System A” intercepted for the first time in the world the head of a ballistic missile flying at a speed of three kilometers per second.
Since the beginning of the 60-ies, measures are continuing to build and deploy an ABM system. The management of the RTC-81 was formed on 22 in January of 1962, with a location in Moscow, Kirov Street, 33 House. From this date, and begins the story of a missile defense mix. In accordance with the Directive of the Chief of the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces from 16 in January 1965, the RTC-81 management was reorganized into the management of the head of the anti-missile defense troops of the Moscow air defense district (military unit 75555). The Moscow air defense district was the first of the air defense associations to have the opportunity to become an aerospace defense district as early as the 60s. However, it became only 50 years later.
Two operational echelons were formed in the formation of the district’s troops for decades ahead: the echelon of the outer air defense corps (2, 3, 7 and 16) and the echelon of the direct anti-aircraft defense of the main object, the 1-I army of special-purpose air defense.
At the present stage
In 1998, on the basis of the Moscow Air Defense District and the 16 of the Red Banner Air Army of the Moscow Military District, the formation of an operational-strategic alliance began, which from June 1 became known as the Moscow Order of Lenin as a district of air forces and air defense.
As part of the military construction of the Armed Forces 1 September 2002, the management of the Order of Lenin of the Moscow District of the Air Force and Air Defense was reorganized into the management of the Order of Lenin of the Special Purpose Command. Structurally, there were practically no changes, but the new association was already considered as the head of the country's AO system.
These intentions were developed in 2009, when the command of the Order of Lenin of the Special Command of the Central Air Defense Zone and the 1 Corps of Air Defense were reorganized into the management of the Order of Lenin of the operational-strategic command of aerospace defense with a deployment in the city of Balashikha, Moscow Region.
The desire of the former leadership of the Ministry of Defense to assemble all military aviation at seven airfields resulted in the transfer of all the aviation regiments in 2011 to the 1 Air Force and Air Defense Command from the ESC EKR. In fact, the air defense system of Moscow and the Central Industrial Region returned in the pre-war period, when the air regiments were only under operational control.
In the framework of the further development of the Armed Forces of 1 December 2011, a new branch of the Russian Armed Forces is being created - the Air and Space Defense Forces of the country.
On the basis of the management of the Order of Lenin of the troops of the operational-strategic Command of Aerospace Defense, the Directorate of the Order of Lenin of the Command of Air Defense and Missile Defense of the East Kazakhstani Army is formed. It seemed that the time-tested, and most importantly, the war structure of the air defense and anti-missile defense of the central part of the country is returning.
Another aspect. It is no secret to anyone that in the air forces of western countries (primarily the United States), tests of hypersonic combat aircraft are being actively carried out. The speed of these devices is five to seven times the speed of sound. Flight time for them is reduced to units of minutes. To make a decision to reduce the operational limits of associations, in which a unified system of intelligence and warning has long been established, looks simply illogical.
For the North-Western Air Command, an air defense missile defense command, the minimum flight time of a potential air vehicle of a potential (probable) enemy today is of the order of 15 minutes. This is in view of the fact that the Commander of the Air Defense Forces and the Missile Defense Forces at his command post receives information almost immediately from its intelligence system. He is able, even taking into account the short time available, to make a decision to repel an air attack.
Now, if we take away the first echelon of the air defense construction of the Central Industrial District, wrap up the warning information about the air enemy through 1-i Air Force and Air Defense Command, and maybe the Main Command of the aerospace forces, how much time will it have? And if the channels for receiving information are violated? Has anyone figured out such a development scenario?
In addition, in the proposed embodiment, there are a number of significant drawbacks:
-The management of the 1 th command of the Air Force and Air Defense is now deployed in the border zone. KP associations - unprotected, deployed within the city directly at the headquarters of the Command. When returning to their former headquarters (St. Petersburg), the Directorate and the command posts of the 1 Command Air Force and Air Defense will again be placed in the border area, which is clearly not expedient from an operational point of view;
-in the borders of the former Western Military District, instead of the two, there will be three different zones (areas) of responsibility for air defense (taking into account the formation of USS SF): Western, Moscow and Arctic (Murmansk). Names are conditional and have only territorial overtones;
- The air defense of Moscow and the Central Industrial Region will be built by two unions (zones / districts of the air defense), each of which makes up one separate operational echelon;
- the principle of building up an air defense of the most important objects developed by history is violated - a layered circular equal-strength defense with a focus on the most important directions;
- interaction between fighter aviation and anti-aircraft missile forces is hampered, as in the fire zones of the C-400 (C-300ММNNXX) Moscow anti-aircraft missile regiments will carry out combat missions from the interceptors of the fighter aviation regiments of the Western Military District in the absence of a single direct command of them.
What to do?
First, it is advisable to create a single Western zone of responsibility for air defense (within the boundaries of the Western Military District) on the basis of the Air Defense Command and the Missile Defense Command (directly subordinate to the Chief Command of the aerospace forces) with the incorporation of the St. Petersburg 1 air defense force Commander Air Force and Air Defense.
Secondly, the 1-e Command Air Force and Air Defense, from which will be withdrawn Severomorsk and St. Petersburg air defense units, it is advisable to reorganize the air army (with direct subordination to the commander of the Western Military District) to perform operational tasks in the air defense force and aviation in the Western strategic direction, as well as for the use of highly mobile aviation reserves to reinforce groups of troops (forces) in other directions.
Thirdly, it is necessary to maintain a missile defense connection in the combat personnel of the Air Defense Command and, on the basis of developments on the conjugation of the C-50M air defense system and the A-135 missile defense system, create a single automated control system for the control of existing systems and long-range long-range ZRS. it is planned to have air defense and missile defense.
Fourthly, to reorganize the management of the Air Defense Command and the Missile Defense Command into the Army Directorate of the Air Defense Missile Defense (Special Purpose) with the inclusion of the missing structural units in the new staff.
After the implementation of these measures within the borders of the Western Military District, there will remain one (for example, Western) zone of responsibility for air defense with unified leadership and unified responsibility for air defense of objects and groups of troops.
The air defense of the cities of Moscow, St. Petersburg and the Central Industrial District will be lined up by one alliance - in a layered manner around the center with a focus on the most important areas, as it was at the end of the Great Patriotic War and after it.
The main issue to be resolved in the conduct of air defense operations is to ensure the interaction between the AI and the HRA, as in the proposed structure they will begin to operate under a single command.
Each formation will perform its tasks for its intended purpose: combining air defense, missile defense, air defense, air defense, air defense and air defense facilities in the country and the Russian armed forces within the boundaries of the air defense system, the air army as part of the air defense and aviation grouping at the anti-aircraft station — defeating the enemy groups and objects and winning air superiority.
The most important thing in the proposed version is the preservation of a unified air defense (antimissile) defense system of the Central Industrial Region (the main defense object of Moscow) and, as a result, ensuring the operational expediency of structural changes.
And the last. The return of the fighter aircraft to the air defense formations would be logical. This decision was first made in 1943 year and fully justified itself during the Great Patriotic War. I would like to hope that the decisions taken will fully meet the interests of preserving and increasing the country's defense capability.
Yes, and enough already, probably, to infinity to share what remains after the stormy organizational staffing 1990-x and 2000-s. In order to strengthen one, it is unwise to strip others. It is not necessary to divide, but to recreate the military power of the country and form from scratch new units and formations. This is how the state’s defense capability should be strengthened and not decomposed by permanent reassignment. And then with such an approach that sad moment is not far off, when there will be nothing to reassign.