The construction of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation is one of the most important tasks solved by the state in the framework of the organization of the defense of our country. Questions of the current state of the Russian army, the direction of its further development are the object of close attention and a subject for active discussion not only in Russian society, but also in foreign countries.
The nature and scale of the measures taken to develop the Armed Forces are directly influenced by the emerging military-political situation in the world, which in modern conditions is becoming increasingly unpredictable and explosive. The threshold of the use of military force and the line between war and peace are reduced. The demonstration or use of military force becomes the most effective tool in politics. Under these conditions, ensuring the national security of the state is becoming increasingly complex and complex and involves issues of strategic deterrence, prevention of regional conflicts, the fight against terrorism, the gaining of information superiority and much more. This is confirmed by events in North Africa, Central Asia, Ukraine, the Middle East and around the Korean Peninsula.
With this in mind, building up the combat capabilities of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation is one of the key tasks of the state leadership. The armed forces, of course, must be ready and able to provide a reflection of the aggression directed against the Russian Federation, armed protection of the integrity and inviolability of its territory in any conditions of the evolving military-political situation.
In recent years, the country's leadership has carried out large-scale work to improve the Armed Forces, to bring them to a level that can ensure Russia's military security in modern conditions. It was diverse and affected all aspects of the life of the army and fleet. An analysis of the results confirms the correctness of the chosen course.
STRICTLY IN WORLD TREND
The decisions to create interspecific groupings of troops in strategic areas, as well as the Aerospace Defense Forces, have fully justified themselves. An important practical step was the formation of formations and military units of constant readiness. They are fully ready to solve tasks for combat purposes. The current structure of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation currently provides effective command and control of troops (forces) in the performance of tasks in peacetime and in wartime.
As is known, at present, the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation consists of: central military control bodies; the three types of armed forces - the Ground Forces, the Air Force and the Navy; the three branches of the armed forces - the Strategic Missile Forces, the Aerospace Defense Forces, the Airborne Forces, as well as the troops (forces) that are not included in the types and branches of the Armed Forces.
It should be noted that the development of the armed forces of any state is a continuous process that is ongoing and has a worldwide practice. Similar transformations are taking place in the armed forces of leading foreign countries - the USA, Germany, France, Great Britain, and China. The world, economic and political conditions are changing, new types of weapons, military and special equipment are being created and, consequently, the armed forces are changing, their organizational structure, composition, quantitative and qualitative indicators, the system of training, training and recruitment are being improved.
Accordingly, we should, taking into account the analysis of all factors and conditions (forecast of the development of the military-political situation, changes in the nature of warfare, directions of development of the armed forces of leading foreign states, socio-economic and demographic factors), determine the vector of military construction and set targets for quantitative qualitative characteristics of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020 of the year and further perspective.
During 2013 – 2014, President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin held a series of meetings in the city of Sochi with the leadership of the Ministry of Defense of Russia and representatives of the military-industrial complex on the state and development prospects of the Armed Forces. At these meetings, the main directions for the further development of the army and navy were identified. The most pressing issues were addressed at a meeting of the Security Council of the Russian Federation 5 July 2013. The main directions for improving the military organization of the state for the period up to 2020 of the year and further perspective, including the direction of development of the Armed Forces, are indicated.
WHAT TO BE DONE
The main areas are:
- development of strategic nuclear forces;
- increasing the combat capabilities of the interspecific groupings of troops (forces) in strategic areas;
- improving the management system of the Armed Forces;
- improving the efficiency of the aerospace defense system;
- equipping troops with modern weapons and military equipment;
- improvement of military infrastructure;
- increasing the effectiveness of training troops (forces);
- The solution of social issues of servicemen and their families.
The priority task for the Ministry of Defense of Russia is to ensure the priority development of strategic nuclear forces. The basis of strategic nuclear forces is made up of the Strategic Missile Forces, equipped with stationary and mobile missile systems. As part of the implementation of the state armament program, the re-equipment of the Strategic Missile Forces to the Yars perspective strategic missile system, with enhanced capabilities for overcoming the deep-echeloned missile defense, was planned. By 2021, the share of modern missile models in the Strategic Missile Forces will be increased to 100%.
Naval strategic nuclear forces, including strategic submarines of the Northern and Pacific fleets, are constantly on duty at home bases and combat patrol areas. By 2021, seven new strategic missile submarines are planned to be included in the naval strategic nuclear forces.
In part aviation strategic nuclear forces until 2021, it is planned to modernize the entire fleet of strategic bombers, as well as the development of a promising long-range aviation complex and aviation weapons of a new generation.
The next task is to improve interspecific groups of troops of military districts, taking into account the self-sufficiency of their composition in combat and support units, as well as maintaining the required level of their combat ability. Development activities will be aimed at increasing firepower, mobility and autonomy of connections, improving intelligence and information support systems. Special attention will be paid to increasing the capabilities of special-purpose units.
Until the end of 2020, it was planned to equip formations and military units with promising models of weapons and military equipment, including unmanned aerial vehicles, robotic complexes, and military equipment of combat equipment. New systems of reactive and cannon artillery with increased range and accuracy of target destruction will be put into service. All missile brigades of the Ground Forces are planned to be re-equipped with a modern Iskander-M missile system.
Improving the effectiveness of weapons systems will be implemented through the use of nanotechnology, alternative fuels, propellant charges, protective materials that reduce the visibility and increase the protective properties of weapons samples.
The development of naval units and military units of the Navy will be aimed at increasing the combat potential due to the admission to the combat strength of multi-purpose atomic and non-nuclear submarines of new projects, ships of far and near sea zones armed with high-precision weapons. Particular attention is paid to the Arctic. On the basis of the Northern Fleet, it is planned to create an interspecific grouping of troops and forces responsible for military security in the Arctic region.
With the inclusion of the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol in the Russian Federation, additional decisions were made to enhance the combat capabilities of the Black Sea Fleet. On the territory of the Crimea peninsula, it is planned to have an interspecific grouping of troops and forces that can guarantee military security in this important region for Russia.
High-precision long-range cruise missiles and hypersonic cruise missiles will form the basis of the naval ship armament for the period up to 2020. The ships will be equipped with robotic means for various purposes, including autonomous unmanned vehicles. After 2020, it is planned to create promising warships, deep-sea marine systems of a new generation, to deploy in the areas of naval bases robotic systems to perform a complex of anti-mine and anti-sabotage support tasks, as well as monitoring the underwater environment.
The shift of emphasis of warfare into the aerospace sphere necessitates the buildup of the combat capabilities of the country's aerospace defense system. It is based on the Aerospace Defense Forces, air units and air defense units of military districts. They will be equipped with promising radar stations of the missile attack warning system and anti-aircraft missile systems with enhanced combat capabilities.
Intensive combat training goes on in the troops almost continuously and literally in all divisions. Photos from the official website of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation
Enhancing the combat capabilities of aviation units and military units is envisaged by re-forming the existing aviation bases into aviation divisions, aviation regiments and army aviation brigades, which are planned to be deployed taking into account the prospective home-based aviation system. A single anti-aircraft missile system, an automated radar system and a promising automated control system for aviation and air defense will be created. It will be possible to intercept warheads of intercontinental ballistic missiles and hypersonic aircraft. In addition, it is planned to complete the formation of a continuous radar field along the borders of Russia in the entire altitude range. The quantitative and qualitative composition of the orbital grouping of spacecraft for various purposes will allow the Armed Forces to fully solve the problem of information support for the actions of groups of troops (forces) in terms of reconnaissance, communications and command and control.
In the future, the troops will be equipped with means for detecting and recognizing targets on new physical principles.
It is planned to develop a system of launch vehicles for spacecraft, ensuring the independence of the space activities of the Russian Federation from foreign countries.
Enhancing the combat capabilities of the Airborne Forces to quickly accomplish tasks to curb crisis situations is envisaged by increasing the composition of formations and military units and equipping them with modern weapons and military equipment.
DEFENSE CAPACITY WILL GROW MULTIPLE
Increasing the level of the combat power of the Armed Forces largely depends on the growth in the quality of command and control. Therefore, the task of creating a promising management system and a single intelligence and information space of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation is a priority for us.
In order to improve the management system of the Armed Forces, as well as the military organization of the state as a whole, in accordance with the decision of the President of the Russian Federation, the National Center for Defense Management of the Russian Federation began operating on 1 on April 2014. A network of similar centers is being deployed at the regional and territorial levels in military districts, formations and formations. To ensure the work of the centers, a multi-level automated control system is created and a single information space is being formed. In the future, the system being created will cover all branches of the Armed Forces management, and will also allow coordination of the efforts of all the ministries and departments involved in the defense of the Russian Federation.
By 2021, we must create a promising automated control system for the Armed Forces and an integrated automated digital communication system.
In the new ACS at each level, the actual situation will be automatically formed and displayed in real time. Based on the analysis of constantly updated data, the system should in a short time (hours, minutes) offer the commander (commander) several possible options for the actions of the troops and fire destruction. It is planned to increase the combat potential of troops by 30 – 40% due to intellectual support, reduction of the management cycle, increase of awareness of commanders and staffs. After 2020, it is envisaged to increase the capabilities of the control system through the intellectualization of software, the integration of promising samples of VVST, including robotized ones.
Increasing the combat capabilities of the Armed Forces is directly related to their equipment with modern models of weapons and military equipment. To accomplish this task, it is planned to purchase more than 2014 aircraft and about 2020 thousand helicopters in the framework of the state armament program in the period 650 – 1, more than 5 thousand weapons and military equipment and more are expected to join the Ground Forces and the Navy. 70 modern warships and multi-purpose submarines.
Given the increasing role and importance of high-precision weapons, up to 2021, it is planned to increase the number of carriers of high-precision long-range weapons by four times, and long-range cruise missiles of various bases based on more than 30 times. In order to improve the intelligence and information support system, a phased equipping of the Armed Forces with complexes with unmanned aerial vehicles of various classifications has been planned. It is planned to purchase more than 4 thousand UAV for various purposes. On the whole, by the end of 2020, the implementation of the state armament program will bring in the Armed Forces the share of modern weapons and military equipment to 70 – 100%.
Special attention is paid to the creation of a promising troop-based system. The creation (reconstruction) of military camps with a modern social infrastructure has been planned.
For new types of weapons and military equipment, it is planned to build about 100 facilities, including for the deployment of Iskander missile systems, strategic missile submarines, airfields, radar stations for various purposes and other infrastructure facilities.
By 2016, it is planned to equip more than 300, and by 2020, all existing military camps. It is planned to build over 3 thousand of various objects on their territory. These are barracks, parks of combat vehicles, canteens, as well as educational, sports and domestic facilities.
In order to ensure the military security of the Russian Federation in the Arctic, in the coming years, it is planned to restore airfields and berthing facilities on the islands and the coast of the region.
Modern weapons and military equipment, new forms and methods of warfare require an appropriate level of training of military command bodies and troops (forces).
NEW APPROACHES TO TRAINING TRAINING
At present, the planning of combat training activities is carried out in such a way that each academic year ends with the conduct of brigade tactical exercises in relation to the tasks for the intended purpose. In order to improve the quality of combat training, its training and material base is being updated in a planned manner.
Within five years, it was planned to create one interspecific training center in each military district, to form modern mountain, land and sea aviation testing grounds, to equip more than 110 training grounds and training complexes. It is envisaged to equip them with modern technical training aids around 200 formations and military units. For this, more 230 simulators and 460 polygon equipment sets will be purchased.
In order to disseminate advanced training methods for servicemen and improve their combat skills, the system of competition has been restored in the Armed Forces. Introduced into the practice of training troops, competitions for air training of flight crews of the Air Force associations "Aviadarts", as well as All-Army (international) competitions tank platoons and crews "Tank Biathlon" are of great interest in society.
For an objective assessment of the state of the Armed Forces, the practice of conducting surprise checks of the combat readiness of troops (forces) will be continued. This makes it possible to obtain an objective picture of the state of the army and navy, to assess their ability to accomplish tasks for their intended purpose, and most importantly to respond promptly to the deficiencies identified during the checks.
New approaches to the preparation and use of troops determine the requirements for the activities of the military-scientific complex. His work should be aimed at accomplishing the tasks of scientific support for the defense of the state. The main efforts are planned to focus on the most knowledgeable and relevant areas, which include the development of strategic deterrence forces and aerospace defense systems, the development of military robotic complexes, the creation of a promising telecommunications infrastructure of the Armed Forces, as well as information tools. To ensure this task, the creation of a single scientific knowledge base is completed, which will include all the existing and expected results of research and development work carried out in the field of defense. Special attention is paid to the training of scientific personnel and the strengthening of the potential of research organizations, the restoration of the prestige and status of a military scientist, as well as the creation of an effective system of training researchers and the development of scientific schools.
During 2014 – 2015 in the conditions of a difficult demographic situation in the country, the task of maintaining the staffing of the Armed Forces with personnel at the level of 95 – 100% has to be solved. The solution to this problem is envisaged by increasing the number of servicemen undergoing military service under the contract at the posts of ensigns (warrant officers), sergeants (foremen), soldiers (sailors). Before 2021, it is planned to have more than 500 thousand troops in this category. As a matter of priority, they are manning positions for the operation of complex and expensive weapons and military equipment, the crew of the Navy, combat units of the Airborne Forces, special forces and non-commissioned officers.
Special attention is paid to the social aspect of the development of the Armed Forces. The implementation of a set of measures aimed at increasing the prestige and attractiveness of military service will be continued. It is planned to complete the formation of a package of social guarantees for servicemen, their families and military retirees. In the near future it is planned to fully provide permanent housing for servicemen and to switch to lump-sum payments of cash subsidies to servicemen for the purchase of apartments. In a planned manner, an office housing fund is being created.
Defined measures for the patriotic education of military personnel and pre-conscription youth.
In order to popularize military service and enhance its prestige, a significant place is given to cultural events. Among them are already popular international military music festivals "Spasskaya Tower" and "Amur Waves", the All-Russian festival of folk art "Katyusha" and many others.
The practice of holding the Games of the Russian Ministry of Defense between the Suvorov military schools and cadet corps in military-applied sports will continue. The network of cultural and leisure institutions of the Armed Forces is being recreated.
For an open and constructive interaction with civil society, it is planned to publish a book on the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, and the creation of the fundamental multi-volume work “The Great Patriotic War of 1941 – 1945” is being completed.
The fulfillment of these tasks will enable the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation to take a worthy place among the advanced armies of the leading states of the world. At the same time, they will be able to respond flexibly to changes in the external and internal political situation in new and promising forms and methods of conducting military operations, taking into account current and forecasted challenges and threats to the national interests of the Russian Federation.