Military Review

Bashkir army of the Russian Empire

13

P. Hess. Crossing the Berezina. On the right side of the picture are Bashkir horsemen pursuing the retreating French


Tsar Ivan IV, having accepted the Bashkirs in Russian citizenship, issued them in 1557 a letter of possession of all their land for all eternity according to their national rights and customs, and bestowed tribute, which he ordered to bring in with honey, animal skins and money. Many Bashkirs were freed from the yasak, but they were obliged to do military service, and therefore they became known as "Tarkhans." [1]

Tarkhans were not serving people in the strict sense of the word: like all yasak and pseudo-tarkhans, tarkhans lived on the same lands with them, doing the same thing as those who were subject to the same authorities, differing from them did not pay yasaka. Tarkhanism was, like the nobility, personal and hereditary. Many noble families came out of the Tarkhans. Thus, the Bashkir princely clans Aptulov, Devletshina, Kulyukov, Turumbetev and others used tarkhanism before. During the campaigns, the Tarkhans made up special detachments in the army; they were joined by the militia, which was recruited from the yasak bashkirians.

Ivan Ivanovich NeplyuevIn 1748, the governor of the Orenburg region, I.I. Neplyuev [2], presenting the draft military device of the Orenburg region, expressed the idea to establish the Orenburg irregular corps, which was carried out. According to the schedule approved in 1755, 1969 Bashkirs were annually involved in the royal service. [3]

According to the "Decree of the name given to infantry general Baron Igelstromu April 10 1798, the» [4], of Bashkirs Vyatka, Orenburg, Perm, Samara and Ufa provinces was formed by irregular troops, divided into 12 cantons, which in turn are subdivided into compartments and teams. The cantons were ruled by officials from the Bashkirs, who in their rank were approved by the corps commander. Many of them served to headquarters. At the head of the departments and volosts were the yurt elders, who belonged to class and Cossack officials. In these ranks the Bashkirs were made by the corps commander. All these ranks came out of the Bashkirs and lived among the people. [5]

The titled Decree contained the “Order given to the Bashkir and Meshcheryak canton commanders”, which said: “... Confirm to all Yurt Elders most strictly, so that the people commanding the service were equipped not only in turns, but were equipped weapons, clothes, horses and food from the whole society. And therefore from Bashkir, excluding only Mull, who by their spiritual title at mosques, they send their service, and personally the Canton Chief, his assistant and the Yurt Starshin, the rest are all, both the mosque servants and the children of the canton Chief and the Yurt Chiefs, and in general those remaining in the houses and the Bashkirs who were seconded to the service, are obliged, by decomposing the sum required for the whole time they were sent to the service, in the state of each ... ”[6].

The whole army consisted under the main command of the commander of the separate Orenburg corps, headquartered in Orenburg, where it had a troop rule and office. Total Bashkirs were supposed to exhibit 5413 warriors.

For the investigative actions in case of two, and sometimes even in one canton, there were solicitors (assistants to the prosecutor and defenders of public interests), mostly from civilian officials. Under some cantons there were also special trustees of staff officers.

The main duty of the Bashkir army was to maintain cordons along the Orenburg line. During the whole time they were on this urgent service, the Bashkirs kept themselves on their koshta, receiving from the treasury a salary of only one ruble per banknote per person per month. In addition, as needed, the Bashkir troops formed 5-centric regiments on the rights of the Cossacks, who, before coming out of the assembly point for 100 versts, kept themselves on their own clothes, and then procured from the treasury for the hussar position.

In World War 1812, the 20 Bashkir regiments were formed. The uniform uniform of the Bashkirs originally wore a national character and consisted mainly of a kaftan of blue or white cloth, the same trousers with red piping and a pointed white felt hat, but in 1850 for them, a uniform was introduced like the Cossacks.

Bashkir warriorThe Bashkir armament consisted of a pair of pistols, rifles, spikes, sabers, bows (sided) and a quiver of arrows, which they skillfully fired at a long distance at the target and, moreover, with such force that the arrow on the 15 fathoms (approx. 30 m) could pierce through not only man, but also a horse. The French, who had experienced the wars with Russia, especially in 1812, called the Bashkirs "northern cupids", the destructive effect of these arrows. In 1814, the Bashkirs, along with the Cossacks, watered their horses in the Seine. [7]

During the Russian-Turkish war 1828 – 1829. Two Bashkir regiments were sent to the army. [8]

Soon the Bashkirian army was also joined by the mecheryaki, who previously constituted a special army, divided into four cantons. In 1836, a temporary headquarters of the Bashkir-Meshcheryaksky army was assigned, which was entrusted to a special commander. Service outfit has been reduced by about a third.

Despite the fact that the abolition of the Bashkir-Meshcheryaksky army was already predetermined, some of its hundreds took part in 1839 in Khiva and in 1853 in Ak-Mechetskaya expeditions, and in 1853 – 1856. Two Bashkir regiments were sent to the shores of the Gulf of Finland to keep cordons from attacking the Anglo-French landing force. [9]

In the 1855, the Bashkir-Meshcheryak army was joined by the Tepters, who lived in the Vyatka, Orenburg, Perm and Samara gubernias, and in the same year it was ordered to distinguish the Bashkir-Meshcheryak army from now on as the Bashkir army, and only in cases where the origin of the people who make up the army, call them Bashkirs from bobyla, mecheryakov or teptery. [10]

In 1863, the warriors who made up the Bashkir army were equalized in civil rights with the villagers. [11]

NOTES
[1] See: V. Velyaminov-Zernov. Sources for the study of Tarkhanism granted to the Bashkirs by the Russian sovereigns. - In the book: Notes of the Imperial Petersburg Academy of Sciences. T. IV, Appendix to the book. Ii. SPb., 1864; History Bashkortostan from ancient times to the 60-ies of the XIX century. Ufa, 1996, p. 134 – 153.
[2] Neplyuev, Ivan Ivanovich (1693 – 1773) is a Russian statesman and diplomat. In 1721 – 1734 - Resident in Constantinople, from 1742 - Governor of the Orenburg Region, from 1760 - Senator and Conference Minister. See: Notes I.I. Neplyueva, published by L.N. Maykov // Russian archive. 1871, No. 4 – 5; Vitevsky V.I.I. Neplyuev and the Orenburg Territory in its former composition before 1758. Vol. I – II. Kazan, 1889 – 1890.
[3] Regular Muslim royal army units are: Tatar horse regiment (1803), Lifeguards Caucasian-Gorski squadron (1827), Lifeguards Crimean-Tatar squadron (1827), Bashkirsky horse regiment (1874), Turkmen horse Division ( 1892).
[4] PSPRI. T. XXV. SPb., 1830.
[5] See: History of Bashkortostan ..., p. 342 – 364.
[6] PSPRI. T. XXV, p. 191.
[7] History of Bashkortostan ..., p. 390 – 397. See: A.N. Usmanov. Bashkir people in World War 1812 of the year. Ufa, 1964.
[8] History of Bashkortostan ..., p. 397 – 398.
[9] Ibid., P. 399.
[10] See: Uyfalvi K. Bashkirs, mecheryaki and tepteri // News of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society. 1877, No. 2.
[11] See: On the rights of Bashkirs and their descendents to the ground. Report on the State Council for 1869 SPb., 1870.
Author:
13 comments
Ad

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site: https://t.me/topwar_official

Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. parusnik
    parusnik 15 September 2014 09: 16
    +7
    Bashkirs, Europeans still scare themselves .. smile
    1. SVT
      SVT 15 September 2014 10: 26
      +6
      In Switzerland, there is still a curse, the general meaning of which corresponds to the Russian: "Everything, all options for action are over, everything is useless" - in other words, "scribe", and this word is BEREZINA. )))))
      The French, by the way, are not far from the Swiss))
      “Le mot de Berezina continue à être employé en France pour signifier un désastre, une catastrophe.” Fernand Baucour et al., La Bérézina: une victoire militaire, Economica, 2006, quatrième de couverture
      The word Berezina continues to be used in France, in order to mean disaster, catastrophe. ” Fernand Baucour et al., Berezina: Source: Victory, Warfare, Economics, 2006,
      1. Big den
        Big den 15 September 2014 20: 04
        +2
        from the article, it was ordered that the Bashkir-Meshcheryak army continue to be called the Bashkir army and only in cases where it would be necessary to distinguish the origin of the people who make up the army, to call them Bashkirs from marshes, mesheryaks or tepers. [10]
        During the Second World War, the cavalry division of General Shaimuratov was formed, which showed itself well despite the huge number of equipment from the German side. Mostly this division consisted of Bashkirs and natives of the republic, but it is not accepted to call it "Bashkir". Article + but I think the topic is not sufficiently disclosed
  2. nnz226
    nnz226 15 September 2014 11: 38
    +7
    And rightly so: the "great army" broke into Russia in 1812 and how did this action end from the point of view of linguistics ?! The Russian language was replenished with negative words: "skier" (from the "shermi" of starving and tattered Frenchmen, and it is called a skimmer) and "trash" (from "chevalier" that is, the French nobles in Russia reached the state of "trash"). And the French was replenished with a "bistro" from the Russian: "fast" and "Berezina" about what is written in the article.
    1. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets 15 September 2014 12: 03
      +1
      Quote: nnz226
      And the French was replenished with a "bistro" from the Russian: "fast" and "Berezina" about what is written in the article.

      They also met with the Cossacks, whom they were very afraid of.
  3. xan
    xan 15 September 2014 12: 39
    +4
    Nothing unites a state consisting of many nations, like jointly shed blood to achieve a common goal. It is true that the Empire created national units. The soldiers of these units participated in the victorious wars, which were full in Russian history, received awards, universal honor and respect.
    The Bashkirs of Napoleon jammed, they brought Hitler to suicide, along with other peoples of Russia and the USSR. And then everything will be the same as before - such a past must be tried very hard to be able to forget.
  4. predator.3
    predator.3 15 September 2014 12: 56
    +2
    In the Patriotic War of 1812, 20 Bashkir regiments were formed.

    in fact, in history, it is customary to talk about 28 regiments, 8 more so-called "repair" regiments. reserve training, + to this about 7 thousand people. guarded the border.
  5. Karabanov
    Karabanov 15 September 2014 13: 08
    +3
    By the way ... 1812-13 were also noted for the fact that in these wars the bow was used for the last time as a weapon. The paddlers, and take off the whole of Europe, were shocked when the Bashkir cavalry unexpectedly used arrows. And by the way, pretty effective.
    1. Prometey
      Prometey 15 September 2014 17: 41
      -1
      Quote: Karabanov
      The paddlers, and take off the whole of Europe, were shocked when the Bashkir cavalry unexpectedly used arrows. And by the way, pretty effective.

      Well, you already conceived it. They were shocked by the fact that in the firearms era such archaic was used as a bow and arrow. And about efficiency it is probably better to be modestly silent.
    2. Alibekulu
      Alibekulu 15 September 2014 22: 32
      +2
      Quote: Karabanov
      all of Europe was in shock when the Bashkir cavalry unexpectedly used arrows.
      The Bashkir archers, who served in the Russian army, had arrows ready at the start of the battle. One on the bowstring, the second in the right hand, the third in the left. And the fourth is in the teeth.
      Quote: Prometey
      The article tactfully omitted one of the not very pleasant events in the relationship between the Russians and the Bashkirs - the Bashkir national uprising
      I know Kostanays who are in contact with the Bashkirs. During the general feasts, the Kazakhs and Bashkirs, as if in jest, make claims to each other. Kazakhs for Tevkelev, and for the Bashkir batyrs - tamyrs who campaigned for the Russian protectorate. Like - okay, we ignorant Kazakhs, but you knew how much a pound dare.
      The Bashkirs for not supporting them when they turned to ours for help against the Russian Empire. And what's more, hit them in the back .. negative
      In general, the Bashkirs and Kazakhs jointly acted in the movements of the XNUMXth century, often the Kazakh steppes served as a refuge for the Bashkirs persecuted by tsarism. In the first half of the XIX century. the transitions of the Kazakhs of the Younger Zhuz to the Bashkir lands were frequent, which was caused by the internal political struggle and the strongest juts. Also, part of the Kazakh clans went to the Bashkirs, during the "Dzhungar pogrom". In particular, the genus "Tabyn".
      In Bashkiria, the ethnonym "Kazakh" is widespread. By the way, the dissertation "Bashkir-Kazakh ethnocultural interaction" was defended in Ufa
      There is a version that medieval Bashkortostan is “Magna Hungary” - “Great Hungary.” That is, the Hungarians (Magyars) left for Oyropa, the Bashkirs / Bashgirds remained ..
      7
  6. Zymran
    Zymran 15 September 2014 13: 13
    +3
    In fact, the bow and arrows were completely ineffective weapons in that war, but the French noted the high morale of the Bashkir cavalry.
    1. Prometey
      Prometey 15 September 2014 17: 41
      0
      Quote: Zymran
      In fact, bow and arrow turned out to be a completely ineffective weapon in that war.

      +1
  7. Good_Taxist
    Good_Taxist 15 September 2014 14: 15
    +2
    Hooray to the Friendship of Peoples!
  8. bubnila-70
    bubnila-70 15 September 2014 15: 06
    0
    The rate of onion is higher than the muzzle-loading small arms used in that era ..
    1. Prometey
      Prometey 15 September 2014 17: 43
      +1
      Quote: bubnila-xnumx
      The rate of onion is higher than the muzzle-loading small arms used in that era ..

      Well, then, before the appearance of breech-loading rifles, it was necessary to use bows. Apparently everyone who was responsible for supplying the European armies was incredibly stupid laughing
      1. 11111mail.ru
        11111mail.ru 15 September 2014 20: 14
        0
        Quote: Prometey
        Well, then, before the appearance of breech-loading rifles, it was necessary to use bows. Apparently everyone who was responsible for supplying the European armies was incredibly stupid

        For the 1812-1814 era, 5-6 aimed shots in 1 minute from a distance of 35-40 meters were much more effective than firing a firearm with a rate of fire of less than three times per minute. Read T.S.Gritz. "Sharp arrows". "In skillful hands" In 1792 a competition was held. They shot at 100 meters 20 times, only 12 bullets hit the target, but 16 arrows. http://www.universalinternetlibrary.ru/book/5907/ogl.shtml#AutBody_Root02 Think about the stupidity for yourself. Pros = they are pros in Africa too. And also in Bashkiria as of the first century of the XNUMXth century. bully
  9. Prometey
    Prometey 15 September 2014 17: 53
    +2
    The article tactfully omitted one of the not very pleasant events in the relationship between the Russians and the Bashkirs - the Bashkir national uprising in the 30s of the 18th century. Then the Bashkirs acted in much the same way as subsequently the Americans and the Indians — partly cut out, partly driven into the reservation. The second attempt of the Bashkirs to perform was already under the banners of E. Pugachev. After the suppression of the uprising, the Bashkirs no longer had the strength to mass action. Although spontaneous centers of resistance periodically arose in the Urals.
    But in general, despite the fairly powerful colonization of the Southern Urals and the modern territories of Bashkiria, these people have preserved their language, culture, traditions to this day. This, in turn, indicates a fairly balanced national policy of Tsarist Russia.
    1. 11111mail.ru
      11111mail.ru 15 September 2014 20: 27
      +2
      Quote: Prometey
      This, in turn, indicates a fairly balanced national policy of Tsarist Russia.

      Weighted is not the right word. Read Alexander Pushkin's "The Captain's Daughter" about the rafts on the river with the hanged rebels. But the "colonel" Salavat Yulaev and the foreman of the Shaitan-Kudeevskaya volost Yulai Aznalin were sent to hard labor in the Baltic States, in Roggervik, where they died a natural death. Eh, who would have exiled Russians to the Baltics!
  10. Aydar
    Aydar 17 September 2014 10: 30
    +1
    Quote: Prometey
    Quote: Karabanov
    The paddlers, and take off the whole of Europe, were shocked when the Bashkir cavalry unexpectedly used arrows. And by the way, pretty effective.

    Well, you already conceived it. They were shocked by the fact that in the firearms era such archaic was used as a bow and arrow. And about efficiency it is probably better to be modestly silent.

    the light cavalry of that period was very maneuverable and approached the enemy almost at lightning speed, in addition, the archer could release up to a dozen arrows from the bow, during that period until the French soldier loaded his gun and performed the following actions: he would take out a cartridge, bite the end of the cartridge, put it on the shelf, fill in the barrel, put a bullet, beat it with a ramrod, cock the trigger, aim, shoot.
    Moreover, an aimed shot from a twisted Bashkir bow covered the approximate aiming distance of a round bullet from a smooth-bore flintlock rifle, and a shot from a bow was devoid of unmasking factors (a cloud of smoke and sound), in addition, it was possible to shoot from a bow along a hinged trajectory while behind the reverse slope skyscrapers or from behind cover, which was impossible with a flintlock. So the effectiveness of the bow is several times higher than the effectiveness of the flintlock, which is good only for "European civilized wars."
  11. Board375
    Board375 24 September 2014 14: 28
    +2
    The Bashkirs have a legend that during the campaign of 1813-14 in the vicinity of France the following incident occurred. In response to the teasing of the local population and at the request of the translator to demonstrate the "work" of the bow, one of the horsemen quickly chose the target - the cross on the church. A wooden cross "two palms" thick, upholstered with roofing iron, located at the height of "three people", was pierced with lightning speed by the arrow of cupid of the north. The arrow got stuck in the target, and according to legend, for more than 80 years it stuck out as a reminder of the Russian army.