Military Review

ZSU-37-2 "Yenisei". Not "Shilka" uniform

13
The absence of ZSU in the air defense of the troops, one of the saddest moments in stories Red Army. After the end of the Second World War in the USSR, the correction of errors was taken seriously. The most famous ZSU in the world was the Soviet ZSU-23-4 “Shilka”, but few people know that she had a stronger, sibling ZSU-37-2 “Yenisei”.


To replace the unfulfilled hopes of ZSU-57-2 armed with 57-mm Grabin guns with ring-loading, 17 in April 1957. guidance systems. This was our response to the adoption of the ZNU М426А211 in the USA.

Formally, Shilka and Yenisei were not competitors, since Shilka was designed to ensure

Air defense of motorized rifle regiments to engage targets at altitudes up to 1500 m, and "Yenisei" - for air defense tank regiments and divisions, and operated at altitudes up to 3000 m.

ZSU-37-2 "Yenisei". Not "Shilka" uniform


For the ZSU-37-2 in the OKB-43, the 37-mm Angara twin anti-aircraft gun was developed. It used two machines 500P, developed in OKB-16. "Angara" had a tape power system, a system of liquid cooling machines and tracking electro-hydraulic drives.

But in the future they planned to replace the purely electric drives. The drive drive systems were developed: the Central Research Institute 173 GKOT of Moscow (now Central Research Institute AG) - by power follow-up guidance drives; and the Kovrov branch of the TsNII-173 (now the Signal Research Institute) for the stabilization of the line of sight and the line of shot.

The “Angara” targeting was carried out with the help of the noise-free “Baikal” radar-instrumentation complex, created in the research institute-20 GKRE (Kuntsevo village). PKK "Baikal" worked in the centimeter wavelength range (about 3 cm).

Looking ahead, I will say - it turned out during tests that neither Tobol on Shilka nor Baikal on Yenisei could effectively search for an aerial target on their own. Therefore, even in the Council of Ministers resolution No. 426-211 of 17 of April 1957, it was planned to create and submit to the state tests in the second quarter of 1960 a mobile complex of the Ob radar to control the ZSU.

The Ob complex included the Neva command vehicle with the Irtysh target designation radar and the Baikal RPK located in the Yenisei ZSU. The Ob complex was to control the fire of six to eight ZSUs. By resolution of the Council of Ministers of 4 in July of 1959, the work on the Ob was stopped to speed up the development of the Krug anti-aircraft missile system.

The chassis for the Yenisei was designed in the Uralmash design bureau under the direction of G.S. Efimova on the chassis of an experienced SU-100P self-propelled unit. Its production was planned to expand on the Lipetsk Tractor Plant.

ZSU "Shilka" and "Yenisei" were simultaneously tested, albeit according to different test programs.

"Yenisei" had a zone of destruction in range and ceiling close to ZSU-57-2, and according to the commission on state tests "provided cover for tank forces in all types of combat, that is, air attack weapons for tank forces operate mainly at altitudes up to 3000 m ".

Normal shooting mode (tank) - continuous turn to 150 shots on the barrel, then break 30 seconds (air cooling) and repeat the cycle until the ammunition load is exhausted.

During the tests, it was found that one ZSU “Yenisei” outperforms a six-gun 57-mm C-60 cannon and a battery of four ZSU-57-2.



On tests ZSU "Yenisei" provided shooting in motion on the virgin soil with a speed of 20 — 25 km / h. When driving on a tank track (on the range) at a speed of 8 — 10 km / h, the accuracy of shooting was 25% lower than from a standstill. Accuracy of the Angar cannon in 2 — 2,5 is higher than the C-60 cannon.

During the state tests from the gun "Angara" made 6266 shots. Two delays and four breakdowns were noted, which amounted to 0,08% of delays and 0,06% of breakdowns of the number of shots fired, which is less than permissible according to tactical and technical requirements. During the tests, the CDS (equipment for protection against passive interference) failed. The chassis showed good maneuverability.

PKK "Baikal" functioned satisfactorily and showed the following results:

- limit of work on target speed - up to 660 m / s at altitudes greater than 300 m and 415 m / s at altitudes 100 — 300 m;

- the average detection range of the MiG-17 in the 30 sector without target designation - 18 km. The maximum range of tracking MiG-17 - 20 km;

- maximum vertical target tracking speed

- 40 degrees / s, horizontal - 60 degrees / s. Time of transfer to combat readiness from the preliminary

readiness - 10 — 15 with.

According to the test results of ZSU “Yenisei”, it was proposed to use it to protect the army’s Krug and Kub anti-aircraft missile systems, since the Yenisei effective firing zone blocked the dead zone of these air defense systems.



After the state trials of "Shilka" and "Yenisei", the state commission examined the comparative characteristics of both ZSU and issued an opinion on them.

I will give some excerpts from the conclusion of the commission:

- “Shilka” and “Yenisei” are equipped with a radar complex and provide shooting day and night in any weather.

- The weight of the Yenisei 28 tons, which is unacceptable for armament of motorized rifle units and airborne forces.

- When shooting at MiG-17 and IL-28 at a height of 200 and 500, the Shilka is more effective than the Enisei in 2 and 1,5 times, respectively.

"Yenisei" is designed for air defense tank regiments and tank divisions for the following reasons:

- Tank units and formations operate mainly in isolation from the main group of troops. "Yenisei" provides escort tanks at all stages of battle, on the march and on the field, provides effective fire at altitudes up to 3000 m and ranges to 4500 m. This installation virtually eliminates accurate tank bombing, which Shilka cannot provide.

- There are quite powerful high-explosive and armor-piercing shells, the Yenisei can conduct more effective self-defense shooting at ground targets while following in combat orders of the tank forces.

Unification of new ZSU with products in mass production:

According to "Shilka" - 23-mm machine gun and shots to it are in mass production. The tracked base SU-85 is manufactured at MMZ.

According to the “Yenisei” - the PKK is unified in modules with the “Krug” system, on a tracked base - from the SU-1 OOP, which 2 — 3 of the plant are preparing for production.

As in the above extracts from the test reports and the conclusion of the commission, and in other documents, there is no clear justification for the priority of “Shilka” in comparison with the “Yenisei”. Even their cost was comparable:

"Shilka" - 300 thousand rubles. and "Yenisei" - 400 thousand rubles.

The Commission recommended the adoption of both ZSU. But the decision of the Council of Ministers of 5 September 1962, the number 925-401 was adopted by one "Shilka", and 20 September of the same year followed the order of the CCFOT to stop work on the Yenisei. According to some reports, refuse to work on the "Enisey" N.S. Khrushchev was convinced by his son Sergei. An indirect proof of the delicacy of the situation was that two days after the work on the Yenisei was closed, an order was issued to the GKOT on the same remuneration of the organizations that worked on the Yenisei and Shilka.

Tactical and technical data

Caliber, mm 37
The number of machines 2
Index of art parts Angara
Type of machine 500P
Projectile weight, kg 0,733
Projectile initial velocity, m / s 1010
Ammunition, rds Xnumx
Total weight of machines, kg 2900
Elevation interval of effective fire, m 100 - 3000
Inclined range of fire at anti-aircraft targets, m 4500
Maximum air speed, m / s 660
Firing range at ground targets, m 5000
Rate of fire, rds / min 1048
The length of the maximum queue of one machine, rds. Xnumx
Type PKK "Baikal"
Target detection range of type MiG-17, m 18000
The range of automatic tracking of targets such as the MiG-17, m 20000
The limits of the PKK operation according to target speed, m / s 660 / 414
Angle VN guns, hail. -1 - + 85
Angle GN gun, hail. Xnumx
Chassis type object 123
Combat weight ZSU, t 27,5

Installation dimensions:
- length, mm 6460
- width, mm 3100
Engine power chassis, hp Xnumx
Maximum speed, km / h 60
Crew, people. 4

Control system and guidance - 1А11 "Baikal" radar sighting system with 1RLX34 radar and a television-optical viewfinder developed by SRI-20 GCRE. Unified on the basis of equipment modules with the “Krug” air defense system. According to the results of acceptance tests of the prototype (10 of August 1961 completed), it was noted that the equipment for protection against passive interference was not debugged. When working on low-flying targets, the accuracy of the RLPK is higher than that of the SON-9А radar.
The detection range of a MiG-17 type target is the average degree in the 30 sector - 18 km
The range of tracking the type of the MiG-17 maximum - 20 km
Vertical target tracking speed - up to 40 degrees / s
Maximum target speed:
- 660 m / s with flight altitude more than 300 m
- 415 m / s with flight altitude 100-300 m
Time of transfer to combat readiness from the preliminary readiness mode - 10-15 sec
Continuous operation time without changing parameters - 8 hours
Time between failures radar - 25 hours (according to the results of state tests)
Time between failures RLPK - 15 hours (according to the results of state tests, the requirements of TTT - 30 hours)



Shooting on Nazmin targets in motion is possible when using a television-optical reticle, on-site - using an understretch and hydraulic actuators.
State recognition equipment "Silicon-2M".

The USSR Council of Ministers Decree No. 426-211 of 17 on April 1957 provided for the creation of a mobile radar target detection and targeting system “Ob” with the transfer of the complex for testing in April-June 1960. The complex “Ob” included the command vehicle “Neva” radar targeting "Irtysh" with the connected PKK "Baikal" ZSU. The Ob complex was supposed to control the 6-8 ZSU Yenisei fire. The development of the Ob complex was discontinued by the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR 4 July 1959.
Wavelength range - centimeter (approx. 3 cm)

Chassis - tracked 6-roller "Object 119" developed by the Uralmash design bureau, chief designer - G.S.Efimov. The chassis was created based on the SU-100PM chassis (product 105М). Serial production of the chassis was supposed to lead the Lipetsk Tractor Plant. Suspension - individual torsion bar with telescopic hydraulic shock absorbers on the front and rear nodes.
Basic skating rinks - 12 x 630 mm diameter
Support rollers - 6 x 250 mm diameter

The engine is a B-54-105 diesel engine with 400 horsepower.

Booking is bulletproof (protection of the ammunition location from 7.62 mm bullet B-32 from the distance 400 m was provided).

Installation length - 6460 mm
Installation width - 3100 mm
Track - 2660 mm
Base - 4325 mm

Installation weight:
- 25500 kg (according to TTT)
- 27500 kg

Highway speed - 60 km / h
Traveling speed when shooting at an air target - 20-25 km / h
Average speed:
- on a dry dirt road - 33.3 km / h (during state tests, fuel consumption 158 liters per 100 km)
- on a dirty dirt road - 27.5 km / h (during state tests, fuel consumption 237 liters per 100 km)
- on a dry tank route - 15.1 km / h (during state tests, fuel consumption 230 liters per 100 km)

Power reserve (for fuel):
- 310 km (on a dry dirt road)
- 210 km (on a muddy dirt road or on a dry tank track)

Overcoming obstacles:
Rise - to 28 hail
Descent - to 28 hail
Funnel - diameter 4-6 m, depth 1.4-1.5 m

Artillery unit - twin gun installation 2А12 "Angara" developed by OKB-43 with automatic guns 2А11 / 500П with band power developed by OKB-16 (chief designer - A.E. Nudelman). Serial production of automatic machines 500P - Izhevsk plant.
Barrel Cooling System - Liquid
Power drives - 2Е4, electrohydraulic (later planned to be replaced by electric) developed by the Central Research Institute-173 GKOT, the developer of the stabilization system - Kovrov branch of the Central Research Institute-173 GKOT (now the VNII "Signal").

Vertical guidance angles - from -1 + 85 degrees
Horizontal guidance angles - 360 hail
The speed of the horizontal targeting of the gun - 0.6 degree / turn (hand-operated, according to TTT - 1-1.5 degree / turn)

Automatic weight - kg 2900

Initial speed - 1010 m / s
Direct shot range - 1200 m
Scope of defeat on aerial targets - 4500 m
Ground Range - 5000 m
Height of defeat - 100-3000 m
Maximum target speed - 660 m / s

Rate of Shooting - 1048 rds / min
Continuous queue - 150 shots / barrel (firing mode "normal" with a break after the 30 queue with air-cooled seconds)
Delays (according to test results) - 0,08%
Breakdown (according to test results) - 0,06%

The probability of hitting a target like the MiG-17 at speeds of 250 m / s at different heights (obtained by calculating the errors that are accepted by the developer for the serial manufacturer):

Flight Altitude Target Rate (%%)
200 m 15
500 m 25
1000 m 39
1500 m 42
2000 m 38
3000 m 30
3000 m 60-75 battery in 3-4 ZSU

Normal penetration at different ranges:
Armor Penetration Range (mm)
500 50
1000 35
1500 30
2000 25

According to the test results, ground targets were hit with armored 50 mm at a distance of up to 100 m and armored 40 mm at a distance of up to 500 m at an angle of projectile-60-90 angle. Effective fire has been recommended to queue up 3-5 shots. at a distance of no more than 600-700 m.
During the tests, it was established that ZSU-37-2 when firing 140 rounds with projectiles at an IL-28 target of one ZSU in the near zone and four ZSU in the far zone at a target flight height of 2000-3000 m in combat effectiveness is equivalent to a battery of six 57 mm C-60 guns with PUAZO-6-60 and СОН-9 with the consumption of 264 shells, and exceeds the battery in 4 ZSU-57-2. ZSU “Shilka” is more effective than “Yenisei” when firing at targets such as the MiG-17 at heights of 200 and 500 m, respectively, 2 and 1.5 times.

Shooting accuracy when driving on a tank test site at a speed of 8-10 km / h on 25% lower than when shooting from a place. The accuracy of shooting at 2-2.5 is higher than that of the C-68 cannon.

Cost ZSU-37-2 - 400.000 rubles (in prices 1961 g.)

Ammunition: 540 shots (600 shots on TTT). The 500Ps were original 37-mm assault rifles and are incompatible with other 37-mm cannons for ammunition (except for the serially produced Squall - 37-mm quadruple Shkval anti-aircraft gun, 4 of the 500-Squall, developed by the 43-4 squared gun, developed by the XKUMX, 34 of the 116-automatic machine. after its liquidation - TsKB-49. The “Shkval” cannon was accepted for serial production by the Resolution of the CM No. 09.02.1959-500 from 525. The 156P machine gun was manufactured by Izhevsk plant, and the gun by the plant # 57. The production of the Shkval gun was discontinued by the CM Resolution N ^ 11.02.1960 from XNUMX g.).

- high-explosive fragmentation tracer
Mass - 733 gr

- armor-piercing projectile

Equipment: the power supply was provided by the NAMI gas turbine electric generator, which ensured quick availability for operation at low temperatures; there is no anti-nuclear protection of the crew. Radio station - P-113. The night observation devices of the commander and driver are TKN-1 and TVN-2.

Modifications:
ZSU-37-2 / 119 object - factory specimen (1959 g.)

ZSU-37-2 modified - installation design improvements were started in 1962, the chassis was modified with the addition of the 7 roller, a new small-scale track with RMSH pitch and 110 track pitch was made, and changes were made to the hull. A set of documents has been deposited.

The distance between the centers of the leading rollers - 6195 mm
Base - 4705 mm
The ZSU object 130 is a technical project of the ZSU developed by the OKB-3 plant of the Uralmash plant, the chief designer is PPVasiliev. The project was completed in 1960. The ZSU engine-transmission compartment is unified with the T-54 and T-55 tanks. Engine location transverse. The prototype was not built.



Bobkov A., "Yenisei" - a forgotten story. // M-Hobby. No. 10 / 2009
Anti-aircraft self-propelled installation ZSU-37-2 "Yenisei". Website "Herald Air Defense", http://pvo.guns.ru, 2010,
The history of modern anti-aircraft defense of Russia. Website http://www.sinopa.ee, 2010
Shirokorad AB, "Shilka" and other domestic self-propelled anti-aircraft installations. // Armored collection, №2 / 1998 g.
Originator:
http://alternathistory.org.ua
13 comments
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  1. Strashila
    Strashila 27 September 2013 07: 46 New
    +8
    what to say ahead of time. Yenisei redesigned with modern technology, upgraded Shilka, Sosna missile system ... the created unit will not be a pleasant surprise on the battlefield, especially for helicopter pilots. 37 not 30 ... no need to explain.
    1. StolzSS
      StolzSS 27 September 2013 11: 37 New
      +5
      Current is the trouble helicopter pilots now snoop for 10 km or more, but here the range and reach are clearly lower ... now the most anti-helicopter mines hi
      1. Apologet.Ru
        Apologet.Ru 27 September 2013 12: 00 New
        +5
        hi
        Right - wrong / accepted - not accepted.
        All this reasoning is just talk!
        There is only one reason - banal, but against the backdrop of the then global development of new types of weapons, this pepelats simply didn’t have enough money - but it’s a pity ...
  2. mirag2
    mirag2 27 September 2013 07: 57 New
    +5
    That's what I said about this artillery assault rifle, offering it for a new weighted (due to additional protection) BMP.
    I think that this is the most suitable caliber. Unfortunately I know little about this machine, what shells exist for it, what is the potential for modernization.
    But the caliber is the most for urban combat, infantry combat. 30mm is small, the HE is rather weak, and here would be more powerful. For this caliber, a whole line of shells could be fired.
  3. Su-9
    Su-9 27 September 2013 08: 03 New
    +6
    From the point of view of history, it seems that the decision was right. Missiles proved to be more effective at heights - and as a result of medium-caliber air defense systems, they were no longer being developed, they aren’t in service and now - 30mm is probably enough ... Of course, the Swedes tried to push their Bofors into everything that was moving, but this is most likely due to ordinary commerce .
    And about the S-60 batteries, and their self-propelled options, - everyone who served in the air defense told me that their effectiveness is just miserable, and we don’t need to be afraid of such weapons at 23x - they can get in - but by accident. One guy from Israel said that they weren’t very afraid of them - but one of them covered RTR where Dad fought, and he thought that they were cool covered .... So - not like that - I personally checked the effectiveness of 57mm. Although the Vietnamese seemed to have shot down something.
    It’s also interesting here: “air attack means on tank troops mainly operate at altitudes of up to 3000 m” - how interesting is it that from 2 km and above it was possible to operate on tanks in the 60s? Is that an atomic bomb ...
    So, it’s right that they chose Shilka.
    1. Argon
      Argon 27 September 2013 12: 56 New
      +3
      Very precisely noticed by the respected Su-9, we chose not the “best” (because it is relatively difficult to make a choice based on the simulated situation), but the optimal one. And such a difficult choice is the reverse side of competitive design. Now it’s customary to scold N.S. .Khrushchev, however, it was he who made the warrior make this choice, which saved many national money by channeling it to other sectors of the national economy. Who knows if under the government of Brezhnev \ Andropov there would be a figure capable of being a "counterbalance" to Ustinov would not be insanity with three main tanks in service, did not rebuild (in fact) entire series of Pikes, etc. etc. With regard to heights, I want to note that both in the 60s and in the 80s the tank was a target for IBA (for example) existed only in the form of a “column on a march” in all other versions as an “areal target” (a bombing maneuver with a search for a target depending on the weather up to 3000m, and “from sin onwards” 3500-4000m, the conclusion is not lower than 1500m), and although with the advent of the MiG-27 the possibility of hitting a single fixed tank appeared, the tactics remained the same. For Strashila and mirag2-caliber guns should be considered as part of the work equation (after all, the gun and the projectile are interacting heat engines) throughout the twentieth century, designers tried to deceive this equation and still came to optimal values ​​(note all calibers in the world are close by class 152 -155mm) So according to the tables after 30mm (and it is optimal from a thermal point of view), 57mm is used (and in thermal calculations linear measures are always in inches) in calibers from 30 to 57mm guns can be created, but subject to a balance of characteristics, these will be expensive low-volume samples. Systems with a 27mm or 35mm caliber allow some gain in ballistics when using a detachable shell tray, but its damaging effect will be at the level of the actual caliber of the projectile itself, i.e., up to 24,2mm and 30mm. for which I apologize) the M4-37mm (USA) and Mk108-30mm (Germany) air guns had approximately the same damaging effect of the projectile, while the 108th ballistics was "more persistent", the rate of fire was much higher and the weight and recoil much lower.
      1. cdrt
        cdrt 28 September 2013 15: 42 New
        0
        So according to the tables, after 30mm (and it is optimal from a thermal point of view), 57mm goes (and in thermal calculations linear measures are always in inches) in calibers from 30 to 57mm guns can be created, but subject to a balance of characteristics, these will be expensive, small-scale samples. Systems with a 27mm or 35mm caliber allow some gain in ballistics when using a detachable shell tray, but its damaging effect will be at the level of the actual caliber of the projectile itself, i.e., up to 24,2mm and 30mm. for which I apologize) the M4-37mm (USA) and Mk108-30mm (Germany) air guns had approximately the same damaging effect of the projectile, while the 108th ballistics was "more persistent", the rate of fire was much higher and the weight and recoil much lower.


        Mnogabukf ... laughing

        But for some reason I believe the stories of my father-in-law - State Prize winner at Tunguska.
        He told how when they created Tunguska, he traveled in parts - he controlled the repairmen. They asked him to talk about the new system at the artillery academy in Poland (or at the headquarters of the Special Forces - I don’t remember exactly). Well told, and the Poles anti-aircraft gunners ask, including why 30mm.
        Well, I say, I'm starting to prove that this is an optimum such as the weight of the projectile, the action at the target, etc., but I myself know that the optimum is -35mm. Just by then all the plants were already set up for 30mm production laughing
        So ... His opinion was that the optimal caliber was 35mm (well, in our 37mm).
  4. carbofo
    carbofo 27 September 2013 10: 24 New
    +2
    When you learn how to copy paste humanly, paragraphs are already repetitions!
  5. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 27 September 2013 13: 01 New
    +3
    In order to increase the Shilka’s firing range, the North Koreans, having installed 2 30 mm artillery guns in its turret, presumably ship AK-230s, with an effective firing range of about 5 km. The hull is generally similar to that of the ZSU-23-4, however, it is larger in size. The same goes for the tower, it is more massive than the Shilka. It is clear why: the main armament is two 30-mm guns with a rate of fire of 800 rounds per minute per barrel. The machine can hit targets at ranges of 3000-3500 m.

    North Korean ZSU at the parade.

  6. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 27 September 2013 13: 06 New
    +2
    An interesting ZSU was developed in the 50s in Czechoslovakia:
    ZSU M53 / 59 "Prague" was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Czechoslovak army in the late 50s. The armored hull of this ZSU is mounted on the modified chassis of the Czechoslovakian V-3S Prague truck. The engine is a Tatra T 912-2 six-cylinder water-cooled diesel engine with a capacity of 110 liters. with. was in front of the ZSU. Its hood, like the cockpit, was made of aluminum armored plates with the addition of titanium, the thickness of which in the frontal part reached 10 mm. The crew of three was located in the cockpit, in the frontal armor plate of which there are two windows covered by armored panels.
    The armament of the ZSU is located at the rear, on a horizontal platform, and consists of an openly mounted M53 rotary mount with two 30-mm automatic weapons, the firing range of which is 3000 m. The ammunition includes several types of shells, the ammunition carrying capacity of 600-800 shells. Above the trunks of the anti-aircraft installation is a vertical horn-type store with 50 shells. The firing in azimuth is circular, and in the vertical plane, from -10 degrees. up to +85 degrees The transfer time from marching to combat position is one minute. It is possible to quickly dismantle an anti-aircraft installation using two retractable ramps mounted on a platform. It was assumed that the ZSU would be able to destroy air targets flying at speeds up to 350 m / s and at altitudes up to 3500 m, and it could hit airborne landing and ground targets at ranges up to 2000 m.
    Among the shortcomings of this ZSU, it is worth noting the absence of a detection system, and the fact that the aiming was only visual.
    It entered the arsenal of the Yugoslav People’s Army in 1969, when production began by the forces of the Yugoslav industry. By the early 1980s, JNA received 789 ZSUs. "Prague" was attached to the mixed artillery and missile air defense divisions of the land brigades of the Yugoslav army. Each such division received, among other weapons, 12 M53 / 59. "Prague" periodically underwent modernization, there were several projects involving a significant strengthening of these ZSU by installing new engines, new sights, etc. But the collapse of Yugoslavia forced the military to abandon such plans.
    In wars in the vast expanses of the former Yugoslavia, "Prague" was used in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo. In the first two wars, they mainly supported the actions of infantry units. In defense, they acted from improvised shelters, sometimes ZSU were covered with steel grills in order to protect against anti-tank missiles. Many zsu added 12,7 mm machine guns. The peculiarity of "Prague" was the sound of shots, producing a strong psychological effect.
    The M53 / 59 fell short of its main purpose only once - on June 24, 1992, the Croatian MiG-21 was shot down in Posavin. The rare occurrence of air targets had an extremely negative effect on the training of crews who, by the time of the NATO bombing of the Republika Srpska in 1995, simply had little combat skills in aviation.
    In 1999, Yugoslav "Prague" shot down 3 unmanned aerial vehicles and 12 NATO cruise missiles. But by the time of the aggression against the FRY, this ZSU was already morally obsolete.
    "Prague" JUNA.

    ZSU "Prague" of the 3rd infantry brigade of the Serbian army.
  7. igordok
    igordok 27 September 2013 14: 54 New
    +2
    For self-propelled guns "flower" series - "Carnation", Peony "," Tulip "....
    For ZSU "river" series - "Shilka", "Yenisei", "Tunguska". And what else?
  8. smiths xnumx
    smiths xnumx 27 September 2013 16: 21 New
    +5
    Here is the true Iranian "wunderwaffe" about eight trunks ...

    and this is about six trunks

    but the North Korean ZSU based on the Soviet 57-mm twin S-68 anti-aircraft gun used in the ZSU-57-2 anti-aircraft self-propelled gun, as can be seen from the photograph without a radar

    based on the captured ZU-23 and the Samil-100 truck, the Zumlak ZU was created in South Africa

    In Egypt, the Sinai-23 ZSU was created, including the Zyn-23-2, 4 Ayn as-Saqr SAMs (Egyptian copy of the Strela-2M MANPADS) and the Dassault 6SD-20S radar based on the M113 BTR,

    Yugoslav ZSU BOV-3. During development, it was decided to equip it with a licensed version of the Hispanic-Suiz HS804 gun - the M55 A4B1 gun. Rate of fire - 750 rounds per minute. The effective range for ground targets is 2000 meters, and for air targets 1500 meters. A significant drawback of the ZSU was the placement of stores for 60 shells each on top of the guns. Recharge from the inside is not possible. The rest of the ammunition from 22 stores was in the tower. It is equipped with a J-171 optical sight. ZOV BOV-3 remains in service with the armies of Serbia (85 units) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (29 units). In Serbia, these ZSU are in reserve air defense.
  9. xomaNN
    xomaNN 27 September 2013 21: 45 New
    +3
    Judging by the followers, the caliber and ideology of the ZSU-sparks was picked up precisely by foreign developers.
    1. cdrt
      cdrt 28 September 2013 15: 46 New
      0
      Judging by the followers, the caliber and ideology of the ZSU-sparks was picked up precisely by foreign developers.


      No. On the contrary. See M19 born in 1944
  10. sivuch
    sivuch 28 September 2013 01: 25 New
    +1
    But I, on the contrary, think that the Su-9 is wrong and, ideally, Yenisei and Shilka (the first for tank and, possibly, MP divisions.), Shilka for the Airborne Forces and Marines should be adopted. Yenisei only. Because of its weight of under 30 tons, it was not suitable for naval and airborne landing, and for them they would still have to make a shaitan arba based on MTLB or a truck in general. And only the third option is what was accepted, t. e. only Shilka.
    It’s another matter if the caliber on Shilka was changed to 30mm (in fact, as promised), and so the time of Shilka ended already in the mid-70s, i.e. with the advent of anti-tank helicopters with missiles with a range of 3.5-4km.
    There are still a few nuances. The 37mm projectile has the opportunity to improve efficiency, in particular due to the radio fuse, the 23mm projectile means, no. The Yenisei had its own Alien defendant initially, it was put on Shilka some 20 years later. The Yenisei was from the very beginning, the TV-optical sighting device doesn’t have Shilka. The vitality of the Yenisei should be higher — the armor is slightly better + the front location of the engine (however, as it would be in reality, it’s impossible to say). Well, what kind of armor does Shilka have at a distance of 2 km and above, it is clear that no
  11. sivuch
    sivuch 28 September 2013 10: 31 New
    +2
    Yes, the 3cm radar station on the Yenisei should have been more powerful and less dependent on weather conditions.The 1.5cm range for Shilka was chosen only because it was used less and an interference station was not created for it. Meanwhile, in the Middle East, the Arab Pvoshniki tried not to turn on the radar at all and fired with the help of an understudy with near-zero efficiency.
    Then it’s better with TOV, which was on the Yenisei
  12. Fedya
    Fedya 3 October 2013 18: 25 New
    0
    In principle, these devices can be called the forerunner of the Terminator! Just then nobody thought about it.