In Russia, create a super-heavy rocket with an eye on the moon and Mars

In Russia, they returned to the idea of ​​creating a rocket carrier of a super heavy class, with the help of which our country will be able to fly to the Moon and Mars. However, at present there is still no clarity as to who exactly will be engaged in its creation. The fact that the Russian president approved the start of work on a super-heavy launch vehicle with a payload of up to 150 tons, 2 of September 2014 of the year became known. Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin told reporters about this decision, who also attended the meeting, which was held at the Vostochny cosmodrome under construction.

Vladimir Putin chaired a meeting on the development of a new Russian space center, which is being built in the Amur Region. After the meeting, it became finally clear that after years of 10, the Russian Federation plans to finally abandon the use of the Baikonur cosmodrome, located in Kazakhstan. The head of Roscosmos, Oleg Ostapenko, noted that if today almost 60% of all Russian space vehicle launches are carried out from Baikonur, then by 2025, such launches will be sporadic. At the same time, more than 50% of all spacecraft from our orbital group will be launched from the launch sites of the Vostochny cosmodrome.

In order for these plans to materialize, it is planned to build three launch pads at the new Russian cosmodrome. The first one will be used for Soyuz-2 medium-class launch vehicles. It is reported that the first Soyuz-2 rocket with the Aist-2 and Lomonosov spacecraft will have to start from Vostochny space center in summer 2015, and from 2018, manned launches will be made from the new Russian space center . The second launching table is planned to be used to launch into space the Angara-5 PH, belonging to the heavy class. The first launch of the Angara-5 rocket, which will replace the Proton, is scheduled for December 2014.

Construction of the East Cosmodrome

The launching table for launch vehicles of this class at the cosmodrome was planned to start building in 2016, but Oleg Ostapenko proposed to move the start date of construction more than a year in advance. He noted that work could begin as early as 2014. This will allow not to lose the time and potential of the builders, besides the necessary preparatory work at the object has already been carried out. As early as December 2013, the necessary reconnaissance work was carried out and the locations of the objects of the new Russian space rocket complex Angara were determined. At present, the experimental transportation of a cargo package of the Angara LV with rail transport from Moscow to Uglegorsk has already been completed. Also, design and exploration work has been started to ensure the construction of the technical and launch complexes.

September 2 finally clarified the fate of the third launch pad and the launch vehicle, which should be launched from it. It will be used to launch extra-heavy rockets. After the development of the entire family of new Angara LVs of the light, medium and heavy classes, Russia plans to begin work on the creation of an entirely new class of launch vehicles with payloads in 120-140 tons, Dmitry Rogozin noted. “At the turn of the year after 2020, we have to go to the creation of such missiles. This will be a confirmation of the dominant role of the Russian Federation in matters that concern heavy-class launch vehicles, a return to the best that was created in the USSR, ”said the Russian Deputy Prime Minister, who oversees the development of the military-industrial complex.

Dmitry Rogozin assured that the plans for the construction of the launch pad for the Angara launch vehicle have not changed. However, due to a number of ideas proposed by Roscosmos, it is already possible to pledge funds to create a launching table for superheavy missiles. In addition, the head of Roscosmos, Oleg Ostapenko, noted 2 of September that the number of launch complexes for launching the heavy Angara launch vehicle could be reduced from 4-x to 2-x. And the money saved in this way will be spent on the development of a new super-heavy launch vehicle.

Construction of the East Cosmodrome

It is worth noting that the idea of ​​developing a super-heavy launch vehicle in Russia is not new and has been in the air for quite some time. This topic has been actively discussed by the Russian rocket and space community since the closure of the Energy-Buran program at the beginning of the 1990s. The new post-Soviet Russia of those years simply had no place to fly on such missiles with a carrying capacity of 100 tons. However, later 25 years after the first (and, as it turned out, the last) flight of the Buran spacecraft, the Russian government and Roscosmos again began to talk about the need to make flights that go beyond the limits of near-Earth space. For these purposes, need extra-heavy rockets. For example, the Saturn-5 launch vehicle designed by Wernher von Braun when launched to the moon of the Apollo-15 manned spacecraft was calculated to bring payloads into the low orbit 140 orbit, of which 47 tons were sent to the Moon.

Roscosmos has already determined the timing of the appearance of super-heavy missiles in Russia. According to Oleg Ostapenko, in order to move further, you need to proceed to the ambitious stage of development of the Russian cosmonautics, which will be associated with the exploration of deep space and high near-earth orbits. Fundamentally important and decisive in solving this problem will be the development of a modern space rocket complex belonging to the superheavy class. In the 2014 year, it is planned to start implementation of the preliminary project and the competitive selection of such a rocket. Design work on a launch vehicle of this class will begin in 2016.

For the implementation of this ambitious project Roscosmos requested from the budget 200 billion rubles. The money will go to the development of a space rocket complex of the super heavy class, which can be launched from the Vostochny cosmodrome. This information is contained in the draft "Federal space program on 2016-2025 years" (FPC), the text of which was sent for approval to the government. The document says that at 2025, the ground plan is to complete the ground stage of experimental development of a super-heavy class space rocket complex, which will deliver a low-mass payload of at least 80 tons to a low-Earth orbit, and by using an upper stage of manned spacecraft of new generation with mass not less than 20 tons, on the near-moon polar orbits.

RN Angara easy class

Roskosmos is asking for funding in the amount of 151,6 billion rubles for the period from 2016 to 2025 for the development of a super-heavy class space rocket complex. In addition, the FPC project implies an increase in the energy capabilities of the rocket due to the development of a new oxygen-hydrogen upper stage. The start of the experimental ground testing of the new upper stage is scheduled to begin in 2021 year. Roskosmos specialists estimated 60,5 billion rubles in cash costs for its creation and testing.

Naturally, the question arises: which companies will be engaged in the creation of a super-heavy rocket? Today there are at least two similar projects in the country. The first of these is the further development of the Angara launch vehicle family, on which the specialists of the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center work. Thus, the Angara-5 rocket carrier, which is planned to be launched into space before the end of 2014, should put tons of payload into low-Earth orbit 25. However, the center stated that in perspective, the Angara-7 rocket could increase the mass of the output payload by 2 times - up to 50 tons. Whether it will be possible to increase the mass of the output payload yet is not yet clear. The second project was presented in 2009 year. He was represented by competitors of Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center - RSC Energia, TsSKB-Progress (created and manufactured by Soyuz) and the Makeyev State Rocket Center.

This triumvirate of companies rather easily bypassed the Khrunychevs in the competition for the creation of a new heavy launch vehicle, which was once announced by Roscosmos. The companies promised to launch a new heavy launch vehicle Rus-M, which has a payload capacity of 2015 tons, by 50, and in the future, bring this figure to 100 tons. But the apparatus weight that the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center possessed was higher, and after Roscosmos was headed by Vladimir Popovkin, all work on the Rus-M project was stopped, Angara again came to the fore.

RN Energy with the ship Buran

It is rather difficult to say just what way the new leadership of Roscosmos, headed by Oleg Ostapenko, will risk going. Especially, taking into account the fact that all rocket and space centers are currently passing under the wing of the United Rocket and Space Corporation (ORCK) created not so long ago. Such a transition will probably facilitate the selection of the most realistic and effective projects for the development of a super-heavy-class launch vehicle. There is a possibility that the rocket will be fundamentally new, for example, equipped with high-power nuclear power plants, on which specialists of the Keldysh Center are working. According to estimates by RSC Energia specialists, a nuclear rocket launcher will be able to reduce the cost of launching a payload into near-moon orbit by more than 2 times compared to existing liquid rocket engines (LRE).

However, the LRE has not yet fully exhausted its capabilities. Using fuel based on a mixture of not kerosene and oxygen, but oxygen and liquefied natural gas, according to calculations carried out by experts of NPO Energomash, will give an additional increase in power in the amount of 10%. So enough options. With favorable developments, the new Russian super-heavy class rocket will be able to ascend into the sky from the Vostochny cosmodrome in the next decade.

It is worth noting that at the September meeting of 2, the discussion finally turned to really large-scale space exploration tasks. Now, scientists will have to decide not so much on the need to create a super-heavy rocket launcher (the issue has already been resolved), but on the distribution of work on its creation among enterprises in the industry. It is necessary that the task is to be under the force for all organizations that are involved in the project. In order that its complexity in the future does not become an excuse for delays in the creation or possible accidents. That is why NPO Energomash, TsSKB Progress and RSC Energia should unite their efforts, using the existing reserve of the Energia and Rus-M launch vehicles, and in the course of 3-5 for years to introduce a super-heavy rocket. Such works, among other things, will allow the capacities of all these organizations to be loaded, as well as a large number of other companies that are involved in the process of scientific and production cooperation.

Launch of Soyuz-2.1a launch vehicle

A super heavy class launch vehicle may be needed by Russia for solving large space missions. For example, the exploration of the Moon, the flights to Mars, as well as the resumption of its manned program instead of participation in an international project. Also, the rocket can be used in the interests of programs to ensure the security of the state, such as the insertion into orbit of a heavy automatic Polus spacecraft (Skif-DM). This satellite was once launched into orbit by an extra-heavy rocket “Energy”.

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  1. +2
    4 September 2014 09: 38
    The article is good. Will we just pull such a burden?
    1. +1
      4 September 2014 10: 06
      A reasonable question, given the new realities. In the process, the maintenance and restoration of New Russia will also be at our expense.
      1. Turik
        4 September 2014 11: 49
        Do not forget, this is with an eye to the future.

        There will be less and less food and space on earth. We will not be able to settle in the next 100-150 years - we will never be able to, there will be fewer resources per one human soul, and such projects of wild money cost.
      2. +3
        4 September 2014 12: 01
        Pull, pull! Young people are ready to work, and not sit and wait for handouts from the state or because of the Ocean. There is a feeling of pride in your work. Pull, and not in such conditions Gagarin flew. If only the government had the political will, and, unfortunately, it wasn’t visible, there were only ay-pads on my mind, and salmon was salty.
      3. 0
        4 September 2014 16: 32
        not well, you can withdraw money in offshore ... more will be;)
      4. +1
        8 September 2014 12: 04
        It depends on what fate will be with the New Russia. I mean as part of the Russian Federation or like Ossetia and Abkhazia! But I also agree with you: we will help to restore at least. But on the other hand: in Donbass, all production is "Nezalezhnaya". So there are tidbits there too.
        And the development of space is necessary. It will bring technology, jobs, universities, design schools behind it — in short, the whole state. it has always been so in Russia.
        In addition, the task of creating superheavy launch vehicles is not an innovation. I’m sure that on this issue I have touched a huge one since the days of the USSR. Therefore, the dates are so bold: 2025. In essence, the development of a rocket and a carrier for deep space flights is the task of the century! Good luck to our designers and engineers!
    2. +1
      6 September 2014 12: 40
      Quote: 89067359490
      Will we just pull such a burden?

      And why "pull" her. The concept is clear, the general scheme has been worked out, the engines are ready-made. Even the rocket itself has already been developed and tested, even the specialists are still alive. It is not difficult to establish production and possibly modernize with the use of new technologies. The most difficult thing is to continuously beat our "effective" ones on the hands, so that they would not get involved in this business with their effectiveness. Then everything will work out quickly and calmly.
    3. Victor-cort
      7 September 2014 12: 04
      Quote: 89067359490
      The article is good. Will we just pull such a burden?

      fuck don't need to pull ... Mars is generally useless for now.
      What is needed is the construction of slipways on the moon and the release of spaceships there (only people to be brought to work from the earth) because the absence of a gravitational pit will pay off all expenses ... and only then you can think about the solar system, but almost everything.
      We need to start living in space, because we have 50 more years to spare ... and then there will be Americans and China.
  2. +5
    4 September 2014 09: 46
    Why create something new, when there is Energy, its side blocks are the current Zenith launch vehicle, although it’s dill, but the system is fully developed, and relatively short terms can be arranged for its procurement in Russia, besides, they are in production, I would say the most high-tech part , these are rocket engines. So with full confidence we can say that the floor of the rocket is ready
    1. bigELDAK
      4 September 2014 10: 54
      They forgot about Chelomey, it was he who guessed to introduce at one time a "cheap" series of UR "universal missiles." -100.

      But development plans and all blocks are interchangeable like Chelomei’s
      1. bigELDAK
        4 September 2014 11: 15
        But a lecture about Mars, the last words are important for a man so far there is nothing to do there! Let the robots investigate.
  3. +3
    4 September 2014 09: 53
    Yes, it’s hard that our cosmos rises from its knees, the new Korolev is not enough ... Let's hope for the best!
  4. +2
    4 September 2014 10: 02
    Well ... good luck! Earth, goodbye!
  5. +1
    4 September 2014 10: 05
    Don't forget to work "for the future"!
    Korolev once created his "magnificent Seven" ... and it still flies beautifully :) Although thoroughly modernized.
    I hope that new projects will become the same in due time. Yes
  6. +1
    4 September 2014 10: 29
    "... Also, the rocket can be used in the interests of programs to ensure the security of the state, such as the launch into orbit of the heavy automatic spacecraft" Polyus "(Skif-DM). This satellite was once launched into orbit by the super-heavy rocket" Energia ".. . "- read:
    "... The first test launch of the Energia LV (11K25, product 6SL, code 14A02, tail number I1506SL) with the Polyus heavy satellite took place on May 15, 1987 from the universal stand-launch complex of the Baikonur cosmodrome. The rocket worked fine, launching" The pole "entered a transition trajectory, but the device itself did not enter the calculated satellite orbit due to a failure in the autonomous control system after separation from the second stage of the Energia launch vehicle." - from here
    So then this "gun" did not "reach" a normal orbit ...
  7. Bowless
    4 September 2014 10: 53
    Another way to distract from pressing problems?
  8. +3
    4 September 2014 11: 02
    A great country must make great plans! Space exploration is the future, whoever will be the first will win.
  9. -2
    4 September 2014 12: 41
    "... For the implementation of this ambitious project, Roskosmos has requested 200 billion rubles from the budget. The money will go to the development of a super-heavy class space rocket complex,"

    I drank definitely, they will reinvent the wheel :-)
  10. -3
    4 September 2014 14: 12
    another nonsense well, by golly!
    1. +2
      4 September 2014 14: 57
      Quote: Nitarius

      As far as I know, all these technologies cannot be implemented due to the lack of compact power plants.
      I saw one project, so there, to get around the shortcomings of power plants, we made the ship itself, measuring 250 km, with such dimensions there will already be its own gravitational field.
    2. +1
      4 September 2014 21: 57
      Tell me ... Are you a physicist in general and do you even have any idea of ​​the boundaries of science and Ren TV?
      1. 0
        5 September 2014 00: 27
        Quote: it doesn't matter who I am
        Are you a physicist at all

        If you ask me, then please quote.
        As for the ship, however, at that time Ren TV was not there.
        You can move in space due to your own gravity, between massive bodies, though for a long time, if I’m not mistaken, it will take 10 years to fly from the Earth’s low orbit to the Moon laughing . And it was also planned to launch this ship from Earth. wassat
        But if this ship is driven in by nuclear reactors, though the cooling systems will be very large, then it will be possible to use other energy-intensive engine systems, including photon ones. Due to its size, the ship will have a lot of weight and accordingly weak gravity, it will be possible to walk on the surface without fear of flying into space.
  11. -3
    4 September 2014 22: 39
    an entertaining article, I only note that the Saturn-5 rocket existed only in the form of a full-size model and in Hollywood clumsy crafts about the Americans flying to the Moon. Fatal setbacks pursued in the field of heavy and superheavy rockets.
  12. mambo_1
    7 September 2014 09: 23
    Rogozin on the moon
  13. 0
    12 September 2014 10: 49
    While you harness (and will you?) The Chinese will already be there winked
  14. 0
    17 September 2014 10: 08
    But isn’t it easier to tie many small missiles into a bundle than to make one big one? o_o
  15. Bowless
    19 September 2014 18: 15
    About how everyone was bombarded with an alternative view of hyperfirework.