Angara: Triumph or Oblivion. 1 part

Ukrainian splinter

Today, the economic collapse in Ukraine is spoken a lot and often, and somehow in this gigantic stream of necessary and unnecessary information, the rocket and space industry of this state is lost. It is from this country that I will begin my story. This is done for a number of reasons. First, the Ukrainian cosmos as a fragment of the once-powerful USSR space industry is easy to see. His problems are in many ways similar to Russian ones, but they are much sharper and therefore, not so camouflaged and dealing with Ukrainian issues, you begin to understand your own problems better. Secondly, it must be said right away that the Angara project is largely conceived in order to gain military space sovereignty in Russia. It is not difficult to guess which country is most tied to the Russian rocket and space industry. And you will agree that the security of our state should not depend on the Ukrainian political conjuncture. Now, even the most favorable political and economic situation in Ukraine is not able to save its space industry, it is doomed. Here the question is purely production-technical. The launch of the Angara included a countdown timer for the death of the Ukrainian Cosmos. So, we lower the political and economic moments beyond the scope of our article and proceed closely to the “debriefing” of Ukrainian missiles.

And, at first glance, the state of affairs in Ukrainian rocket science looks just gorgeous. Judge for yourself, Ukraine is among the top five countries in the world in terms of achievements in the space sector. The country's potential in the face of the Southern Machine-Building Plant makes it possible to annually provide up to 10% of the global launch services. The space industry of Ukraine has a complete scientific and technical complex for the creation of launch vehicles (launch vehicles) and spacecraft. This allows the country to launch space launches of its own satellites on its launch vehicles. An example is the launches of the Sich-1М satellite remote sensing satellites in 2004 and Sich-2 in 2011, which were carried out using launch vehicles manufactured in Ukraine (the Cyclone-3) and RN "Dnepr"). The program for the production and launch of the first telecommunications satellite Lybid is being actively pursued, and the launch itself is planned to be carried out on, again, the Ukrainian Zenit launch vehicle. Today, Ukraine is a member of such large-scale projects:

- “Sea Launch” (USA, Russia, Norway, Ukraine);
- "Dnepr" (Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan);
- "Vega" (EU, Ukraine);
- "Land Launch" (Russia, Ukraine, USA);
- "Cyclone-4" (Brazil, Ukraine).

The picture is just idealistic! Now let's deal with this canvas more carefully. Let's start with the lines of three Ukrainian launch vehicles: Zenit, Cyclone and Dnepr. All of these rockets are the brainchild of the Soviet space industry, fragments of the once-powerful military-military industry of the Soviet Union. At the time of its collapse, the above-mentioned devices, specialists from the Dnepropetrovsk Southern Machine-Building Plant, produced and serviced. It is not surprising that the leaders of the "separatist" Ukrkosmos decided to develop commercial projects based on these particular missiles.

The story will begin with the most successful - the launch vehicle "Zenith". This rocket is the pride of Yuzhmash and the Soviet space industry. Zenit was designed and built as part of the program to build energy carriers of super-heavy class Energia and Vulkan. With a certain layout of the modules of the rockets, these colossi could take out to the Earth’s reference orbit up to 200t of payload, including the well-known reusable ship Buran. The first stage of Zenith (up to 8 units) was just that module for these giants, but Zenith itself, as an autonomous and universal launch vehicle, is capable of launching cargo and manned ships up to 15 into low near-earth orbit. He has established himself above all praise and can give odds to any carrier in the middle-class missile niche, and this is why: Zenit holds first place in terms of the ratio of payload mass to rocket weight, which you agree is important for commercial launches, however, the American rocket from the series "Falken" py aetsya is a challenge, but it will be a Pyrrhic victory, however, we are to "Folkenam" will return.

This rocket is the most powerful in the world of liquid-jet engine RD-170 (171) ever created, even the engine for the "lunar" rocket von Braun (the largest and most powerful in the world) "Saturn-5", did not reach this engine.

Finally, the rocket engine at all levels of "Zenith" work on a safe and environmentally friendly fuel - kerosene.

But now the tale for our Ukrainian colleagues, unfortunately, ends. As is known, Ukraine participates in the Sea Launch project, where the aforementioned rocket is delivered by sea to a floating cosmodrome located at the equator. The idea of ​​equatorial launch is very simple. From the point of view of celestial mechanics, launching rockets from the equator is optimal because it is possible to use the Earth's rotation speed as efficiently as possible. To this you can add a gain in logistics, as is known, sea transport is the cheapest. Not surprisingly, the Norwegian shipbuilding company Aker Kvaerner, related to space as Papuan to an iceberg, hapnul whole 20% of the consortium, the remaining shares were distributed as follows: a subsidiary of the corporation "Boeing", the company BCSC, received 40%, RSC Energia "- 25%, Yuzhmash software - 10%, Yuzhnoye Commercial Bank - 5% shares.

22 June 2009, the company declared bankruptcy. “The reorganization, in accordance with Chapter 11 of the US Bankruptcy Code, gives us the opportunity to continue our activities and focus on developing plans for our future development,” the company assured its shareholders. Indeed, 1 on April XNUMHgoda, the board of directors of the consortium decided to give the Energia Rocket and Space Corporation a major role in the Sea Launch project. And at the end of July of the same year, by a court decision, Energia Overseas Limited, a subsidiary of Energia, received 2010% of the Sea Launch Consortium, Boeing 95% and Aker Solutions 3%. And yet, the board of directors announced the beginning of the development of a project to move the port of basing and ground infrastructure from Los Angeles to Sovetskaya Gavan.

It seems that our Ukrainian friends were simply forgotten. But the point here is not in the "forgetfulness" of the companions who have embraced the "Ukrainian lads". The situation was like this for reasons beyond the control of the Ukrainian side. The fact is that Ukraine is technically, production and, moreover, financially unable to influence this project, and here's why.

As mentioned above, carrier rockets are manufactured at Yuzhmash, but about 70% of components are supplied by Russian enterprises, and these are the most important components. It is enough to call such a “part” as the already mentioned first-stage mid-flight engine RD-171, second and third stage engines, upper stage and much more. What could oppose "Yuzhmash" to all this? Is that the world's largest workshop, specially built for the assembly of these missiles, their diameter (3,9 m) is too big for vehicles of this class. It was interesting to observe the bewildered face of Kolomoisky, who visited this workshop. He reminded Kis Vorobyaninov, who was wandering around the Club of railway workers. Here it is, a treasure, and how to carry it away or at least grab a piece, this “worthy” child of Zion could not figure out.

Revealed another problem. The fact is that the sea logistics of this project was clearly overvalued, because the sea still needed to be reached. Imagine: first land traffic, then loading the product in the Black Sea port, then the Bosphorus, Dardanelles, the Suez Canal, and even bypassing Africa. Instead of one loading and unloading - two. Ideally, the plant should be located somewhere on the ocean coast. So, Yuzhmash could not influence the policy of the consortium in any way, just as their assembly plant located somewhere in the Philippines, and not in a convenient place, cannot dictate its terms to the Sony concern. The “marketing” scheme of the Ukrainian rocket builders is painfully primitive, fulfilled the order, received money and ... “almost 70% wear and tear of fixed assets of production”, as V. Schegol, plant managers general director complained in an interview. And you understand that no "Kolomoisky" update production assets are not going to. Immediately I recall the cynical method of greedy German peasants. When the horse fell ill, the peasant stopped feeding him. It makes no sense, the transfer of fodder, still go to the slaughter, and it will still work a little on the owner, but a miracle happened - the unfortunate animal being treated by hunger was recovering. This experience was transferred by a German cattleman to people. As a result, a well-known method of treatment according to Meal (the name of the peasant - “innovator”) arose. So, the production machine tool park “Yuzhmash” reminds this hungry, sick horse, with only one difference, there are NO chances to avoid slaughterhouse.

It is also necessary to take into account the fact that the assembly of these missiles brings the lion’s share of income for Dnepropetrovsk rocket builders, for example, in 2012, it was 81,3%. Returning to the Sea Launch, it is worth noting that the consortium took into account the experience of the not quite successful sea logistics project and wisely decided to play it safe. A “mirror” project “Land Launch” was launched, which used the infrastructure of the former Soviet Union. Rockets were transported by rail without any intermediate overloads directly to Baikonur. The Krasnoyarsk plant Krasmash manufactured a third stage acceleration unit, adapted to the “Baikonur latitude”, and the project was launched. Currently 6 launches have already been made, all successful. As for the Sea Launch, on 31 May 2014, 36 launches were made - 32 successful, 1 partially successful, 3 unsuccessful.

I want to say a little about the less successful Ukrainian project - "Cyclone-4". The implementation of this joint project with Brazil began in the year 2003. The first launch from the Brazilian cosmodrome Alcantara was to take place no later than November 30 2006 2007. Later, the launch was repeatedly carried over, the year was designated 2012, then the launch was postponed to the 488 year. The total cost of the Project was estimated at $ 100 million. The Ukrainian side invested in it according to various estimates $ 150-2011 million, and in August 260, the Ukrainian government gave guarantees to attract $ 15 million credit for the final implementation of the project. A new launch date was announced - 2013 November 2014 of the year, and in April of the same year the “final date” of the launch was announced, which is planned for November-December XNUMX of the year.

Comments are inappropriate here. I will only say that we will definitely return to the Ukrainian space, in particular, we will consider the Dnepr and Cyclone missiles, and we will be especially interested in their military prototypes.

Looking ahead, I will say that later we will understand why these missiles are doomed.
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  1. +3
    1 September 2014 10: 24
    Thanks! Interesting article.
    1. -3
      1 September 2014 19: 30
      Wrote nonsense, a request to the moderator - delete the post.
      1. Sheremetev
        1 September 2014 19: 58
        Argument, please.
        1. +2
          1 September 2014 20: 55
          Kazakhstan showed interest in Zenith after deciding to move the Angara launch complex to Vostochny. There were agreements between Russia + RK + RU at Zenith. But apparently Ukraine has disappeared, and the project is working. As far as I know, the Republic of Kazakhstan will take part in the modernization and repair of the Zenith launch pad, as well as place an order for several launch vehicles. He will also take part in the assembly of the rocket in Baikonur. That is, the RK allocates money for this. hi
          1. Sheremetev
            1 September 2014 21: 17
            Zenith is a very good rocket. It will be a pity if we lose her, so Nazarbayev is great. I no longer take that aspect, "Zenith" is a kerosene rocket, but the same "Dnepr" that takes off from Baikonur - "heptyl". The environment must be respected.
            1. +2
              2 September 2014 01: 41
              Sergey, that’s the main reason. They wanted to replace the heptyl Proton with the Angara, but since it did not work out, they decided to tackle the Zenith. But I do not have further infarmation. But what will be spent on Baikonur and Kazakhstan is a fact. hi
              1. Sheremetev
                2 September 2014 09: 55
                Yes, everything is logical. Moreover, Zenit has already taken off from Baikonur, but at the expense of Angara, I understand that Russia wants Angara to start only from domestic sites, in particular - Plesetsk and Vostochny.
        2. +2
          1 September 2014 23: 58
          Quote: Sheremetev
          Argument, please.

          What to argue? I accidentally wrote a crazy comment. The delete button did not work. Edited the post. I asked the moderator to delete. For some minuses instructed. Is it clear now?
  2. 0
    1 September 2014 10: 58
    Is it true that Ukrainians say that Bulava is 80% Ukrainian?
    1. -4
      1 September 2014 17: 15
      Whatever it was, it will be removed from service. There is something to replace.
    2. +1
      1 September 2014 17: 28
      Quote: it doesn't matter who I am
      Is it true that Ukrainians say that Bulava is 80% Ukrainian?

      Well, what’s Ukrainian there? Our control system and our corps. Warhead too
      Quote: Mountain Shooter
      There is something to replace.

      What? Five boats make under this rocket
      1. +1
        1 September 2014 21: 09
        So Mace was only adopted. Solid-propellant, three-stage missile for nuclear submarines. Developer - MIT (Moscow), gen. construct Yuri Solomonov, manufacturer - FGUP "Votkinsk plant" (there "Topol" is collected). So there is nothing Ukrainian there. Sorry for the Makeyevites - their theme (RSM50, RSM52, RSM54; liquid). But as far as I know, they will not be left without work.
  3. +3
    1 September 2014 11: 02
    Thanks for the work, I look forward to continuing)
  4. 0
    1 September 2014 11: 07
    We (Russia) should also take a closer look at Alcantara! And so that we can make our launches from both Alcantara and the Kourou (French Guiana)!
    1. +2
      1 September 2014 11: 28
      Khrunichev seemed to have launched his Protons with Kuru earlier (as I don’t know now). There, the payload gain is rather big relative to Baikonur.
      1. 0
        1 September 2014 13: 36
        Quote: ZuboreZ
        Khrunichev seemed to have launched his Protons with Kuru earlier (as I don’t know now). There, the payload gain is rather big relative to Baikonur.

        Which Kuru?
        In this very Kuru, did someone build a launch complex for Proton with all the infrastructure? belay
      2. 0
        1 September 2014 17: 31
        Quote: ZuboreZ
        Khrunichev seems to have launched his Protons with Kuru before

        Unions are launching with Kuru. With European Satellites
        Special built a launch complex. All launches are successful except the last, recently the jamb came out
      3. RAYS
        1 September 2014 21: 46
        Colleagues. Do not know - do not comment. Protons were not allowed in from Kuru.
  5. +1
    1 September 2014 11: 26
    And where does the "Angara"? But thanks for the article.
    1. 0
      1 September 2014 12: 55
      Apparently a hint that the Angara was immediately developed taking into account the Sea Launch. So to speak, unification in all directions.
      1. RAYS
        1 September 2014 21: 48
        Again crap: Sea launch was done at ZENITH.
    2. Sheremetev
      1 September 2014 14: 02
      The article is large, there are 12 chapters in it, reading the next you will understand everything.
      1. +2
        1 September 2014 14: 51
        Quote: Sheremetev
        The article is large, it has 12 chapters

        Interested drinks .
  6. +1
    1 September 2014 12: 41
    The title of the article does not at all coincide with its content, at least in the first part.
    In pursuing long-term scientific and military programs, no country relies on "politically and economically unstable" partners. Having become "independent", Ukraine in every possible way refused to cooperate with Russia in the rocket and space sphere. The complete collapse of the economy practically "buried" the Ukrainian space. As for the Angara project, Ukraine has nothing to do with it. The creation of a fundamentally new rocket complex was launched at the Plesetsk cosmodrome in the early 80s, and this year the launch of a "light" version of this launch vehicle was successfully carried out. The next in line is the launch of "medium" and "heavy" versions. The Vostochny cosmodrome is being successfully built, where the Angara-type rockets will also be launched. We are not talking now about some kind of triumph of Russian rocketry, because the country's production base made it possible to create such missiles back in the late 70s - early 80s, but there was no need for this. The launching of spacecraft for various purposes into orbit was successfully and at the lowest cost carried out by rockets previously developed at KB Korolev, Yangel, and others, which were in sufficient numbers in the arsenals. The modern space exploration program is more complex and provides for the launch into orbit of satellites, orbital stations and spacecraft of a significantly greater mass, which required a new carrier. This is the Angara rocket. There can be no question of any oblivion of this project. Everything is going according to plan here.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Sheremetev
      1 September 2014 14: 06
      This is only the first chapter, only 12, after reading them you will understand everything and I will be pleased to talk with you.
    3. RAYS
      1 September 2014 21: 53
      The article is qualified and your commentary evokes respect, which always arouses the opinion of a knowledgeable person. Thank.
      1. Sheremetev
        1 September 2014 22: 25
        Thanks for the flattering review!
  7. +2
    1 September 2014 16: 28
    Thanks! Interesting article.
  8. +1
    1 September 2014 17: 11
    It seems to me that all these poets are not entirely tenacious because of multinational management. Now the mattresses are bending Europeans with sanctions to such an extent that we will have to break off cooperation in this area, and then who will use the fruits of the projects? I think you need to invest in your base
  9. +1
    1 September 2014 17: 55
    We look forward to continuing!
    1. Sheremetev
      1 September 2014 17: 59
      Everything is ready and sent, it all depends on the moderators.
  10. itr
    1 September 2014 18: 59
    Well, Russia still has nothing to be proud of: Soviet equipment flies
    1. Sheremetev
      1 September 2014 21: 00
      Yes, the Soviet Union, thanks to him, has left us tremendous potential, but we have almost squandered it. I hope we will come off again - everything goes to this.
  11. +1
    1 September 2014 21: 00
    I wonder how big is the role of Ukraine in the Vega missile project? The rocket, as Europeans say, is more environmentally friendly and is designed to replace Protons in the global market
    1. Sheremetev
      1 September 2014 23: 04
      "Vega" in no case will replace "Proton". "Vega" is a light-class rocket (up to 2 tons per reference orbit), and "Proton", respectively, up to 20 tons. But the project is interesting. The fact is that "Vega" itself is solid-fuel, and the fourth stage (upper stage) is with liquid-propellant engine. Here it is supplied by Ukrainian specialists. As for the contribution of the Ukrainians, judge for yourself: although this is one of the four engines, it is perhaps the most important. The fact is that, although a solid-fuel engine is cheap, it cannot maneuver in orbit, but a heptyl rocket engine can turn on and off infinitely many times, especially when several satellites need to be put into orbit and each has an individual orbit. In short, a successful engine (from the Satan ballistic missile) and a successful project.
  12. +2
    1 September 2014 22: 34
    The touch of articles is interesting. Since I was a cog in Soviet aerospace production in Ukraine, I look forward to continuing.
  13. +2
    2 September 2014 01: 05
    Thank you, the article is interesting, only one pity, in Yuzhmash there are sufficiently large capacities and trained personnel who could work in cooperation. Now all this will be covered with a copper basin, and it is a pity that money was invested there during the USSR. And how they rode, how they rode, and everyone drove ... they.
  14. +3
    5 September 2014 12: 18
    After reading part 4, he returned and started again. You know, a lot of eyes opened !!! Thanks to the author, if there was an opportunity to put ten pluses, I would put it without a doubt. A lot of interesting and most importantly in the topic. I have not read such sensible articles for a long time. Thank!
    1. Sheremetev
      5 September 2014 18: 21
      Thank you, very nice, then it was not in vain that he worked.
  15. +1
    26 September 2014 02: 04
    I read all the parts, an interesting selection of material! But the question immediately arises of how, after an atomic strike, to bring liquid oxygen to the mines, in terms of placing the Angara in the mines of strategic missiles! There will be such a mess, the roads are broken, the infrastructure is disrupted, and in the place of a nuclear explosion, the temperature is like in the sun, the sand is baked, all containers are buried in the ground, and deep enough, and refueling, it is not 10 minutes! "Angara" is outdated by 20 years, and we do not live on the equator, but we are all hovering around the Royal Seven, nothing new has been invented! Yes, there was an idea to lower the Angara parts on the wings. like an airplane, to the GDP, but the ideas did not go further, and the engines have worked out their resource, only as scrap you can use! Regarding "Buran" and "Spiral", I disagree, this is not a dead-end branch, at least, a reusable ship, that's already good! But there was also an idea 50, when the spacecraft is launched from an aircraft, at an altitude of 35-40 kilometers, the upper stage, with the spacecraft, is separated, and the aircraft returns to the airfield, which they are now trying to build in the West, and as far as I know, quite successfully. No launch tables needed, and under certain conditions. you can get closer to the equator to increase the load put into orbit. So it might be worth trying other options as well, rather than relying on old designs!