Military Review

Transnistria: the experience of self-determination on the way to the Eurasian Union

12
Transnistria: the experience of self-determination on the way to the Eurasian Union
Today, media materials on Transnistria are increasingly becoming expert military scenarios - what will happen if the conflict is defrosted in the region due to the situation in Ukraine, will Russia intervene, are direct military clashes likely? It is not surprising that, against the background of the war in the east of Ukraine, the situation is viewed from such an angle. This led to an increase in publications about Transnistria in the domestic media, whereas before the Ukrainian crisis, the problems of the region were not the first among the Russian media topics.

Meanwhile, even outside the military perspective, the economic and socio-political experience of the existence of the Transdniestrian Moldavian Republic is very important and interesting - especially in connection with the “Transnistria - Eurasian Region” concept announced in 2012. It is obvious to everyone that the world map has started moving and no one will stop this process. The formation of new self-determined states, including those oriented to integration with Russia and the Eurasian Union, today, during the formation of the same Novorossia, is no longer fiction. At the same time, the rapid change of geopolitical reality that is going on throughout the world also means “defrosting” of those “frozen” conflicts in which, until recently, it was possible to retain in one way or another the status quo. The experience of Transnistria and the analysis of its problems can help in developing the correct strategy of Russia in relation to such regions.

The International School of Journalism organized recently in Tiraspol by the MIA “Russia Today” has been dedicated to this project, which has been creating and maintaining contacts between journalists and experts focused on interaction with Russia in different republics and neighboring countries for 10 for years. Of course, in Transnistria there is no need to additionally create a positive image of Russia, but media support is needed. “Without strong information support, we will not be able to achieve the goals set by the people of Transnistria,” believes the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Transdniestrian Republic Igor Shornikov, who believes that the republic needs to build an effective system of informing the international community about the position of Transnistria. I agree with this and the chairman of the Supreme Council of the PMR, Mikhail Burla, who at a meeting with journalists from the CIS countries said: “We have a huge minus. From the information point of view, we position ourselves very badly in the international information space. ”

Unique experience of self-determination

There are quite a few territories on the world map that are either not recognized or only partially recognized. However, Transnistrian experts believe that the more correct term is not “unrecognized”, but “self-determined” state. In addition, it is also important how such a region has managed state-building. In essence, as the co-chairman of the Joint Control Commission from the Russian Federation Vasily Korchmar noted, Transnistria is a de facto state, since it has all the characteristics of a state, unlike some other regions that have formally declared their independence but do not have real full-fledged state institutions.

Transnistria would like a “civilized divorce” with Moldova and the freedom of foreign economic activity. In addition, the Transnistrian Moldavian Republic developed the concept of a “Eurasian region” - a cross-border education based on the principles of cultural, linguistic and historical unity with Russia, as well as production cooperation and technological commonality of its constituent entities. Not a common border, but economic unity and a common civilization code — in Transdniestria, these are the key conditions. At the formal level, in the PMR, the harmonization of local legislation with the Russian legislation begins with 2006, the latter being taken as a basis.

Get closer to Russia economically

However, economic reality today is not so rosy at all. The standard of living of the population in Transnistrian Moldavian Republic does not increase, the blockade impedes economic development. How do Transnistrian enterprises technically work today? Since 2006, when both Ukraine and Moldova have banned the transit through their territory of products manufactured in Transnistria without Moldovan customs clearance, Transdniestrian firms have to register in Moldova to sell their products for export, which means double taxation and customs clearance. The road transport blockade does not allow PMR transport companies to take advantage of the advantageous transit position of the region. The structure of exports of PMR as a result is far from being “pro-Russian”. If before 2006, almost half of the Transnistrian export products went to Russia, then in the first quarter of 2014, only 14% went, while 36,5% went to Moldova and almost 40% went to the EU (in 2013, exports to the EU amounted to about quarters of the total, also exceeded the Russian).

This situation suits Europe very well - in 2006, the EU provided autonomous trade preferences for PMR enterprises, in fact, against the background of the blockade, forcing them to reorient themselves to trade with Europe. However, after Moldova signed the Agreement on Euro-Association, if the Transnistrian Moldavian Republic abandons the free trade zone regime with the EU, these conditions will be abolished, and then another serious crisis awaits the republic. Transnistrian Moldavian Republic would not like to lose European markets, it has its advantages - in particular, it creates the need to meet the quality level - however, in the region they look at the charms of Euro-Association without illusions. “We studied the experience of the Baltic states, Romania, Bulgaria — everywhere local production was closed as not conforming to European standards, or European concerns bought them out and then closed to destroy a competitor,” says Mikhail Burla. - The population is leaving the country to work. And if, for example, Transnistrians come to Russia and can work in the intellectual, academic sphere, then in Europe there is one prospect for the “Euro-associated” - to become a cheap labor force ”. According to him, European concerns are in no hurry to include Transnistrian enterprises in order to develop them.

At the same time, a number of large enterprises of the PMR belong to Russian companies. The Metalloinvest Group of Alisher Usmanov owns a metallurgical and cement plant, the Moldavskaya GRES, one of the largest thermal power plants, is owned by INTER RAO, the Pribor plant is the Salyut corporation, the Moldavkabel plant is the Sevkabel corporation. Russia helps the PMR in the social and humanitarian sphere, in particular, it is 30 million dollars annually for premiums to pensioners, assistance in maintaining the exchange rate, preferential gas supplies, construction of schools, kindergartens.

However, the PMR would like to see greater economic integration - more joint ventures, interregional forms of cooperation (it is easier to enter Transdniestrian products in the markets of the Russian regions than “through Moscow”), they positively view Transnistria and Russian companies to acquire assets in the region.

Ukraine and "defrosting"

This becomes especially important in conditions when economic integration of the Transdniestrian Moldavian Republic into the Eurasian Economic Union is required. This is happening against the background of the Ukrainian crisis, which threatens to shatter the world in Transnistria. The preserved dialogue in the established format “5 + 2” (Moldova and Transdniestria participate - as parties to the conflict, Russia, Ukraine and the OSCE - as mediators, the European Union and the USA - as observers) today strive to “shake” Moldova and Ukraine. There are calls from Chisinau for the withdrawal of Russian troops, and there is another surge in reasoning about the need to change the status of the peacekeeping operation on the Dniester. Under the pretext of events in Ukraine and the alleged threat of arms supplies from Transnistrian Moldavian Republic to the conflict zone in the South-East, obstacles are being created to the implementation of communication with the left bank of the Dniester through Ukrainian territory. Ukraine does not allow men with Russian citizenship to enter its territory from Transnistrian Moldavian Republic; it builds an earthen barrier ditch. Transnistrian enterprises have already become victims of the conflict - they cannot transit through the territory of Ukraine, do not receive already paid products from Ukrainian suppliers, and the rapidly collapsing Ukrainian market ceases to consume goods from Transdnistrian Moldavian Republic.

As stated at the beginning of August in the Foreign Ministry of the Russian Federation: “Coordinated actions of Moldova and Ukraine on the implementation of the economic and transport blockade of Transnistria in attempts to force it to make concessions in the negotiation process, to abandon foreign policy priorities are fraught with escalation of the situation around the region”. The fact that the “defrosting” of conflicts on the territory of the former USSR will continue, today no one doubts. Meanwhile, the PMR believes that the experience of the peacekeeping operation is unique, and Russia should present it to the world as an example of resolving similar regional conflicts.

“Transdniestria sees itself as an outpost of Russia,” political analyst Sergei Markedonov believes, “even when Moscow is not too interested in broadcasting such an image. Ukraine, on the other hand, perceives Transnistria as an “ambush regiment” of Moscow. As a result, the unrecognized entity is experiencing (again, unlike other de facto states) double pressure. First, from the side of its “maternal education”. Secondly, from the side of the neighbor involved in the conflict with Russia and who considers himself actually at war with her. And therefore, a country ready for radical actions like those being undertaken today in the east of Ukraine. ”

The course of unity

However, how will Russia behave in a situation of possible exacerbation of the situation? On the one hand, in the conditions of a new confrontation with the West, the vector of caution may prevail, since another point of direct conflict besides Ukraine will aggravate the position of Russia. On the other hand, the situation with Crimea showed that Russia is ready for decisive steps - one cannot exclude variants of some recognition of the MRT in case of force majeure and violation by any of the participants of the established settlement conditions in the 5 + 2 format.

At the same time, Transnistrians themselves do not want any new conflicts. Unlike other unrecognized regions, where there is a clear dislike for those from whom they separated, ordinary business, cultural, and simply everyday ties with Moldova are not interrupted in Transnistria, there is no enmity between ordinary people. However, the reference point for Transnistria is Russia. And what is especially important, the region has already formed its own Transnistrian identity, which is associated with the Eurasian vector and which is characteristic not only for representatives of the Soviet generation, but also for young people.

The region, which proclaimed unity with Russia as a vector of its development, hopes that even current events will not stop this course for economic and civilizational integration.
Author:
Originator:
http://www.odnako.org/blogs/pridnestrove-opit-samoopredeleniya-na-puti-v-evraziyskiy-soyuz/
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  1. Giant thought
    Giant thought 30 August 2014 14: 09
    +7
    For Transnistria, the most important thing is peaceful existence in an alliance or as part of Russia. Russia should help the Russian people in Transnistria in this.
    1. DMB-88
      DMB-88 30 August 2014 14: 42
      +5
      The Coat of Arms and the Flag of Transnistria are perfect symbols for a People’s State!
    2. siberalt
      siberalt 30 August 2014 14: 48
      +1
      Transnistria is a Russian ambush regiment. For those who do not know. Ukraine has long been surrounded. And God forbid, if the time comes before, few will not seem to anyone. From Romania to the Baltic states.
      1. Cadet787
        Cadet787 30 August 2014 22: 03
        0
        30.08.2014 - 21: 20
        Ukrainian media: 200 fighters of the Donbass battalion surrendered in a boiler near Ilovaisk. Ukrainian media report the surrender of 200 fighters of the punitive battalion "Donbass".
        Reportedly, not wishing at first to surrender weapons, as envisaged by the exit plan along the humanitarian corridor, the battalion fighters attempted a breakthrough. This attempt ended with new serious losses from the work of artillery of the DPR army. After that, the "valiant Ukrainians" who could not stand the blow decided to give up.
        They kept the battle as much as they could. We have a lot of wounded. We surrender in order to somehow survive, one of the fighters of the second company of the Donbass battalion told Dialog.ua.
        Earlier there were reports of the flight from the battlefield of the battalion commanders who had abandoned their subordinates.
        Only in the Donbass battalion there are more than 50 killed. The Donbass castle battalion Filin (to whom Semyon handed over temporary control) and General Khomchak left the soldiers to their fate and fled from the battlefield near Ilovaisk, a safe road known only to them, without informing their colleagues about it .
        reported battalion fighters over the phone.
    3. Cadet787
      Cadet787 30 August 2014 18: 43
      +2
      30.08.2014g.
      An attempt was made on the head of the DPR government, the prime minister’s driver was wounded, Zakharchenko was not injured.

      An attempt to assassinate the prime minister of the proclaimed Donetsk People’s Republic, Alexander Zakharchenko, was made during the day in Donetsk, a source in the DPR leadership told ITAR-TASS.
      As a result, the prime minister’s driver was injured; Zakharchenko was not injured.

      Ukrofashists are vile creatures, evidence of the assassination attempt on Zakharchenko, good uk-r, dead uk-r .....
    4. Cadet787
      Cadet787 30 August 2014 22: 00
      0
      30.08.2014 - 21: 38
      A report from the Information Bureau of the Southeast Army on August 30: the enemy is evacuated in the DPR, defends in the LPR, and retreats near Mariupol.
      In the Donetsk direction, the command of the Ukrainian occupational and punitive forces after a failed attempt to break out of the encirclement, under the conditions of the “ceasefire” regime provided by the DPR army, evacuated personnel and the wounded and killed from 15.00, using fifty-three cars.
      In the Lugansk direction, the actions of the enemy troops were mainly defensive in nature.
      Clashes between militia and fascists took place in the vicinity of the settlements of Shishkovo, Stanichno-Lugansk, Illyria, Bryanka, Krasnyi Luch. Units of the Army of the Southeast knocked out punishers from Privetnoy, Novosvetlovka and Lutugino. The fighting in the vicinity of Lutugino continues. Losses of the opponent are specified.
      A militia reconnaissance group northwest of Nizhnebarannikovka destroyed an Ural vehicle from an ambush. Nine enemy troops were killed.
      As a result of delivering artillery attacks on the positions of the punitive, they were destroyed in the areas of the settlements: Kruglik - three armored personnel carriers and up to fifteen people; Lutugino - one BM-21 Grad multiple launch rocket system, two guns with calculations and up to five cars; Uspenka - BMP and armored tractor; Peremozhnoe - a tank, an armored personnel carrier, three cars and up to thirty-five military personnel.
      On the Mariupol direction, units of the DPR army, having made a maneuver and bypassing Mariupol from the north, established control over the road section between the settlements of Mangush and Osipenko, then went to the coast of the Sea of ​​Azov and occupied Yalta.
      According to intelligence, the total losses of the enemy by the end of the day amounted to two tanks, six infantry fighting vehicles and armored personnel carriers, ten units of automotive equipment, one MLRS (BM-21), two barreled artillery guns, and up to seventy people killed and wounded.
  2. VICTOR-61
    VICTOR-61 30 August 2014 14: 10
    +8
    NN we will give Transnistria an insult in any situation
  3. kimyth1
    kimyth1 30 August 2014 14: 17
    +2
    overlaid normal people footmen and sixes !!!!!!! disgusted by this becomes !!!!! am
  4. el.krokodil
    el.krokodil 30 August 2014 14: 31
    +3
    The PMR clearly stated its position — they want to be part of RUSSIA — I don’t see any alternatives .. and they don’t need them .. soldier
  5. CheByrashka
    CheByrashka 30 August 2014 14: 33
    +7
    Odessa, Nikolaev, Kherson, Zaporozhye - wake up from hibernation! Help Novorosia expand its borders! Say no to fascism! angry
  6. pahom54
    pahom54 30 August 2014 14: 35
    +6
    It seems to me that Rogozin very clearly did not just determine Russia's position with regard to Transnistria during the meeting with the President of Moldova, but he also threatened, showing Moldova his place in case of pressure on Transnistria. Figuratively speaking, if he didn’t give Moldova a swimsuit, he patted his ass in a fatherly way, but it wasn’t just as simple as wagging his finger. Even Rumundia was quiet ...
    Transnistria, like New Russia, cannot be lost to Russia, no matter what problems it may pose.
    In general, recently, thoughts of reviving the mighty USSR 2.0 have often started to haunt ...
    Honestly, I really want to - both geographically and by weight in the world community ...
  7. svp67
    svp67 30 August 2014 14: 41
    +1
    As an information: the local Ministry of Emergencies was ordered to work out options for organizing the mass return of Ukrainian refugees home. As they say, we draw conclusions.
  8. Leonardo
    Leonardo 30 August 2014 15: 02
    +3
    Something like that. Genocide in the South-East of Ukraine, when government troops destroy not only "militias", but also civilians. Some kind of connected thread between the events in the southeast of Ukraine and Transnistria. Well, if you think about it, just like that. Well ... they don't want ... they don't want ... people of the regime that the ruling officials are imposing on them. There are only a handful of officials, but the MOST of people. It's just ... the ruling (i.e., those who have the right to make decisions on a national scale) ... simply believe that the PEOPLE interfere with the life of the ruling. Like ... "", "garbage". No-o-t guys. WE ARE THE PEOPLE !!!! And WE have the right, and only WE, and we are the majority, HAVE the RIGHT to participate in making decisions regarding our future life. If the ruling passed the norm .... get a folk phraseological unit. And you ... what did you expect? If the people took up arms then .... no longer phraseological units, ... this is the result, this is the people's response to the actions of corrupt, corrupt, unscrupulous, etc. ... officials. Something really ... visits of all kinds of representatives from the State Department, the EU, NATO ... on the territory of the former BROTHERIC Soviet Republics have become frequent visits. The people of these REPUBLICs deeply spit on these ... "emissaries and commissars." But ... the ruling ... "ruling" elite is not. This "elite" is ready to lick the ass to all those who give them the "crap" ... loot. EVIL MUST BE DESTROYED !!!!!!!
  9. delorian
    delorian 30 August 2014 15: 15
    +1
    it can turn out as with Kaliningrad-a separate territory within the Russian Federation
    1. MAX2014
      MAX2014 30 August 2014 17: 10
      +1
      I would like to. But there are 2 BIG BUT.
      1. Transnistria is landlocked like the Kaliningrad region.
      2. In Russia, no one wants to defrost a conflict. So, joining Russia, or at least recognition, is possible only with the armed aggression of Moldova or Ukraine, as in South Ossetia.
      1. Leonardo
        Leonardo 31 August 2014 19: 18
        0
        MAX .... u. The people of Moldova are so worn out that they are even ready to pave the way "to the sea", as in historical times. I do not mean that the Moldovans are separatists or ... well ... I see. It's just that all of us are nastopiZdenelo is under the thumb of the acne oligarchs and their Western regional committees. Every day Chisinau is visited by mrazoty ... either from NATO, then from Brussels, then from Washington, then from Bucharest. Sorry, ... of course ... but we are an independent country. Or how?
  10. Megatron
    Megatron 30 August 2014 15: 16
    +2
    It is necessary that Novorossia borders on the PMR, then there will be no problems!
    1. Leonardo
      Leonardo 30 August 2014 15: 43
      +3
      Here! Correctly said! I ... and not only me .... only FOR !!! The current governing bodies do not even realize their actions, intoxicated by the idea of ​​"signing an agreement with the EU." Yes ... Ippon's mother ... these "rulers" asked me, a neighbor, my family members, citizens of my makhala ... what do WE want? Of course not. And even ... and ... they are afraid to ask, knowing OUR answer in advance.
      The time has come to unite against evil. I KNOW .... US ... MOST ... against evil. So why should we be afraid ???
  11. Leonardo
    Leonardo 30 August 2014 15: 56
    +6
    I want to bring to the attention of all members of the forum. No need to judge Moldova by the decisions of the Chisinau Government. This government sold itself with the giblets of Romania, the EU, NATO and the USA. Know ... the South (Gagauz) and the North (Balti and the surrounding districts, Moldavians, Ukrainians, Bulgarians, Russians) of Moldova against all this scum that was planted in Chisinau. Even in Chisinau itself, there is a struggle among sectors (urban areas). There is some lull in anticipation of the upcoming parliamentary elections (November 30). We, the citizens of Moldova (75%) for peace with Transnistria. They live there ... as in Russia, in Ukraine ... our brothers and sisters. WE ARE FOR PEACE !! WE are for the vehicle !!!
  12. ybrcfy27
    ybrcfy27 30 August 2014 16: 23
    0
    But what did Rogozin discuss at least in Moldova? I wasn’t there. I somehow don’t know
    1. Leonardo
      Leonardo 31 August 2014 19: 00
      0
      Rogozin visited Chisinau. I had a meeting with the Moldovan Prime Minister Leanca (we Moldavians call him .. "podlyanka.). The results of the meeting are veiled. However, Leanca himself admitted that .." this time .. Rogozin was more adequate. "Well ... of course .. after Rogozin threatened just now ... "next time I will fly in a TU ... bomber." All the "weather" in Moldova is done by a handful of corrupt government officials ... with Romanian citizenship. This is very sad. But this "takes place . "
  13. Chaika
    Chaika 30 August 2014 17: 24
    +1
    Here is the news
    message from blogger El Murida:

    - In the first lines I want to inform you that I met with Igor Strelkov. He is here, in the sense of mainland Russia. It does not dig a tunnel to Kharkov, does not direct the Odessa underground from the catacombs, and not even in the Crimea. Naturally, at a conference in Yalta, they simply used his name to draw attention to his event, which he, in general, only learned today from me.
    Alive, healthy, not injured and not handcuffed. In general - as usual, all rumors are just rumors.

    However, he realizes that his absence raised questions and (where to go from them) dirty hints from those who actively fussed behind him, removing him from Donetsk.

    I think that in the foreseeable time he will make a message in one way or another. Until then, as before, any messages on his behalf have nothing to do with him. Http: //rusvesna.su/news/1409403977
  14. Uzer 13.
    Uzer 13. 30 August 2014 20: 39
    +2
    Transnistria has not received enough attention in recent years. This is due to the fact that Russia was not having the best of times, various political and economic disasters were occurring. We definitely need to change the situation. We must agree with the author’s proposal to create a common information space, it’s technically easy to organize. At the same time, more substantial political support can be provided along with the informational presence. Thus, a more substantial basis can be created for further interaction in economic and political processes.
  15. Gray 43
    Gray 43 30 August 2014 22: 25
    0
    New Russia could lift the blockade from Transnistria
    1. Leonardo
      Leonardo 31 August 2014 19: 10
      0
      "Gray" ... yes ... for God's sake. Your wishes (words) are ... the aspirations of not only the Pridnestrovians themselves, but also the majority of residents from the right bank of the Dniester. There are of course (in particular in the center of Moldova ... like Straseni, Calarasi, Nisporeni and .... (it doesn't matter) a contingent wishing to join Romania and ... well ... literally kissing the EU's ass. From experience ... if 30 November (parliamentary elections) the "left" parties will prevail .. then .... the same center will diligently lick the fifth point of the parties that won the elections. ... Romanians ... corrupt ... shitty ..
  16. vbnvb75
    vbnvb75 31 August 2014 23: 21
    0
    URGENT NEWS =: The government has posted online a database of all citizens of Russia and the entire CIS: telephones, addresses, photo and video recordings, personal correspondence and much more. By the way, all the data is in the public domain, see for yourself ======== - http://linkmize.net/11av