Military Review

Factory War

105
People's Commissariat tank USSR industry against a united Europe

“The storm of the twelfth year has come - who helped us here? Frenzy of the people, Barclay, winter il Russian God? ". So A. S. Pushkin determined the origins of the victory of the Russian state in the Patriotic War 1812 of the year. We could not find an equally brief “formula of victory” in World War 1941 – 1945 in Russian literature. The interpreter at the headquarters of the 3 Shock Army, E. Rzhevskaya, who, through her interrogations, sought after the interrogations from German soldiers and officers, showed the truthful characteristics of our Armed Forces, among the advantages, she received the same phrase: “T-34 Tank, endurance of soldiers, Zhukov.

"Thirty-four" has always been in the first place. And it's not just the magnificent tactical and technical characteristics of the Soviet medium tank. Almost all foreigners who had the misfortune to get to the Eastern Front as part of the forces of the Third Reich and its allies had to experience unforgettable impressions of communication with him. T-34 tanks were many. Lots of. Amid countless T-34s, the German soldiers no longer remembered the heavy Soviet KV and IS tanks that were magnificent for their time, the self-propelled guns SU-152, ISU-152 and ISU-122, and the constant satellites of the SU-76 self-propelled infantry and even more light tanks T-60 and T-70.

In total, during the years of the Great Patriotic War, starting from 1 in July, 1941 and through 1 in June, 1945, Soviet industry built 95 252 tank and SAU against 40 380 combat vehicles from the enemy. True, these figures are somewhat crafty and take into account only those classes of armored vehicles that were produced in our country. Meanwhile, the palette of armored vehicles in Germany was much wider than in the USSR, and also included all-wheel drive armored vehicles with cannon armament and semi-tracked armored personnel carriers. And this is even more 25 thousand units. By the way, the Soviet command took them seriously. The memo for tank destroyers published in 1943 indicated that the destroyed armored car corresponds to a light tank, the Order of the Patriotic War 1 degree was relied on for three pieces. The same award was given for two heavy or medium tanks. In other words, two “Tigers” were equal in combat value to three armored cars.

27 vs 150

But all the same, even taking into account armored cars and armored personnel carriers, the German industry lost the competition to the Soviet Tankprom. This is especially obvious if we compare the number of plants that oppose each other: 27 - from the Soviet side (as of the end of 1944, the beginning of 1945) and around 150 - with the German one.

“Domestic industry leaders, scientists and engineers have created a more efficient large-scale production of military equipment”
At one time, in Soviet historiography of the Great Patriotic War, the idea of ​​confronting the USSR with not just Germany, but with the united forces of Western Europe, except for Great Britain, was a red thread. In 90's, for reasons of political correctness and future integration with the West, this idea was somehow forgotten, but did not lose its historical content.

The Third Reich began mass production of tanks later than the Soviet Union, but first-class enterprises were immediately involved in the matter. Krupp (Essen), Rheinmetall-Borsig (Berlin), Daimler-Benz AG (Berlin) and Henschel and Son AG (Kassel) were the first to master the serial production of tanks; a little later, the Krupp factory joined them "Gruzon-Werke" (Magdeburg). According to the British researcher J. Forti, these were the true flagships of the German industry, which had everything necessary for the independent production of most of the main tank units and assemblies. Later, several more plants were built which were engaged exclusively in armored vehicles: Alkett (Berlin), MIAG (Braunschweig). Especially for the assembly of "Panther" plant "Niedersaxen" was erected.

In addition, the German Empire connected enterprises of the associated countries to the tank industry. At first it was the Austrian company "Steyer-Daimler-Pooh", then the Czech "CKD" ("BMM" in the German designation) and "Skoda". At the Warsaw United Machine-Building Plants, the assembly of the Pz.Kpfw II tanks began shortly after the conquest of Poland. French tank manufacturing plants were used by the Germans mainly for the production of components, but there is information about the assembly of a certain number of French tanks - S-35, B-2, R-35 and H-35, possibly from the old stock of parts and mechanisms. The German administration didn’t disregard the Soviet enterprises that fell into its hands: tanks, engines, locomotives, cars were repaired at the Kharkov plant No. 183, and aircraft assemblies assembled.

Factory WarGerman specialists perfectly understood the value and significance of the industrial “trophies” that they got. Let us quote the opinion of the tanker general F. Senger-und-Etterlin: "The French military industry was forced to work with all its might for arming Germany ... Without the industrial potential of France, Hitler could not continue the war for so long." Or another statement, by Colonel G. Ritgen: "... without the Czech military industry and the Czech tanks, we would not have four tank divisions, which would have made an attack on the Soviet Union impossible."

In total, the Germans attracted large industrial groups 34 to the production of armored vehicles. True, only German, Austrian and Czech enterprises worked at full capacity, and the rest suffered equally from sabotage by local staff and from the greed of the Germans themselves, who were exporting the most valuable equipment. Nevertheless, the potential of tank building of the Third Reich was very impressive.

This is especially evident against the background of the Soviet industry. During 1941, the USSR was forced to evacuate almost all pre-war tank-building enterprises due to defeats at the front, only the Stalingrad tractor remained in place. But in the summer too, 1942 was under attack and was almost completely destroyed. Everything had to be re-created in the Urals, in the Volga region and Siberia.

As a result, at the turn of 1944 – 1945, the following tank assembly plants operated as part of NKTP:

-Chelyabinsk Kirovsky Plant (tanks EC-2, SAU ISU-152, ISU-122);
-Ural tank factory number 183, Nizhny Tagil (tanks T-34-85);
-Ural heavy engineering plant, Sverdlovsk (SAU SU-100);
-factory № 112, Bitter (tanks T-34-85);
-factory № 174, Omsk (T-34-85 tanks);
-factory number 75, Kharkov (tanks T-44).


In addition, two factories (No. 38 and No. 40) plus Gorky Automobile, which was not part of the NKTP, produced light SU-76, and also 18 enterprises - various tank units, components and spare parts for repair shops. And all this against 150 German and German-controlled other European factories.

Or maybe they lacked something?

Of course, restrictions in materials, equipment, personnel and attention from the authorities are able to tie the hands of the most powerful industry.

Let's start with the most obvious: state order for armored vehicles. The German leadership, who had fallen into the euphoria of continuous victories at the beginning of World War II, started too late to mobilize industry. The first major defeat near Moscow was considered an annoying misunderstanding, especially since in the summer of 1942, the timpani sounded again over the grand offensive to the Volga and the Caucasus. And only the Battle of Stalingrad forced to think seriously about the prospects. In January, 1943-th Hitler issued an order on a sharp increase in the production of tanks.

Nevertheless, tank building had previously been the focus of the Reich. Already at the beginning of 1942, Albert Speer, who had just been appointed Minister of Arms, set his first task: "... to focus on the production of tanks." And by the way, not without success. Production of tanks, self-propelled guns, armored personnel carriers and cannon armored vehicles increased in the Third Reich compared to 1941 in 1942 in the year - by 75 percent, in 1943-m - in 3,9 times, in 1944-m - in 5,6 times. In absolute numbers, in 1944, the German production of armored vehicles was almost equal to the Soviet - 28 862 and 28 983 units, respectively.

Equal to, but not surpassed. Maybe this happened due to the lack of material and human resources?

Of course, in a country that has unleashed a world war, there is no complete well-being, especially since Germany is not the richest state in mineral resources. But this does not mean that the tank industry could not fully work due to the lack of metals. Recall only the most common figures: steel production in Germany and the countries under control in 1940 – 1944 amounted to 162,6 million tons, and in the USSR - 63,7 million. Own iron ore together with supplies from Sweden and other countries turned out to be quite enough for full-fledged work of German metallurgy.

The situation with doping substances was somewhat worse, but deliveries of overt and covert allies, as well as trophies that had been acquired during the blitzkrieg, helped. For example, the mines of Finland saturated the German armor with nickel. Krupp managers controlled Balkan chrome mines and French tungsten deposits. Manganese and chrome ores of occupied Ukraine, together with its metallurgical plants, were under the tutelage of the German Eastern Mining and Metallurgical Company, whose administrative council was headed personally by Alfried Krupp. He perfectly mastered the technology of industrial robbery: only in the first 13 months of occupation, 438 thousand tons of manganese ore were exported to Germany, which covered more than 30 percent of needs.

So we can only talk about replacing some materials with more affordable ones. Sometimes this was accompanied by a loss in quality (for example, armor steel), but by no means a reduction in volumes. According to Speer’s calculations, even with the maximum output of the military products of the most metal-deficient metal in Germany, the chrome would suffice until the autumn of the 1945. Stocks of manganese and nickel allowed to work even longer.

Regarding the German machine park: it was still 1941 times better than the Soviet one in 2,5, which did not prevent the Germans from taking any attracted car from the captured countries. In the occupied part of the USSR, they found and sent to their 175 thousands of machines of various types and purposes.

A special Anglo-American commission that examined German tank-building enterprises spoke only to superlatives about the quality of the German equipment itself, and success in creating special high-performance machines was especially noted. Volumes of production of new equipment in Germany during the years of the Second World War not only did not decrease, but even doubled.

The USSR, on the contrary, to recreate the tank industry after the loss of 1941, sacrificed most of its already not too powerful machine-tool industry, whose enterprises became part of the machining divisions in the tank factories. Of course, the best equipment was assembled here, but there was definitely not enough special and high-precision equipment. According to the summer of 1943, all enterprises of the People's Commissariat of the tank industry had only 29 coordinate boring machines.

What this led to is illustrated in a fragment from the memoirs of the plant director No. 183, Yu. E. Maksarev: “In the requirements of the GABTU there was a point to switch to the 5-speed gearbox and this requirement was correct. But we were connected by a special boring machine, which immediately gave coaxial, precise holes for the side bearings and the main shaft, and also ensured the perpendicularity of the bore for the drive shaft bearing from the main clutch. This machine was obtained for the BT-5 variable transmission box and was the Procrustean bed that determined all subsequent BT-7, А-20, А-32 and Т-34 speed boxes. The designers of Comrade Baran Yakov Ionovich and Comrade Speichler worked on the design of the 5-high-speed gearbox to keep the dimensions between the shafts and thus save the machine and the accuracy of the boring. ”

Of course, a certain amount of equipment was supplied by the American and British allies, for which many thanks to them. However, let's not forget that many months passed between asking for help and delivering from overseas. The American machine tool industry was overloaded with internal orders and the transportation took a considerable time.

***

Maybe German tank factories suffered from a shortage of manpower, especially skilled labor? And here the answer is no.

There is no doubt in the skills and skills of the German machine builders 40-ies, and in terms of numbers on the eve of World War II, they were one and a half times as great as their Soviet counterparts. The mobilization almost did not affect the workers of the German military industry: in the winter of 1940 – 1941, the main factories and factories received the status of special enterprises, completely exempted from conscription. At the beginning of 1942, a more individual approach was introduced: the entire working-age population was divided into specialists, auxiliary workers, apprentices, re-trainees and unskilled workers. Young and inexperienced were sent to the front, and skilled older workers, on the contrary, returned from the army to the factories and received a “reservation”. In addition, professional differentiation was introduced: the rate of calling miners working underground was five percent, while hairdressers and cooks made 65 percent. The mobilization of all other working professions was between these boundaries. The labor of prisoners of war and forcibly mobilized "contingents" from conquered countries was widely used to carry out heavy unskilled work. In 1944, their number reached seven million people, at tank-building plants they accounted for up to 50 percent of the total workforce. As for the most qualified German engineers and workers, by the beginning of 1945 in industry and transport about five million men of military age continued to work. Major General A. Weidemann later wrote: “The high command willingly yielded to the demands of the military economy, despite all the difficulties with reserves, because even a simple front-line soldier with his limited outlook understood that the military industry ultimately served his own vital interests.”

Everything said in conjunction with the redistribution of labor between industries led to an increase in the number of German tank factories in 2,7 times in the period from 1940 to 1944 a year.

In the USSR, the situation was almost the opposite. The number of industrial workers in the industry decreased from 11 million in 1940 to 7,2 million in 1942. Recall that in the occupied territory lived 40 percent of the population. Despite all the mobilization efforts and the most severe control over labor resources, even in 1945, before the prewar level, there was not enough 1,5 million factory workers.

An excellent illustration is история of the Kharkov Tank Plant No. 183 team: in the very first months of the war, the number of employees fell from 41 to 24 thousands. The main part of the workers and craftsmen of responsible foundry and machine-assembly workshops lived in the vicinity of Kharkov and was mobilized into the army at the place of residence. A group of factory testers had to be sent to the army for training tankers. A considerable number of workers and engineers volunteered for a tank brigade staffed with super-planned tanks. And finally, many workers refused to go to the Urals: having received travel documents, they did not come to the trains. As a result, from 12 140 people to be evacuated, only 5234, mainly engineers and servants, actually went to Nizhny Tagil.

Amazingly, in the fall of 1941, in the fall of Nizhny Tagil, the mindless mobilization into the army continued with the difficulty of the exported specialists. The local military enlistment office, having exhausted the human resources of Uralvagonzavod, set about evacuees. The ugliness was stopped only after the intervention of the deputy chairman of the USSR SNK, the People's Commissar of the tank industry V. A. Malyshev.

The shortage of labor had to be compensated by evacuated workers from other industries (for example, the same machine-tool factories), and then by "labor soldiers" mobilized by way of labor service. N. Sobol (in 1941 – 1943 - head of one of the UTZ shops) gave an exhaustive description of the latter: “Field farmers, beekeepers, grooms, weighers, watchmen, accountants, accountants, they had no idea about a large engineering plant and its production. "

But even so, the average number of employees of the plant number 183 could not be brought to the pre-war indicators. In December 1942 of the year, it was only 32 520 people and in subsequent years it only shrunk.

Allies prevented?

You can recall another problem of German tank building - the attacks of the Anglo-American strategic aviation. Undoubtedly, the rain of high-explosive and incendiary bombs did not contribute to the productive work of the tank factories. However, the impact of the bombing is also not worth overestimating.

The first raid on the enterprises of the Krupp company was made in January 1943 of the year, 26 in November was seriously damaged by one of the large tank factories of the company Alkett. Then, during the entire 1944, the Allies continuously increased the power of airstrikes.

The Americans themselves estimated the Reich's loss of production capacity at nine percent. In fact - hardly. Speer claims that the damage has more than compensated for the commissioning of the new workshops and the re-equipment of the existing ones. After the war, V. Schlicker, the third most important person in the German Ministry of Armaments, told the amazed US air force experts: “As much as the bombing intensified, so did German production, so at the very moment of defeat, when everything collapsed in Germany, The Ruhr was producing more than ever before. ” And he continued his explanation like this: “The Ruhr ... ultimately fell, not because factories, mines and mines bombed, but because the railways leading to it were paralyzed as a result of the destruction of the railways and clogged with burnt locomotives There was no way to export thousands of tons of finished products, which the Ruhr factories provided daily, to 30. In the end, in January and February 1945, the Ruhr was strangled by its own products - it did not stop the conveyor due to the roar of bombs. ”

It only remains to add that the paralysis of transport occurred after not only thousands of heavy strategic aviation bombers, but also tens of thousands of light bombers, attack aircraft and fighters hung over Germany. In other words, the German industry stopped after it hit the frontline zone.

***

As a result, we inevitably come to the only conclusion: the system of the USSR People's Commissariat of the tank industry demonstrated during the years of the Great Patriotic War a higher level of technology and organization of production than Germany’s considered unsurpassed engineering industry. Domestic industry leaders, scientists and engineers made better use of the scarce material and human resources at their disposal and created a more efficient high-volume production of military equipment.

This “war of tank factories” is still little known to the general public, and its lessons have not lost their value over time. Therefore, the cycle of articles, which will be published on the pages of the "MIC" until May 2015, can be given the general name "NKTP: Lessons of the Great Victory".
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  1. atos_kin
    atos_kin 30 August 2014 09: 19
    +25
    The "war of factories" also has its own generals and supreme commanders. It is a pity in the article, except for the People's Commissar Malyshev V.A. the role of L.P. Beria, without which some factories would not exist at all. The country must know its heroes.
    1. Metlik
      Metlik 30 August 2014 11: 57
      +5
      JV Stalin took a loan from Germany of 2 gold Reichsmarks right before the war. With this money in Germany, precision machines were purchased.
      1. Metlik
        Metlik 30 August 2014 12: 20
        +8
        Our government has bought many billion US bonds. Of this money, the CIA funded Maidan and other color revolutions.
      2. ISO
        ISO 30 August 2014 18: 34
        +1
        At that time my grandfather served as a sergeant major, so he said that our "loyal" Western partners from the Reich curtailed their supplies somewhere a month before June 22, and ours continued to drive trains with food and strategic raw materials until the first bombs. And the overall balance was not in favor of the USSR.
        1. Wheel
          Wheel 31 August 2014 02: 29
          +1
          Quote: ISO
          At that time my grandfather served as a sergeant major, so he said that our "loyal" Western partners from the Reich curtailed their supplies somewhere a month before June 22, and ours continued to drive trains with food and strategic raw materials until the first bombs. And the overall balance was not in favor of the USSR.

          No, well, it’s clear that the foreman knows everything. laughing (no offense)
          The facts are that the Germans continued to manufacture some equipment according to Soviet orders even after the outbreak of the war, loading up their production.
    2. siberalt
      siberalt 30 August 2014 22: 20
      +11
      They reached it, damn it, that there were almost no plants. Mostly shopping centers, but banks with pension funds without pensioners.
  2. Denis
    Denis 30 August 2014 09: 19
    +21
    You can recall another problem of German tank building - the attacks of Anglo-American strategic aviation
    Soyuznichki bombed more residential areas. Nothing personal, only business. Here and the factories tried not to touch
    "Thirty-four" always stood in the first place. And the matter is not only in the excellent tactical and technical characteristics of the Soviet medium tank.
    In vain it is not said about maintainability. About half of the vehicles damaged in battles were restored by the forces of the Rembats. And this is in the front line, not in the rear!
    Compare with the same Tiger. Replacing the checkpoint - you need to remove the tower, and this is to the rear. Plus, in addition to the transport (already) tracks, so that it enters the railway dimension, you need to change shoes. Yes, what is the checkpoint, so that the inner roller is about Serdine replace almost everything must be removed, chess
    1. tripletrunk
      tripletrunk 31 August 2014 11: 51
      -5
      "And it's not just the excellent tactical and technical characteristics of the Soviet medium tank ..." !! ((

      He was not ergonomic, unreliable, very vulnerable, ineffective. And all these shortcomings had to be compensated by human patience and human lives.
      Among the shortcomings were noted the unstable operation of the diesel engine, the unsatisfactory operation of the onboard friction clutches, the insufficient strength of the final drive under load, the tightness of crew workplaces.

      Pz.IV took first place among medium tanks (and to be precise - in fact, until the summer of 1944.
      He was the only tank of the war years with a gun of 75 mm caliber, in which the main armament was significantly strengthened without changing the turret.
      1. I am
        I am 31 August 2014 13: 44
        +3
        Who defeated whom ???? That one has higher quality !!!!!!!!! And the technological effectiveness of our T-34 is generally at an unattainable level.
      2. Altona
        Altona 31 August 2014 13: 45
        0
        Quote: tripletrunk
        He was not ergonomic, unreliable, very vulnerable, ineffective. And all these shortcomings had to be compensated by human patience and human lives.

        --------------------------
        Well, why ... Not everything is so bad, the Americans tested it at their test site and noted poor quality air filters that did not give enough air flow; poor visibility for the driver and commander; lack of radio communication and an incomplete transmission ... The Germans on their captured T-34s eliminated a number of shortcomings, especially as regards the control plan, a commander’s turret and a radio station were mounted.
        Lend-lease helped us, of course, because the evacuated factories did not start commercial production until the second half of 1942 ... The Americans supplied sheet steel and industrial materials, which liberals poke for us now. I was in Tankograd, in Chelyabinsk and even lived on the Heroes of Tankograd street, I often visited ChTZ ...
      3. tundra
        tundra 31 August 2014 15: 50
        +1
        T-34-76 at the beginning of the war was a fairly crude tank and repair suitability and crude units. Well, people worked and the t34-85 was already a fairly modified tank, reliable. Recall the raids of tank corps 44-45 g, raw vehicles would not have survived such a mileage. In 41 mechs, the corps couldn’t enter the battle because it lost tanks due to breakdowns, stupidly did not reach the starting line. Well, the growth diseases were overcome. And to the question of organizing the production, in Soviet tank construction, among other things, there was the highest level, the organization of work with documents and drawings. I heard such information that after the war, people from the Korolevsky Design Bureau came to tank factories in terms of learning from the organization’s experience and working with those documentation.
      4. Russian Uzbek
        Russian Uzbek 1 September 2014 08: 27
        +1
        the tank "Panther" t-5 is 90% copy of the t-34 ... apparently it is the "agents of Stalin" in the Wehrmacht specially copied the "not ergonomic, not reliable, very vulnerable, ineffective" "thirty-four" ... and hundreds of millions more Reichsmark thrown under this very case!
        T-34 is still unmatched in terms of price-quality ratio, and in a global war of extermination, this factor becomes decisive!
        helped the Hans their "not vulnerable" tigers and panthers with super guns, mega optics, night vision devices and other devices? NO! and even one Tiger cost as 6-7 T-34!
        But the tank armadas of the Soviet tank armies (like pies spanked;)) could not stop either the fortified areas, or the fausts, or other "reliable, ergonomic, not vulnerable, effective" wunderwafers!
        1. tokens2
          tokens2 1 September 2014 16: 17
          0
          T-34 is still unmatched in terms of price-quality ratio, and in a global war of extermination, this factor becomes decisive!

          It is about the expediency and inevitably high cost of the first issues at the beginning of the war. This is when with the fatal losses of 1941. at the most stressful moment !!! they were waiting for the production of a dozen or two T-34s and tore them off with their hands.
          Well, then what ... riveted like pies ... So it is later!
          The Wehrmacht drove all vehicles from Evropy. Theoretically, it was possible to resist such a "auto-herd" only with the same means. Where is our victory truck? The tank was a fact.
          Marshal Zhukov said: “It cannot be denied that the Americans drove us so much material without which we could not form our reserves and could not continue the war ...”

          «
          Or take a car supply. After all, we have received, as far as I remember, taking into account losses in the way of about 400 thousand first-class cars of the time, such as Studebaker, Ford, passenger Willis and amphibians. Our entire army was actually on wheels, and what wheels! As a result, its maneuverability increased, and the pace of advance significantly increased. Yes ... Without Lend-Lease, we would probably have fought for another year and a half too many, ”these are the words of the legendary Stalin’s Commissar Anastas Mikoyan.

          http://mirtransporta.ru/fun/362-gruzoviki-lend-liza-vklad-v-voynu.html
          Or did the tank win the war exclusively, without motorized infantry, without fuel, without ammunition on wheels?
          1. Kassandra
            Kassandra 2 September 2014 04: 19
            0
            lied Zhukov. some supplies began only after the blitzkrieg failed and it became clear that the USSR would stand
            moreover, after the failure of the Wehrmacht with access to the Caucasian oil, its deliveries began by the "allies" to the Reich, because of which the war dragged on for 2 years.
        2. Kassandra
          Kassandra 2 September 2014 04: 12
          -1
          The Panther is a lightweight Tiger, in battle it cost 10 T-34s and its opponent was not the T-34, but the "hunters"
          price / quality is for jewelry - there is a live crew in the tank.
          it’s just that the Germans even ran out of synthetic gasoline, the aircraft almost stopped flying, and in the war, tanks are destroyed mainly by it and not by tanks.
          the fact that their cars were too complex they now also recognize.
    2. Gambit
      Gambit 1 September 2014 13: 22
      0
      Quote: Denis
      In vain it is not said about maintainability.

      The article compares exclusively production facilities. The excellent maintainability of thirty-four in this case does not greatly affect the number of tanks produced in Germany.
  3. miv110
    miv110 30 August 2014 09: 24
    +8
    Thank you for an interesting and informative analysis that gives an idea of ​​the working conditions of our and the enemy rear. Such reviews once again remind us of the powerful potential of our country and inspire pride in our ancestors.
  4. Wheel
    Wheel 30 August 2014 09: 26
    +26
    "As a result, we inevitably come to the only conclusion: the system of the USSR People's Commissariat of the tank industry demonstrated during the years of the Great Patriotic War a higher level of technology and organization of production than Germany’s considered unsurpassed engineering industry. Domestic industry leaders, scientists and engineers made better use of the scarce material and human resources at their disposal and created a more efficient high-volume production of military equipment."
    The same can be said about almost all sectors, which in general allows us to conclude a much more effective approach to organizing industry.
    And this is due to the social system.
    In the future, the same social system with the same "meager material and personnel resources" provided nuclear weapons, and missile technology, and the general highest level of armament of the Soviet Army.
    1. Zebus
      Zebus 30 August 2014 10: 11
      +1
      I agree with a friend !!!! There is simply nothing to add !!!
    2. ISO
      ISO 30 August 2014 20: 07
      -17
      But not a nada about the system. The formation was camp. My grandmother went to school during the war, for the whole summer they were taken out of the city to the collective farm fields, they were fed poorly, their life was not well equipped, the working day was equal to light. The schoolchildren worked like this throughout the war, the payment was a gruel like feeding. Everyone, of course, understood the need for this, but there was no great enthusiasm. Chastooshkas were in use: "When Lenin was dying, he ordered the workers not to give bread to Stalin and not to show meat." Barnaul Altai Territory.
      1. explorer
        explorer 30 August 2014 22: 33
        +12
        My grandfather (armor) fed three young children during the war (raised seven in total), but how many can you not at the camp system now? hi
        1. ISO
          ISO 30 August 2014 23: 03
          -4
          Like any thinking person, I have questions for any system hi
          objectively, the standard of living for 50 years in the country has grown. The number of children is primarily associated with the desire and not with the abstract estimates of feed, we do not feed. The fact that before there was a desire for 7 and today for one is a separate big question. Personally, I am set to 2. I can provide at the level of your grandfather 5.
          Like your grandfather had armor from the army
      2. ISO
        ISO 30 August 2014 22: 50
        0
        Somehow, everyone quickly forgot the Soviet past. The most important prodigy in the Cold War thanks to which the CIA undermined the desire of Soviet citizens to be Soviet is the denial of their history in the USSR, the varnishing of reality and their past. From my point of view, there is nothing shameful that Ulyanov received content from the French government. It is now obvious to everyone that all the major terrorist organizations of the last century had their headquarters in London and would not have reached a serious level without protection. The fact that Ulyanov managed to throw his curators and managed to organize his accomplices to maintain power is that he is a great fellow. Thistle at the state level ends as history shows a large and bloody batch.
        The payback for the industrial breakthrough was a crushed village that worked hard for days. And the camp, the camp disciplined those who "got rid of" in the previous troubled years. The USSR did not have time to search for those willing to choose to do this or that. Set a plan and spin as you like. I am not saying that the "camp" is good or bad, the camp is what was the only possible way to withstand the USSR AGAINST THE WHOLE WORLD.
        1. explorer
          explorer 31 August 2014 02: 35
          +4
          the main problem is not varnishing the story (much has been known about before),
          and the fact that our 80s elite converted the country into their own good.
      3. Wheel
        Wheel 31 August 2014 01: 49
        +4
        Quote: ISO
        But not a nada about the system. The formation was camp. My grandmother went to school during the war, for the whole summer they were taken out of the city to the collective farm fields, they were fed poorly, their life was not well equipped, the working day was equal to light. The schoolchildren worked like this throughout the war, the payment was a gruel like feeding. Everyone, of course, understood the need for this, but there was no great enthusiasm. Chastooshkas were in use: "When Lenin was dying, he ordered the workers not to give bread to Stalin and not to show meat." Barnaul Altai Territory.

        You are right, but only that urban children were sent to the villages, and there it was like luck.
        I have a village grandmother; during the war, children from Gorky were brought to them. Yes, the children worked, but what about "from dawn to dawn" here you (or your grandmother) obviously bent down, children, that your own, that you still felt sorry for others. And they fed on a par with the villagers, a little better than in the city.
        I will tell you a great secret: in the villages, meat has never been eaten constantly.
        Bread, kvass, vegetables, cereals, milk, eggs - a daily menu. Meat - on holidays.
      4. I am
        I am 31 August 2014 15: 22
        +5
        Are you narrow-minded or pretending ???? The country was at war and these measures saved the lives of these students. And by the way, most of the schoolchildren, at that time, were eager to go to the front - TO Fight !!! For the homeland, and not for the zhrachku which for you has a "subordinate" value, apparently.
    3. tripletrunk
      tripletrunk 31 August 2014 13: 11
      -14
      The USSR has demonstrated over the years, extremely low technology,
      mediocre organization, as a result of which skilled workers sent to the front were replaced by unskilled workers .. riveted military equipment using brute female and child power
      As a result, a huge amount of marriage, failures ...
      And all this was compensated by huge casualties at the front.
      1. I am
        I am 31 August 2014 15: 25
        +5
        Only in the USSR were able to evacuate plants and start them a month after the evacuation, sometimes in a clean field. As for the loss of life - go and tell Makarevich. The fact that 28 million of us died was with the civilian population, who sometimes fought on an equal footing with the army. And did not sit out in the back. Those who were in the rear worked for the front, rather than moaning, like there is nothing to eat and there is no proper level of service. They said it was necessary to work and release products - they went and released !!!!! And you are an accomplice of consumerism.
      2. korjik
        korjik 31 August 2014 19: 05
        +1
        Everything has a price. Including victory. While the worker in the rear was not proved that his marriage was killing at the front as well as the fascist bullet and they didn’t enter the state, tanks broke, planes didn’t take off, guns didn’t shoot. Order No. 227 and the same in industry put an end to in stupefaction at the fronts and reduced marriage in factories.
    4. Altona
      Altona 31 August 2014 13: 56
      0
      Quote: Wheel
      And this is due to the social system.
      In the future, the same social system with the same "meager material and personnel resources" provided nuclear weapons, and missile technology, and the general highest level of armament of the Soviet Army.

      ----------------------
      There was no merit of the system as such, patriotism ... But the economy was getting on mobilization lines, that is, resources were allocated primarily to defense production ... And this was not only in the USSR, but also in the USA and Great Britain ... big restrictions on food, on clothes, distribution by cards, increase in working hours, etc. etc ... For example, you can sew shirts from cotton, or you can sew tunics, you can make filters for engines ... This is a good example ...
  5. Platov
    Platov 30 August 2014 10: 43
    +5
    More such informative articles.
  6. Gray 43
    Gray 43 30 August 2014 11: 15
    +8
    The article is interesting! All the same, our people at that time accomplished a feat that the history of the world did not know and will not know. And after this there are people who are poor in reason and conscience, who doubt the great Victory, those who praise the fascists, in every possible way belittling the role of the Soviet people. German accuracy and ideology could not defeat the ideology and sacrifice of Soviet people
    1. Alex
      Alex 30 August 2014 15: 28
      +4
      Quote: Gray 43
      there are poor people with reason and conscience

      Bravo, excellent, comrade, apt definition.

      I’ll take it into service, I think there will be no objections wink
  7. wax
    wax 30 August 2014 11: 16
    +11
    Everything that has come from the West now and in the form of Chinese copies is unsuitable for repair. And, as one of the commentators here correctly noted, maintainability in the field was one of the components of victories on the battlefield. It is high time to return to our own sources and roots. First of all, it is necessary to return to the Soviet system of education in the school, which taught to think, rather than guess the correct answer.
    1. Denis
      Denis 30 August 2014 14: 49
      0
      Quote: Wax
      taught to think, not guess the right answer

      At least recall that tests in the same light of democracy often went for the mentally retarded
  8. ivanovbg
    ivanovbg 30 August 2014 11: 31
    +8
    I liked the article, plus. But she circumvented some very important questions:
    1. The degree of labor mobilization. At least 12 hours a day worked in the USSR, often up to 16-18 and even more. Workers usually lived in factory dormitories near the factory and ate in the dining room, which was also worn in the factory. There were no days off for the whole war, in principle, holidays - even more so. At the same time, German workers lived at home, worked 8-10, rarely until 12 hours a day, and at least less than once every ten days, not weekly, but they had 3-4 days off a month holidays, too, although less than before the war.
    2. Responsibility of workers before the law. In Germany, for absenteeism or being late for work, one could lose part of the salary, in the case of systematic violations - to lose the "reservation" and be sent to the front. I will not say anything about the USSR.
    3. Workload on women. In the USSR, women changed men on tractors, in steel workshops and it is reliably known that instead of horses harnessed to the plow, the fields plowed. In Germany, even in 1945 one third of all women remained HOUSEWELLS.
    4. The use of prisoners of war in production is not a plus, but a very big minus, a necessary measure. After all, prisoners of war constantly sabotage which can be read everywhere except here. Even a 15-year-old Russian boy, taken out and given to the German bauer as farm laborers, made gestures with one Pole so as to mow two narrow paths in the field, converging to a camouflaged German ammunition depot. No one on the ground "saw" these "trails", but the Soviet aviation made a good view of them from the air and successfully bombed on this target designation. What can we say about tank and missile factories - no matter how you control the prisoners of war, they will always have time to screw up.
    I do not want to belittle the feat of the people in the Second World War, but just honestly weigh all the circumstances.
    1. Starover_Z
      Starover_Z 30 August 2014 14: 39
      +11
      This review did not touch those who are now trying not to be considered a veteran, although they were on all sides of the struggle in the Great Patriotic War - children!

      That's who the hero is, not a couple of many!
      1. Samurai3X
        Samurai3X 30 August 2014 15: 08
        -21
        Do you think you should be proud that children and women got up to their machines and did heavy men's work?
        For me, this is one of the indicators that our leadership was completely unprepared for war, although they both military intelligence and the NKVD had been scribbling since the spring of 41 that there would be a war.
        1. QWERTY
          QWERTY 30 August 2014 18: 30
          +9
          Is not it so? Can't you be proud of it? You can not be proud of women standing at the machines for 16 hours a day?
        2. nfoma80
          nfoma80 30 August 2014 18: 45
          +2
          Yes, we are proud that they did not break us, but stood at the machines, but it was necessary, there was such a time. We were ready for war many times better than today, although we, too, are reconnaissance and the situation is screaming WAR.
        3. Altona
          Altona 31 August 2014 14: 02
          +2
          Quote: Samurai3X
          Do you think you should be proud that children and women got up to their machines and did heavy men's work?
          For me, this is one of the indicators that our leadership was completely unprepared for war, although they both military intelligence and the NKVD had been scribbling since the spring of 41 that there would be a war.

          -----------------------
          In the United States, women and children also stood up for their machines, despite the fact that the United States was fighting lower intensity ... But many men went to fight in the Navy, the war in the Pacific Ocean also required sailors, pilots and soldiers ... And one of the women you you even know well, at the age of 16, Norma Jean Baker began her career, she is well-known Marilyn Monroe ...
        4. I am
          I am 31 August 2014 15: 28
          +3
          Yes, it is NECESSARY to be proud of it !!!! Because thanks to this WE were able to defeat the strongest (at that time) and very well-armed army of the world !!!!!! About unfinished - and you lived at that time ???? You cannot be ready for war. Now we are not ready either. But this does not mean that you need to immediately as the paws attacked to the top, oh, and we are not ready. We have to fight. And in the USSR, all the people fought !!!!!! Yes, there were defeats, but in the end we won !!!!!!!!!!!!!
    2. Onotollah
      Onotollah 31 August 2014 06: 46
      +2
      Quote: ivanovbg
      very important issues

      But you forgot to mention one small but important point: the USSR at that time was left almost face to face with all the production and human power of the West. What about the industrial potential, that the population advantage of Germany was significant and multiple. Therefore, such working and living conditions in the USSR. And Hitler voiced an alternative: to destroy half of the Russians, half to the camps, etc.
      1. ivanovbg
        ivanovbg 31 August 2014 18: 25
        0
        Yes, of course, I understand this - if teenagers and women hadn’t injected 12-16 hours a day, seven days a week, the Hitlerites would have exterminated them. However, according to the results of this article, it turns out that industrial superiority was achieved due to better organization, and in fairness it was necessary to write - due to more stringent labor discipline.
    3. Dali
      Dali 1 September 2014 10: 18
      0
      In Germany, even in 1945, a third of all women remained HOUSEWELLS.
      4. The use of prisoners of war in production is not a plus, but a very big minus, a necessary measure.

      This is just an excerpt for clarification of thought.

      And what is honesty? In the justification of Germany? If so, then this is not an excuse, but a proof of not the righteousness of the war on the part of Germany. They simply could not have it !!!

      I do not want to belittle the feat of the people in the Second World War, but only honestly weigh all the circumstances.
      It just turns out what you want !!! And all the circumstances indicated by you just emphasize the feat of the people of the Soviet Union !!!

      In general, what does it mean
      ... but just honestly weigh all the circumstances.


      What did you want to say with this phrase, to everything else written?
  9. Bosk
    Bosk 30 August 2014 11: 57
    0
    It would not hurt to include the defense of Moscow and Leningrad in the "War of the factories", because, following the example of Moscow ... for 41-42 years at the factories supplying the army with equipment and ammunition, it was in the first places, which by the way became one of the reasons for the battle for Moscow. Well, the Germans ... the only thing that could be learned from them then and even now is the organization of labor and how they cherish and now relate to their personnel, following the example of the WWII, it’s hard to believe that, say, the same plant engineer was drafted into the infantry, and Here, following the example of my grandfather, this happened often.
    1. explorer
      explorer 1 September 2014 08: 24
      0
      As for the personnel, we also cherished them (there was a reservation, and if necessary, the experts were recalled from the front), it’s another matter that when the personnel army (along with personnel officers) burned down in the first months, it was possible to quickly make up for losses only from the rear , and put on officer posts those who had an education - and this is natural, including engineering personnel.
      And after the war, a parallel line of growth remained in the military and civil ranks and positions: Vladimir Volfovich - reserve colonel lol.
  10. wanderer_032
    wanderer_032 30 August 2014 12: 10
    +2
    In this regard, I want to say that modern Russian youth and especially fans of all kinds of network tanks love to criticize Soviet equipment ... Not knowing at the cost of what efforts in the years of the Second World War it was possible not only to preserve its engineering industry in the USSR, but also to establish mass production armored vehicles at the level of world standards. And some of its types had no world analogues at all.
    But it was necessary to produce not only armored vehicles, but also aircraft, artillery systems, cars, small arms, ammunition, optical instruments and much more.
    1. Yon_Silent
      Yon_Silent 30 August 2014 13: 34
      +11
      Anything can be criticized. But the very fact of dissatisfaction with the qualities of the Russian military-style BTT indicates that the critic is poorly aware of the main advantage of Soviet technology. Already at the level of TK, the requirement was laid for simplicity (!) And manufacturability (!) Of the design. Whenever possible, the link to scarce materials, sophisticated equipment, and highly qualified personnel was eliminated or decreased.
      And when I see photographs of the "staggered" arrangement of the rollers at the Tiger, Gerlich cannons with a tapered barrel, turbojet shells for the Nebelwerfer and many other miracles, I understand that the German industry, it seems, had set itself the goal not to defeat the enemy, but to make money. The devastation is not in the toilets, but in the heads, comrades. Thank God that at that time there was complete order in the heads of the Soviet leadership.
    2. cosmos111
      cosmos111 30 August 2014 14: 52
      +6
      Quote: wanderer_032
      that modern Russian youth and especially those who love all kinds of network tanks love to criticize Soviet technology ..


      Fought FOR THE FIRST TIME - PEOPLE !!!
      and fascism was defeated by the Soviet soldiers and rear workers !!!

      it is necessary to educate young people not on Amerov films, but on Russian-Soviet history ((((MOBraz ... RF, blocked the release of a single history textbook))))
      1. Gambit
        Gambit 1 September 2014 13: 32
        0
        Quote: cosmos111
        MOBraz ... RF, blocked the release of a single textbook on history))))

        Nothing, soon and before that the Pennan viper will be reached and eliminated, and then the Ministry of Finance - the last two US agents will remain in our government.
  11. DesToeR
    DesToeR 30 August 2014 12: 18
    +3
    As a result, we inevitably come to the only conclusion: the system of the USSR People's Commissariat of the tank industry demonstrated during the years of the Great Patriotic War a higher level of technology and organization of production than Germany’s considered unsurpassed engineering industry. Domestic industry leaders, scientists and engineers made better use of the scarce material and human resources at their disposal and created a more efficient high-volume production of military equipment.

    Great conclusion to a great article. Tired of hearing the whining about "corpses filled up", "indestructible locust", and "tractors with guns."
  12. DesToeR
    DesToeR 30 August 2014 12: 24
    +1
    Quote: ivanovbg
    4. The use of prisoners of war in production is not a plus, but a very big minus, a necessary measure. After all, prisoners of war constantly incited sabotage, which can be read everywhere except here

    They often write about sabotage in various articles. And I was interested in the question: what is the percentage of marriage from these sabotages in proportion to the share of prisoners of war or workers stolen from the occupied territories? Would it not turn out that the proportion of sabotage will be negligible in comparison with the volume of work performed by prisoners of war and workers in the occupied territories? Surely there are such statistics, at least there should be factory statistics from the Quality Control Department.
    1. Sergey-8848
      Sergey-8848 30 August 2014 13: 46
      +1
      Most likely, the percentage of sabotage is small (yes, even comparable to the usual and inevitable marriage). It’s just that the response from, say, a sand bomb is great if it is skillfully used for information.
    2. max702
      max702 30 August 2014 16: 02
      +5
      By the way, not a single case of sabotage was noted at the Czechoslovak factories for the entire time of the war .. And these dodges are offended by us for 68i am
  13. samoletil18
    samoletil18 30 August 2014 13: 18
    +10
    It is clear that the author cannot cover everything in one short article. But the question of simplifying the production technology of only the T-34 is an engineering feat that reduced the cost almost 5 times, and even improved it by 1944. up to T-34-85. And this is for each sample of armored vehicles from BA-64 to IS-3! The Germans never even dreamed of this! Well, we must not forget about the tankers who went into battle on the T-60 in the early years of the war, and they were not suicide bombers, but inflicted sensitive blows on the enemy, which made it possible for the evacuated factories to reach full capacity on medium and heavy tanks, while non-core factories made these "kids". When I saw the T-60 alive, against the background of the KV, a lump rolled up to my throat.
    1. Bosk
      Bosk 30 August 2014 13: 37
      +4
      T-60 T-70 and Su-76 were good equipment if it was used for its intended purpose, and even in early spring and late autumn when all the heavy "got up" and the "middle peasants" also slipped, it was sometimes the only technique that "worked"! it's just the problem is that we haven't gotten rid of the habit of comparing heavy Tigers to medium T-shirts yet ...
      1. miv110
        miv110 30 August 2014 14: 51
        +3
        We must not forget that the primary task of the tank is to destroy the enemy infantry and its defense means, therefore, light tanks and self-propelled guns, with sufficient quantity and proper use, turn out to be effective weapons!
        1. Assistant
          Assistant 30 August 2014 21: 55
          +1
          We must not forget that the primary task of the tank is to destroy the enemy infantry and its defense


          Yes, but due to the catastrophic shortage in the Soviet army of self-propelled guns and the presence of a long gun on the T-34 tank, which accelerated the projectile to high speeds, these tanks began to be used in battle against German tanks, giving rise to even oncoming tank battles.
          1. samoletil18
            samoletil18 31 August 2014 12: 01
            +1
            In the literature it was found that the Germans tried to catch T-60s with tanks. Ours has cut such a chip. And they began to use them in ambush along with HF. When the Germans discovered the KV, they pulled up the infantry, which was aware that the KV had a poor view. And the T-60s worked as infantry. Moreover, for such purposes they tried to use HF with a damaged transmission, which, at first, was a frequent occurrence. And then it all depended on the skill of the tankers.
            I like the strategy "Blitzkrieg". I also tried (only HF dug in). Then, after the enemy's mission program ran out of forces, he let everything that could move forward and the mission was passed. It is clear that computer strategies are far from war, but I have no other opportunities to fight the Germans.
  14. Free wind
    Free wind 30 August 2014 14: 07
    -7
    I wonder what you represent, by the concept of maintainability, design simplicity, manufacturability. To call the T-34 simple and easily repairable, I would personally hesitate. Many wrote that the tanks, by our repairmen, were restored very quickly. But the Germans did it too. For example, in the book "Tigers in the Mud" Otto Carius writes that we were amazed that, literally overnight, technicians restored our Tigers from a pile of iron. not everything on our T-34s was technologically advanced. For example, the T-34 suspension is spring-hydraulic, the Christie suspension. was difficult and expensive. Everyone understood this. And in the fall of 1940, a T-34 tank with a torsion bar suspension was manufactured, which proved to be excellent. but the war began. The same T-43 differed from the T-34-85, in fact, only the torsion bar suspension. To repair the engine on the T-34, or on any of our tanks. and on modern ours the same, the engine is from the T-34. let's just replace the gasket, it is impossible under the block head, you need to remove the engine. the head is unscrewed, with an open-end wrench with a two-meter pipe. replace the cylinder block .... generally horror. Lower the block by six pistons with rings. the task is incredibly difficult and nasty.
    1. miv110
      miv110 30 August 2014 15: 00
      +3
      Yes, there were many shortcomings in the T-34, but its dignity lay in the possibility of mass production in critical wartime conditions! An analogue to this can be the production of PCA in virtually any enterprise that has locksmith equipment.
    2. wanderer_032
      wanderer_032 30 August 2014 17: 13
      +4
      Quote: Free Wind
      Repair the engine on the T-34, yes, on any of our tanks. and on modern ours the same, the engine stands with the T-34. let's just replace the gasket, it is impossible under the block head, you need to remove the engine. the head is unscrewed with an open-end wrench with a two-meter pipe. replace the cylinder block .... general horror. Lower the block onto six pistons with rings. the task is incredibly difficult and nasty.


      From these words of yours, it immediately becomes clear that you have never repaired a single engine in your life (especially a tank diesel), but take it on to write such things.
      You don’t even know what tool the mechanics-mechanics use and the technology for carrying out such work, and therefore no longer write such nonsense so as not to make people laugh.
    3. family tree
      family tree 30 August 2014 19: 07
      +4
      Quote: Free Wind
      the head is unscrewed with an open-end wrench with a two-meter pipe. replace the cylinder block .... general horror. Lower the block onto six pistons with rings. the task is incredibly difficult and nasty.
      I set the minus, because such a crap about engine repair can only be written by someone who has not even repaired a single engine, or even seen how they do it.
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 30 August 2014 20: 13
        -3
        The head of the block, on tank engines, and the block itself, is mounted on 14 anchor bolts, the nuts are unscrewed using an open-end wrench 32, using a two-meter pipe. The head of the block is connected to the block by means of 24 stitching pins, open-end wrench 14. Do you even see this?
        1. Free wind
          Free wind 30 August 2014 20: 46
          0
          I thought that if someone doesn’t know something, then he can learn it. But it turns out and do not want to study. And criticize the exam. Such as you exam and created ....
        2. family tree
          family tree 30 August 2014 21: 40
          +6
          Quote: Free Wind
          did you even see that?

          "Amplifier" is needed only to "rip" the nut from its place, better with the head, the "horn" can and "do".
          Pistons with connecting rods are inserted one at a time, then the main ones are connected to the trailed ones, then the crankshaft is placed in the main ones and the connecting rods cling to it. All this is done on the upside down block. I have never seen anyone try to fit, even an "in-line" block on the pistons mounted on the crankshaft, not to mention the V-shaped one, although in five years of work as a mechanic, I've seen enough of everything
        3. wanderer_032
          wanderer_032 31 August 2014 02: 05
          +4
          Quote: Free Wind
          The head of the block, on tank engines, and the block itself, is mounted on 14 anchor bolts, nuts are unscrewed using an open-end wrench 32, using a two meter pipe.


          The "B" family tank diesel engines have two cylinder heads, as well as two cylinder blocks. And their nuts are unscrewed with ordinary heads without a 2-meter pipe, but with a good knob. Because the nuts with which they are tightened are located under the timing camshafts, and there is always oil there. On the 32 key, your brains are twisted.
          1. Free wind
            Free wind 31 August 2014 06: 28
            -1
            Interestingly, do you even know what wrenches are called? just for general education, there are keys. carob, cap, end, gas, adjustable, etc. .. and cap and end, there are six and there are asterisks. In the place with the tank there was a repair kit, and in it there was a special wrench. It is for unscrewing the heads, they used to be straight, now they are bent, because exhaust manifolds interfere. The head is unscrewed, according to a special scheme, the matter is long and tedious, you need to spin around the engine. But the gasket of the head of the block used to be very appreciated, it is aluminum. Outdoor television antennas were made from it.
            1. wanderer_032
              wanderer_032 31 August 2014 15: 30
              +4
              Quote: Free Wind
              In the place with the tank was and repair kit


              It’s immediately obvious that you are a person very far from real armored vehicles ... You don’t even know what slang people are talking about who are really involved in this hardware.
              No repair kit is supplied with tanks. There are spare parts if this can tell you something.
              The expression rem.komplekt for designating spare parts is used only by fans of network tanks, which you most likely are.
              And remember, tank diesel repair is carried out by repair units that are part of the tank. These guys have all the necessary equipment for repairing armored vehicles, the spare parts for which the tank is equipped, it’s not enough for diesel repair, it is intended for maintenance of the tank and for short-term or medium repairs that can be performed in the field.
              The crew of the tank only helps the repairmen in their work, and does not carry it out on their own. Such cases are very rare when the crews themselves are engaged in such repairs. And then in most cases it is simply the replacement of one engine (faulty) with another (serviceable).
    4. ISO
      ISO 30 August 2014 19: 14
      +2
      I read this little book, once Otto didn’t give a lot of factology there, he expressed his Teutonic thoughts more and more. Modest
    5. Free wind
      Free wind 30 August 2014 21: 08
      +1
      as I understand it, minusers consider the Christie suspension to be better than the modern, torsion bar suspension on our tanks.
      1. samoletil18
        samoletil18 31 August 2014 12: 18
        +1
        At the level of development of the late 1930s - early 40s, they knew about the torsion bar suspension. Only the torsion bars were twisted in tests (T-50, KV). And on the T-34, the springs were preserved from BT, because The A-20 was conceived as wheel-tracked, there was no time to remodel under torsion bars after abandoning the wheel drive, as the war began and before it had already begun. T-43 was on torsion bars.
      2. wanderer_032
        wanderer_032 31 August 2014 15: 45
        +2
        Quote: Free Wind
        minusers consider the Christie suspension to be better than the modern, torsion bar suspension on our tanks.


        Probably the minusers know that the torsion bar suspension on tanks is not as modern as you think.
        There is much more modern, hydropneumatic for example.
  15. isker
    isker 30 August 2014 15: 20
    +2
    by the way, few people know, but in addition to the technology itself (of any kind), the ammunition itself was more important!
    .. Having produced 1941 thousand tons of ammunition in 540 for all types of armed forces, by the end of this year the Nazis had consumed 583 thousand tons in the army alone.
    This turned out to be such a signal, due to which already in the fall (November 29, 1941) the fascist minister of armaments and ammunition F. Todt recommended Hitler to stop aggression against the USSR, since "the war has already been lost by Germany in military and economic terms."
    (Demidov V.I. Shells for the front: Documentary novel. P.153)
    1. Bosk
      Bosk 30 August 2014 17: 15
      0
      For the Polish company, the Germans, if I am not mistaken, 2/3 of all their ammunition ...
      1. tokens2
        tokens2 30 August 2014 17: 24
        +1
        For the Polish company, the Germans, if I am not mistaken, 2/3 of all their ammunition ...

        In fact, Germany was pitied then. Reich was the 3rd force-chain dog that everyone wanted to let down in his own interests. Nevertheless, Hitler skillfully maneuvered between a rock and a hard place.
        And the Polish leadership had a chance to drag out the war, apparently did not want to ...
      2. starochkin77
        starochkin77 31 August 2014 19: 32
        +1
        After the Polish company, Germany had available, a little more than 900 tons of bombs, the British and the French sat behind the Maginot line until May 1940, waiting for something and waited! Germany, for the end of 1939, the beginning of 1940 was able to fully restore its potential, but even increase it. As a result, France and England lasted 40 days, but in fact, the Wehrmacht rolled them out in two weeks, and the remaining two simply cleared the clearing (France! ) drinks hi
    2. Kelenken
      Kelenken 30 August 2014 19: 30
      0
      Despite this, for some reason Germany surpassed the USSR in production, tonnage and the number of shells used for almost all types practically throughout the war, with the exception of several months of 1945. Moreover, for some positions, the difference was several times.
    3. ISO
      ISO 30 August 2014 19: 45
      +1
      I came across an interesting fact among the memoirs. In the Red Army at the beginning of the war, Baaalsha was straining with quality and the most offensive with the number of armor-piercing shells. So there was actually nothing to shoot from, but tanks. High-explosive tank also does not go to the crew, but with armor-piercing dexterity our guys would
      1. samoletil18
        samoletil18 31 August 2014 12: 33
        +1
        When ours received captured 50mm armor-piercing with a "glass" at the end of the projectile for deployment on inclined armor at 90 degrees, they tried to copy, but did not succeed in producing a significant amount for obvious reasons. Made it easier, but also effective. They sawed through "localizers" on a lathe in the front of the projectile, which could be done by any "fabzaychonok", as teenagers were called in production in those years.
  16. Alex
    Alex 30 August 2014 15: 36
    +4
    Great article! You can find a little such (albeit modest in volume) analytical articles. Thanks to the author!
  17. Free wind
    Free wind 30 August 2014 16: 28
    +2
    Not factories, ships and steamboats won. Our citizens won. who gave their lives for the victory! The Soviet Union won! The idea, social equality and fraternity won !!!!!
  18. Const
    Const 30 August 2014 16: 47
    +3
    Now imagine that the owner of such a plant is a private individual. And to hell with you, not tanks. Expensive, few. The shooting. Bottom line: the war is lost.
    Long live the market economy and the government of traitors.
    1. Kelenken
      Kelenken 30 August 2014 19: 27
      0
      Why exaggerate and escalate? But how did tanks produce in England and the USA? The communists there? It was precisely the capitalists who could afford to produce the techniques as needed, and not how much they would succeed. An example is the American absolute tank record of December 1942.
  19. Jager
    Jager 30 August 2014 17: 10
    +2
    We must not forget that the T-34 was not the main tank of the Red Army until the fall of 42. The park was made up of light vehicles. So the brunt of the 41st strike was borne not so much by the T-34 as by its "younger brothers" - the light BT, T-26 and medium T-28.
    1. Kelenken
      Kelenken 30 August 2014 19: 25
      +1
      Nifiga yourself, not the main one! For the 42nd, 12 T-661 tanks were launched. This is 34 times more than the Germans produced armored vehicles of all types in general for the indicated period, numbering about 2,5 thousand vehicles.
  20. Russian Uzbek
    Russian Uzbek 30 August 2014 18: 15
    +5
    there was such an old man in the USSR - Academician Patton, who invented the conveyor for welding tank corps
    a team of German highly qualified welders (6-7 people) welded in 2 days 7-8 armored corps
    we have lost the kid FZUshnik working on the conveyor belt welded the same 7-8 buildings per shift
    this is why German industry gave as many tanks as it could, and ours - as much as needed;)
    1. tokens2
      tokens2 30 August 2014 18: 44
      -3
      this is why German industry gave as many tanks as it could, and ours - as much as needed;)

      The Germans should not be considered fools. Where would they get fuel for their Panzerwaffe armadas and support vehicles? Plus, the repair of equipment was excellent for them.
      The headquarters was Vostochny Val with the maximum use of water barriers. The German industry spent a lot of effort precisely on the construction of defensive structures and protection against air raids.
      What Soviet industry was bombed during the Second World War? After 1943?
      To belittle the successes of German industry is to belittle the heroism of Soviet soldiers.
      1. Russian Uzbek
        Russian Uzbek 30 August 2014 18: 59
        +3
        What Soviet industry was bombed during the Second World War? After 1943?
        uh ... is that a joke?
        Soviet industry was not just bombed - it was actually demolished! and everything had to be restored again in the Urals, in Siberia
        for example, in 1943, the Gorky factories were disabled as a result of massive air strikes, they no longer produced tanks only components
        1. tokens2
          tokens2 30 August 2014 19: 29
          -5
          Soviet industry was not just bombed - it was actually demolished! and everything had to be restored again in the Urals, in Siberia

          Demolished Soviet industry in 1941-German blitzkrieg.
          As a result, we inevitably come to a single conclusion: during the years of World War II, the USSR People’s Commissariat for Tank Industry demonstrated a higher level of technology and organization of production than German engineering, which was considered unsurpassed.

          Before developing the tank industry, they would have developed a construction and automobile industry better by 1941. And then the Soviet "Western Val" along the rivers would have stopped any blitzkrieg! "And the enemy is near Moscow" - would simply not be possible ...
          There is a strategic miscalculation of how the war will occur and by what means in 1941.
          How quickly the Germans forced water barriers.
          If the ability to evacuate factories first, and then establish production in emergency conditions is called success ... Well then, at least you need to be shot laughing those who didn’t envisage it. And not to reward. Well, what successes! There were so many marriages !!! while they restored production and taught women and teenagers! And for all this it was paid with their lives! This language does not turn out to be called success.
          1. ISO
            ISO 30 August 2014 19: 57
            +3
            Surprisingly such judgments would be better developed, this is the fifth tenth. Somehow everyone forgets that Stalin got a country in which there was no own production of such trifles as carburetors, copper wire and other hats that were not interesting to the wise descendants of a post-industrial society. The problems of Soviet industry were that many of its industries were created from scratch. The fact that by the beginning of the war, Stalin was able to raskocherovat industry to such an extent that in large quantities produced quite good equipment and allowed to withstand the war. So that they could develop and developed ...
            1. tokens2
              tokens2 30 August 2014 20: 20
              -5
              Surprisingly such judgments would be better developed, this is the fifth tenth.

              The construction industry ... in general, it was a way out in the conditions of a technical backwardness. And by the way, the fortified areas performed well in 1941.
              The road network, again, is also good ... well, at least at the largest hub in Moscow.
              The truck + Fri gun in 1941 was also a solution. The Germans very actively used Fri guns in their tank divisions.
              Well, the leadership knows better ...
              Gigantomania in a word. Gas was full in the USSR, and firewood in villages. Also, in some ways, the consumer war ... and the USSR fell apart
              1. tokens2
                tokens2 31 August 2014 11: 59
                0
                Mass production of tanks without a developed automotive industry is ... surrealism.
                A tank is the most laborious task for industry.
                And not the fact that in 1941-43 only tanks were needed for defense. It was possible to do with cheaper means, developing the tank industry during the war.
                But initially everything had already been transferred to the rails of the tank industry. And with trucks, to hell with them. The capitalist friends will help. Yes? Gentlemen, the Stalinists?
                But I wonder why the Germans called the East Val Line Panther? And a tank of the same name.
                1. Kassandra
                  Kassandra 2 September 2014 04: 04
                  0
                  They will help with trucks, but not with tanks, comrade. Trotskyist, they were worse off.
                  1. tokens2
                    tokens2 2 September 2014 17: 47
                    0
                    They will help with trucks, but not with tanks, comrade. Trotskyist, they were worse off.

                    and they helped with the tanks. And as for the quality ... thanks at least for this, it’s better than a Molotov cocktail. Road spoon for dinner.
                    Non-partisan self. laughing I sympathize with the ideas of the monarchy. And the ideas of Trotskyism-liberalism are cold. For they are hateful. I treat the Stalinists with coolness laughing for there are a lot of slogans and slogans too much, although they are statesmen. That is a plus.
                    1. Kassandra
                      Kassandra 2 September 2014 18: 54
                      0
                      helped with trucks, tanks were in last place. trucks on the first.
                      Stalinists lie less often than all. What exactly did you not like?
                      the spoon was actually for dinner, then the "allies" almost immediately began to supply scarce material to Hitler, about which Truman gave an open interview:

                      If we see that Germany wins, then we should help Russia, and if Russia will win, we should help Germany, and thus let them kill as much as possible ...
                      - Harry Truman (New York Times, 24.06.1941)

                      if it were not for the delivery of Standard Oil in the Third Reich, the war would have ended in 1942-1943
                      tungsten was also supplied, which was used in the armor-piercing cores of shells for the Panther cannons.
  21. ISO
    ISO 30 August 2014 19: 05
    +2
    Some kind of superficial article. The "Russian PUP" won the war, where old men and women from a clean field gave such a shaft of products, and the mechanics in the units brought to a combat-ready state that, God forbid, reached the front without breakdowns. Some kind of concept of quality and technological discipline appeared only by the middle of 1944, after the people at the factories had turned around and settled down for a year. And before that, it made no sense to ask something from them, the military representatives of course screamed something, but in vain. I read a lot of reviews from veterans who fought on the T-34, there are enough birth injuries on the car, low quality of workmanship, low quality of optics, communications were superimposed on this, and our guys saw such a thing as ergonomics in captured tanks and lend-lease tanks. So a wonderful tank, "blind", "deaf", diesel fuel splashes on the floor, the commander controls the mechvod stepping on the shoulders with his boots, the mechvod blows the cooling system fan out of the open hatch with a stream of air from the open hatch, there is nothing to breathe from the powder burning inside, in summer the crew can easily to accumulate from overheating and does not want to go without a dance with a tambourine at every stop. But this had a downside due to the fact that many of the tasks that the designers faced were not solved - a big plus is the simplicity that made it possible to fill up the front with this iron. So HONOR and GLORY to the heroes who rolled the Wehrmacht into a pancake on such troughs on their high-tech machines with systems for removing powder gases, night vision devices, excellent communication, etc.
    1. family tree
      family tree 30 August 2014 19: 18
      +2
      Quote: ISO
      which on such troughs were rolled into a Wehrmacht damn on their high-tech machines with powder gas removal systems, night vision devices with excellent communication, etc.

      Of course what If we compare the 34-y 42g release, with the "Panther" 45g release, then something like this will be, in places laughing
      1. ISO
        ISO 30 August 2014 20: 59
        +2
        With visibility, they seemed to have resolved the issue, gunned with a gun aim, but there were still moments.
        those. On the T-34-85, the driver didn’t have to open the hatch to see where to steer? And did you use the walkie-talkie for the purpose? And there was no forward center of gravity? And the powder gases dissolve themselves, etc.
        1. family tree
          family tree 31 August 2014 00: 50
          +3
          Quote: ISO
          With visibility, they seemed to have resolved the issue, gunned with a gun aim, but there were still moments.

          Well, just three points laughing With visibility, the Germans didn’t have a fountain either constantly or the artillery compass was protruded from the hatch, or the head, with Karius, was described.
          those. On the T-34-85, the driver didn’t have to open the hatch to see where to steer?
          And now open.
          Visibility blocked when floundering in the mud.
          And did you use the walkie-talkie for the purpose?

          They used it at 34-85, and the commander dealt with it without much effort, for this reason, many radio operator did not take the crew, and on the T-44 this specialty died out completely.
          And there was no forward center of gravity?
          this shifted center of gravity was given to you. We decided to install better and stiffer springs. There was another crap, due to the fact that the BO in the front part, did not get sick to death. The "Tiger", incidentally, had a tower with an offset center, at a certain deviation from the horizontal, toss and turn, as well as on the KV-2.
          And the powder gases dissolve themselves

          And the purge, too, only on the "Tiger" began.
          In the presence of all the flaws in the design of the “thirty-four,” a certain balance of compromises was observed, which distinguished this combat vehicle from other tanks of the Second World War. Simplicity, ease of use and maintenance, together with good armor protection, maneuverability and powerful enough weapons, have become the reason for the success and popularity of the T-34-85 among tankers.
          M. Baryatinsky. Medium tank T-34-85. Armored collection. - 1999. - No. 4
      2. Bosk
        Bosk 30 August 2014 21: 25
        +3
        Well "Panther" I would not call a medium tank, it is more likely already heavy ..., from my point of view, "Panther" is the first main tank, of course damp, but according to all its data, it is more likely the main one ...
    2. Crang
      Crang 31 August 2014 18: 25
      0
      Quote: ISO
      So HONOR and GLORY to the heroes who, on such troughs, rolled the Wehrmacht into pancake on their high-tech machines with powder gas removal systems, night vision devices with excellent communications, etc.

      These "troughs" were more high-tech than the German ones. And they had a lot of things that German tanks did not have.
  22. Kelenken
    Kelenken 30 August 2014 19: 15
    +1
    Not Patonna, Patton is an American general, but Academician Paton, Evgeny Oskarovich. Indeed, in the encyclopedia of the Second World War it is written that the welding technology introduced by him is equivalent to the additional production of 25 thousand new tanks. In other words, without it, 25 fewer tanks were produced. Everything listed in the article is true, just do not forget that the German tank industry was mercilessly bombed. According to a USSBS study, the under-release of German armored vehicles due to bombing in the second half of the 000th was about 44% of the planned release. Well, or else the fact that most of the giant engineering concerns in Germany produced submarines, although they could well produce tanks. Lend-Lease was also a good thing, aluminum for T-35 engines in 42 was mostly lend-lease, many complex machine tools for industry too. These factors cannot be ignored. Well, in 45 Germany was flooded with thousands of our T-34s, dryers of all types, ISs, which were riveted by our very women and workers in 16-hour shifts .... They wrote correctly, the main thing is the human factor.
    1. tundra
      tundra 1 September 2014 00: 40
      +1
      Correctly written, the main thing is the human factor. \\\\
      At the end of the 70s, while practicing at UVZ, he found craftsmen and site managers from those very boys who in wartime at the age of 10-12 stood at the machine tools. Frankly, they were very special people, with such a rod unbendable inside! They don’t get sick, they didn’t scream, they didn’t swear, well, when we received a shift task, we didn’t even think about guys, to send or snoop something. of them, as they say now, there was charisma, iron people. Not current managers.
  23. sazhka4
    sazhka4 30 August 2014 19: 27
    0
    http://rusvesna.su/news/1409346750
    Quite interesting .. Every fifth citizen of the Russian Federation at the Kharkov Tank Plant.
  24. AntidipresaHt
    AntidipresaHt 30 August 2014 21: 34
    +4
    In the first year, when welding was carried out on TCM, the teacher said that the huge advantage of our industry was the use of automatic welding under a flux layer, which allowed us to produce the same quality of the weld, regardless of the qualification of the worker, since the men went to the front and the women stood at the machines.
    1. tundra
      tundra 1 September 2014 00: 53
      0
      When welding under a flux layer, qualifications are still needed. A simple example is the welding of a tank nose, the assembly of the entire hull begins with it. In the 83rd, a welder worked on this operation. Here he was constantly pulled out of the house, and at his successor the jambs often climbed out with a X-ray copy. It seems that everything is doing as it should and something is wrong, that's what they pulled constantly to fix.
  25. DesToeR
    DesToeR 30 August 2014 23: 42
    0
    Quote: Bosk
    Well "Panther" I would not call a medium tank, it is more likely already heavy ..., from my point of view, "Panther" is the first main tank, of course damp, but according to all its data, it is more likely the main one ...

    And according to what data do you consider the Panther tank to be the main one? And why not classify the IS-2 as the main tank then?
  26. DesToeR
    DesToeR 30 August 2014 23: 47
    +1
    Quote: Lexi2
    The construction industry ... in general, it was a way out in the conditions of a technical backwardness. And by the way, the fortified areas performed well in 1941.

    For the army of the 40s, no fortifications are a barrier. An example of the Germans - the Maginot Line - broke through and did not choke. An example of the Russians is the Mannerheim Line, gouged by direct fire. In 1941, the Germans quite easily broke through the unfinished so-called. the Molotov line and the URs of the Stalin line.
    Quote: Lexi2
    Truck + Fri gun in 1941 is also a solution

    Erzatsreshenie, as soon as the factories were able to give the front a normal technique, we and the Germans refused them.
    1. tokens2
      tokens2 31 August 2014 08: 11
      -1
      For the army of the 40s, no fortifications are a barrier. An example of the Germans - the Maginot Line - broke through and did not choke. An example of the Russians is the Mannerheim Line, gouged by direct fire. In 1941, the Germans quite easily broke through the unfinished so-called. the Molotov line and the URs of the Stalin line.

      The meaning of the fortified areas is different. Slow down the offensive and give time to the mobilized units from a huge country to stand as a single wall in front of the enemy. And in 1941 there were problems with this. The Germans beat the Soviet units in parts, having the advantage.
      Maginot ... yes, the French simply did not want to fight.
      The Manerheim Line ... how much the USSR fought with a small country? So this line has completely paid off.
      And you can crack any defense, fact.
      1. tokens2
        tokens2 31 August 2014 08: 18
        -2
        Truck + Fri gun in 1941 is also a solution
        Erzatsreshenie, as soon as the factories were able to give the front a normal technique, we and the Germans refused them.

        Erzatsreshenie is 28 Panfilov’s men near Moscow and the PTR, quite capable of fighting tanks of the 1941 model, which by the way on June 22 was very small. But production of the PTF is not such a super task as the tank industry.
      2. smershxnumx
        smershxnumx 1 September 2014 15: 51
        -1
        The Maginot line was not broken, but simply bypassed am
        But the line of “Mannerheim” - yes, “hollowed out” in the forehead at first, because they did not know how to get around. And then they also found their own "approach" to pillboxes. No.
        1. tokens2
          tokens2 2 September 2014 18: 21
          0
          The Maginot line was not broken, but simply bypassed

          The key word was bypassed. But then this line was calculated. As a result, the Germans lengthened their path to Paris, is it true?
          And then they also found their own "approach" to pillboxes.

          Time while hacking defense is priceless. USSR is not Finland. Evacuation, mobilization takes time.
    2. Kassandra
      Kassandra 2 September 2014 03: 54
      0
      They simply crossed the Molotov and Stalin lines since the Stalin line was disarmed, but these weapons have not yet been installed on the Molotov line.
  27. Anisim1977
    Anisim1977 31 August 2014 00: 03
    0
    In the subject - a very interesting documentary series "War Day by Day" there is a very comprehensive examination of the period from 1939 to 1945, including the release of products from the warring parties.
  28. Dimy4
    Dimy4 31 August 2014 06: 53
    0
    The most important factor of our superiority in all respects is the Soviet people!
  29. Stelth1985
    Stelth1985 31 August 2014 08: 44
    +2
    We won through the courage of our ancestors. People were dying standing behind the machines. And if this happens, then such a people cannot be broken by military means. And an example of this can be the Stalingrad Tractor. When the Germans entered one of the workshops, they were surprised and horrified to see the dead workers bending over the assembly of the tank. It was then that many of the Germans began to realize that they would lose the war.
  30. VAZ-2102
    VAZ-2102 1 September 2014 10: 23
    0
    If Germany had more resources, factories. Why did the Germans produce less armored vehicles.
  31. smershxnumx
    smershxnumx 1 September 2014 15: 46
    0
    Quote: tundra
    T-34-76 at the beginning of the war was a fairly crude tank and repair suitability and crude units.

    However, he arrived at the state reception (in the winter !!!) to Moscow on his own and without serious damage (and this is 2000 km)!
  32. berkut2123
    berkut2123 1 September 2014 19: 45
    0
    Quote: Lexi2
    The Germans beat the Soviet units in parts, having the advantage.

    I do not agree, our just were not ready at 41 staff rats let down, but cowards. if you compare our tanks at 41 and what the Germans entered. laughing
    1. Kassandra
      Kassandra 2 September 2014 03: 58
      0
      they didn’t fail, but ruffled ... all the aviation which was destroyed there on the first day of the war was concentrated at the main airfields. and then tankers destroyed it from the air, and as you know, the tank doesn’t drive without gasoline or diesel fuel.
  33. berkut2123
    berkut2123 1 September 2014 19: 46
    0
    and I want to add one more in 42 in one month the Chelyabinsk Kirov plant put the t-34 on a mass flow and many St. John's wort were developed in Chelyabinsk at the ChTZ
  34. Selevc
    Selevc 1 September 2014 20: 51
    0
    In my opinion, the German leadership during the war made one fatal strategic mistake ... They allowed themselves the luxury of developing and introducing the next generation of weapons in the face of the restrictions imposed by the war on the military-industrial complex ... And they were too carried away with this - obviously to the detriment of mass production, versatility and modernization of existing weapons (including tanks) ...
    And by mid-1944, in a war on two fronts, there was a situation where too many Shermans opposed their formidable Royal Tiger ... And if the Anglo-Americans boasted that they could replace their wrecked tank within 72 hours (it was so hyped conveyor for the production of these cans as well as transport logistics ...). Germany, using more expensive and sophisticated weapons, could not boast of this - and taking into account the complete dominance of the allies in the sky by the end of the war - for the Fritz the outcome of the war by the end of 1944 was a foregone conclusion ...
  35. lilian
    lilian 14 September 2014 03: 01
    0
    The article is very interesting. It is a pity that they did not say about automatic welding of Paton. There would not have been so many T-34s without it, perhaps the tank itself would not have been so famous.
  36. Farkhod mamadiev
    Farkhod mamadiev 22 July 2019 11: 12
    0
    Nobody bombed Soviet factories in the Urals, and scoops didn’t have to allocate the lion's share of enterprises for the production of 1000 submarines and 10000 wagons, if the Germans at least transferred their wagon factories to the production of tanks, they would have more than enough to kill the Soviet